Simon Elliott

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (3)9.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane; 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[f][1,3]benzodioxol-6-amine; 'sparkle'; 'mindy') is a psychoactive substance, sold primarily over the Internet and in 'head' shops as a 'legal high'. Synthesised and used as a research chemical in the 1990s, MDAI has structural similarities to MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and shares its behavioural properties. Recreational use of MDAI appears to have started in Europe around 2007, with a noticeable increase after 2009 in the UK and other countries. Calls to National Poisons Information Services started in 2010, although there were few presentations to emergency departments by patients complaining of undesirable physical and psychiatric effects after taking MDAI. Recreational use of this drug has been reported only occasionally by online user fora. There is little scientifically based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of this drug. Recent literature (including 'grey') was searched to update what is known about MDAI, especially on its toxicity. The resultant information is presented, including on the first three UK deaths involving MDAI use in 2011 and 2012. 'Serotonin syndrome' appears to be a possible factor in these fatalities. It is vital that any other cases, including non-fatal overdoses, are documented so that a scientific evidence base can be established for them. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 07/2013; 28(4):345-55. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-DPMP (desoxypipradrol, 2-benzhydrylpiperidine, 2-phenylmethylpiperidine) and D2PM (diphenyl-2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-methanol, diphenylprolinol) are psychoactive substances, sold primarily over the Internet and in 'head' shops as 'legal highs', 'research chemicals' or 'plant food'. Originally developed in the 1950s for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD, 2-DPMP's use soon became very limited. Recreational use of 2-DPMP and D2PM appears to have started in March 2007, but only developed slowly. However, in the UK their popularity grew in 2009, increasing rapidly during summer 2010. At this time, there were many presentations to UK Emergency Departments by patients complaining of undesirable physical and psychiatric effects after taking 2-DPMP. In spring 2011 there were similar presentations for D2PM. Recreational use of these drugs has been reported only occasionally in on-line user fora. There is little scientifically-based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of these drugs. Here we describe what is known about them, especially on their toxicity, including what we believe to be the first three deaths involving the use of 2-DPMP in August 2010. There are no international controls imposed on 2-DPMP or D2PM. However, a ban on their UK importation was imposed in November 2011 and they became Class C drugs on 13 June 2012. It is critical that any other cases, including non-fatal overdoses, are documented so that a scientific evidence-base can be established for them.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2012; 39(2):253-8. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-MeO-DALT (N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a psychoactive substance, sold primarily over the Internet as a 'research chemical' or 'plant food'. Although details for the synthesis of this tryptamine have been available since 2004, its use as a hallucinogenic drug has been reported only occasionally in on-line user fora. It is controlled in only a few countries world-wide. There is little scientifically-based literature on the pharmacological, physiological, psychopharmacological, toxicological and epidemiological characteristics of 5-MeO-DALT. Here we review what is known about these aspects. We also report what we believe to be the first death involving the use of this substance. The case involved a man in his mid-20s who died in mid-2010. The coroner concluded that the deceased "died from injuries sustained after being hit by a lorry whilst under the influence of 5-MeODALT". It is critical that any other cases, including non-fatal instances, are documented so that a scientific evidence-base can be established for this drug.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2012; 39(2):259-62. · 3.55 Impact Factor