[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and the aim of the study: The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize nanoparticles (NPs) of sildenafil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. The relationship between design factors and experimental data was evaluated using response surface methodology.
A Box-Behnken design was made considering the mass ratio of drug to polymer (D/P), the volumetric proportion of the water to oil phase (W/O) and the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the independent agents. PLGA-NPs were successfully prepared and the size (nm), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL) and cumulative release of drug from NPs post 1 and 8 hrs were assessed as the responses.
The NPs were prepared in a spherical shape and the sizes range of 240 to 316 nm. The polydispersity index of size was lower than 0.5 and the EE (%) and DL (%) varied between 14-62% and 2-6%, respectively. The optimized formulation with a desirability factor of 0.9 was selected and characterized. This formulation demonstrated the particle size of 270 nm, EE of 55%, DL of 3.9% and cumulative drug release of 79% after 12 hrs. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a sustained release of sildenafil from NPs up to 12 hrs. The release kinetic of the optimized formulation was fitted to Higuchi model.
Sildenafil citrate NPs with small particle size, lipophilic feature, high entrapment efficiency and good loading capacity is produced by this method. Characterization of optimum formulation, provided by an evaluation of experimental data, showed no significant difference between calculated and measured data.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 12/2013; 21(1):68. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raloxifene HCl (RH), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is indicated for the prophylaxis or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. RH shows extremely poor bioavailability due to limited solubility and an extensive intestinal/hepatic first-pass metabolism. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are valuable carriers that can enhance drug bioavailability. However, in the case of RH, the encapsulation of the drug in SLNs remains a challenge because of its poor solubility in both water and lipids. In this study, a series of RH-containing SLNs (RH-SLNs) were generated using a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. Briefly, RH with various drug/lipid ratios was solubilized in the inner core of a double emulsion using different water/organic solvent mixtures. Our best formulation was achieved with the formation of negatively charged nanoparticles, 180nm in diameter, with an encapsulation and loading efficiency of 85% and 4.5%, respectively. It also showed a Fickian mechanism of the drug release in the basic dissolution media. Thermal analysis revealed a distinct decrease in the crystallinity of lipids and RH in comparison with the unprocessed materials. The results of a cell viability assay also showed a better antiproliferative effect of the drug-loaded SLNs versus the free drug solution. Thus, these results indicated that the modified DESE method could be proposed for the effective encapsulation of RH in SLNs with appropriate physicochemical and biological properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Series of microparticles containing salmeterol xinafoate (SX) as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and lactose, mannitol or trehalose as a bulking agents were prepared using spray freeze drying (SFD) technique and the effects of sugar type and presence of hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on the physical properties of powders were evaluated. Precipitation of salmeterol in the presence of lactose and mannitol resulted in the formation of irregular shapes of microparticles with broad size distributions. However application of trehalose resulted in the formation of porous particles with spherical morphology. Addition of cyclodextrin in the formulations was generally helpful for formation of porous and spherical particles with narrow size distribution with a mean size of 10–30 μm. Dissolution of SX from processed particles was substantially higher (∼90% drug release in 30 min) than that of unprocessed drug and physical mixture of drug and cyclodextrin (∼22% drug release in 30 min). This study showed that, processing of SX by SFD technique could be a constructive approach to the production of various forms of drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the composition of bulking agent and cyclodextrin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetic properties of chitosan nanoparticles have been shown to mainly depend on its particle size. The aim of this study was to concurrently evaluate and model the effective parameters, namely, chitosan concentration, buffer pH, amplitude and time of sonication, on the particle size of chitosan nanoparticles. Chitosan solutions were prepared and sonicated with different values for the above mentioned parameters. The data were then modeled using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The results illustrated that all four input parameters affect the size of prepared chitosan nanoparticles. While a reverse effect was observed between the size and the buffer pH as well as time and amplitude of sonication, the concentration was found to directly influence the particle size. The optimum condition to obtain the minimum size of nanoparticles in the range of 50-200 nm was found to be high values of pH and sonication time (i.e. approximately 4.9 and 500 s, respectively) and amplitude values of more than ~55.
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 06/2012; 17(5):638-47. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) is a very well tolerated carrier systems for dermal application due to the employment physiological and/or biodegradable lipids. The effects of five factors, two categorical and three quantitative factors, were studied on the mean diameter and entrapment efficiency of the produced SLNs using response surface method (RSM), D-optimal design. Two methods of microemulsion and solvent diffusion and two types of lipid, cetyl palmitate and stearic acid, were examined comparatively. The quantitative variables were studied in three levels; amount of original Paromomycin (60, 90 and 120 mg), fraction of surfactant (0.5, 0.75 and 1 w/v %) and drug to lipid ratio (2, 4 and 6). Mean particle size and entrapment efficiency of the loaded Paromomycin were modeled statistically and the optimal condition was determined to approach to the maximum entrapment efficiency. The drug release profile of the optimal formulated material was examined in aqueous media and 64% of the Paromomycin loaded in SLNs was gradually released during 24h, which reveals efficient prolonged release of the drug.
International journal of pharmaceutics 03/2012; 424(1-2):128-37. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A successful gene delivery system requires efficiency and stability during storage. Stability studies are imperative for nanomedicines containing biotechnological products such as plasmids and targeting peptides. Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles are novel non-viral vectors for specific gene delivery to the lung epithelial cells. In this study, the storage stability of chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles at -20, 5 and 24 °C was examined. Size, zeta potential and transfection efficiency of these nano-particles in storage were also evaluated. Stability studies showed that chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles were stable after 1 month when stored at -20 °C and retained their initial size, zeta potential and transfection efficiency. However, their stability was not desirable at 5 and 24 °C. Based on these results, it can be concluded that chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles can be a promising candidate for gene delivery to lung epithelial cells with good storage stability at -20 °C during 1 month.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Performance of Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS) process, under different operation conditions, was conditions were evaluated through the analysis of the drug particle characteristics. The original particles of Lynestrenol with average size of 10 μm as a drug material were dissolved in supercritical CO2 and then expanded rapidly through a nozzle with 0.6 mm diameter. The effect of temperature, pressure and fraction of solid co-solvent (menthol) was investigated by a two-level factorial experimental design. Our results showed that the pre-expansion pressure, temperature and solid co-solvent can significantly affect the morphology and size of the precipitated particles. In addition, the binary interaction effects of temperature–pressure and pressure–cosolvent were observed to apparently influence the size of outlet particles. In the temperature range from 45 to 60 °C, pressures from 15 to 30 MPa and the menthol fraction of 0 to 5 wt.%, the RESS process produced ultrafine Lynestrenol particles (from 58 to 326 nm) from its original particles as reflected by SEM and zetasizer analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study. Along with research on development of more efficient gene delivery systems, it is necessary to search on stabilization processes to extend their active life span. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biocompatible and available gene delivery carrier. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of this polymer to preserve transfection efficiency during spray-drying and a modified freeze-drying process in the presence of commonly used excipients. METHOD: Molecular weight of chitosan was reduced by a chemical reaction and achieved low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) was complexed with pDNA. Obtained nanocomplex suspensions were diluted by solutions of lactose and leucine, and these formulations were spray dried or freeze dried using a modified technique. Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, intensity of supercoiled DNA band on gel electrophoresis, and transfection efficiency of reconstituted nanocomplexes were compared with freshly prepared ones. RESULTS AND MAJOR CONCLUSION: Size distribution profiles of both freeze dried, and 13 out of 16 spray-dried nanocomplexes remained identical to freshly prepared ones. LMWC protected up to 100% of supercoiled structure of pDNA in both processes, although DNA degradation was higher in spray-drying of the nanocomplexes prepared with low N/P ratios. Both techniques preserved transfection efficiency similarly even in lower N/P ratios, where supercoiled DNA content of spray dried formulations was lower than freeze-dried ones. Leucine did not show a significant effect on properties of the processed nanocomplexes. It can be concluded that LMWC can protect DNA structure and transfection efficiency in both processes even in the presence of leucine.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 01/2012; 20(1):29. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Along with research on development of more efficient gene delivery systems, it is necessary to search on stabilization processes to extend their active life span. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biocompatible and available gene delivery carrier. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of this polymer to preserve transfection efficiency during spray-drying and a modified freeze-drying process in the presence of commonly used excipients.
Molecular weight of chitosan was reduced by a chemical reaction and achieved low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) was complexed with pDNA. Obtained nanocomplex suspensions were diluted by solutions of lactose and leucine, and these formulations were spray dried or freeze dried using a modified technique. Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, intensity of supercoiled DNA band on gel electrophoresis, and transfection efficiency of reconstituted nanocomplexes were compared with freshly prepared ones.
Size distribution profiles of both freeze dried, and 13 out of 16 spray-dried nanocomplexes remained identical to freshly prepared ones. LMWC protected up to 100% of supercoiled structure of pDNA in both processes, although DNA degradation was higher in spray-drying of the nanocomplexes prepared with low N/P ratios. Both techniques preserved transfection efficiency similarly even in lower N/P ratios, where supercoiled DNA content of spray dried formulations was lower than freeze-dried ones. Leucine did not show a significant effect on properties of the processed nanocomplexes. It can be concluded that LMWC can protect DNA structure and transfection efficiency in both processes even in the presence of leucine.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 01/2012; 20(1):22. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the potential of chitosan based polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier system for pulmonary delivery of itraconazole (ITRA).
Hydrophobically modified chitosan were synthesized by conjugation of stearic acid to the hydrophilic depolymerized chitosan. FTIR and 1HNMR were used to prove the chemical structure and physical properties of the depolymerized and the stearic acid grafted chitosan. ITRA was entrapped into the micelles and physicochemical properties of the micelles were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared micelles. The in vitro pulmonary profile of polymeric micelles was studied by an air-jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger.
The polymeric micelles prepared in this study could entrap up to 43.2±2.27 μg of ITRA per milliliter. All micelles showed mean diameter between 120-200 nm. The critical micelle concentration of the stearic acid grafted chitosan was found to be 1.58×10-2 mg/ml. The nebulization efficiency was up to 89% and the fine particle fraction (FPF) varied from 38% to 47%. The micelles had enough stability to remain encapsulation of the drug during nebulization process.
In vitro data showed that stearic acid grafted chitosan based polymeric micelles has a potential to be used as nanocarriers for delivery of itraconazole through inhalation.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 01/2012; 20(1):85. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene therapy targeted at the respiratory epithelium holds therapeutic potential for diseases such as cystic fibrosis and lung cancer. We recently reported that Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles are good candidates for targeted gene delivery to fibronectin molecules (FAP-B receptors) of lung epithelial cell membrane. In this study Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles were nebulized to mice using air jet nebulizer. The effect of nebulization on size, zeta potential and DNA binding ability of nanoparticles were studied. The level of gene expression in the mice lungs was evaluated. Nebulization did not affect the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. Aerosol delivery of Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles resulted in 16-fold increase of gene expression in the mice lungs compared with Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. This study suggested that Chitosan-FAP-B nanoparticle can be a promising carrier for targeted gene delivery to the lung.
International journal of pharmaceutics 12/2011; 421(1):183-8. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the low-cost production of recombinant human erythropoietin cysteine analogs (Cys-rhEPOs) from Pichia pastoris and the potential to increase their serum residency and in vivo activity through cysteine-specific PEGylation were investigated. Three-dimensional structures of several Cys-rhEPOs were generated using homology modeling, and three stable Cys-rhEPOs were selected on the basis of model stability in molecular dynamics simulation and surface accessibility of the inserted cysteine. cDNAs encoding Cys-rhEPOs were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed as secreted proteins in flask cultures of P. pastoris. The selection of highly expressing clones and the optimization of certain culture parameters resulted in protein expression levels of 100-170 mg/l. Purified Cys-rhEPOs were cysteine-specifically PEGylated using 20 kDa and 30 kDa mPEG-maleimides (methoxy polyethylene glycol-maleimides). The E89CEPO analog with the highest (96.6%) cysteine accessibility was conjugated to PEG-polymers with the largest yields (about 80%). In comparison with rhEPO, 30 kDa PEG-E89CEPO demonstrated a significant (approximately 30%) increase in the mean residence time. Whereas the in vitro activities of 30 kDa PEG-E89CEPO were comparable to those of rhEPO, the in vivo activity of this conjugate was more prolonged compared to rhEPO (12 days vs. 7 days). Our results demonstrate that the site-specific PEGylation of Pichia-expressed EPO analogs may be considered as a promising approach for generating cost-effective and long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 10/2011; 80(3):499-507. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High costs of production and relatively short serum half-life of mammalian cell-derived recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) necessitate finding and developing superior hosts/technologies for more efficient production of longer-acting erythropoietic agents. With these aims, we provide the first report on reductive alkylation of low-cost P.pastoris-expressed rHuEpo (PPEpo) with PEG-aldehyde. The PCR-amplified cDNA of native rHuEpo was cloned into the pPICZαA vector and transformed into the yeast Pichia pastoris. The best expressing transformant was selected and employed for secreted-expression of PPEpo using the standard protocols. Purified PPEpo was N-terminally PEGylated with 20-kDa mPEG-propionaldehyde in a low pH (5) condition. The in vitro and in vivo biological activities of purified mono-PEGylated PPEpo was evaluated by the UT-7 cells proliferation assay and normocythaemic mice assay, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following intravenous administration of Epo proteins in rabbits. While PPEpo showed a higher in vitro bioactivity compared to rHuEpo, no in vivo efficiency was determined for PPEpo. However, the in vivo activity of PEG-PPEpo conjugate was comparable to that of rHuEpo. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the terminal half-life and mean residence time of PEG-PPEpo were increased approximately 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, compared with those of PPEpo. The results indicate that N-terminal PEGylation of Pichia-expressed Epo could be considered as a promising approach for generating cost-effective and long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
Drug Delivery 09/2011; 18(8):570-7. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that vaccination with pDNA encoding cysteine proteinase Type II (CPA) and Type I (CPB) with its unusual C-terminal extension (CTE) can partially protect BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmanial infection. Unfortunately, this protection is insufficient to completely control infection without booster injection. Furthermore, in developing vaccines for leishmaniasis, it is necessary to consider a proper adjuvant and/or delivery system to promote an antigen specific immune response. Solid lipid nanoparticles have found their way in drug delivery system development against intracellular infections and cancer, but not Leishmania DNA vaccination. Therefore, undefined effect of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) as an adjuvant in enhancing the immune response toward leishmanial antigens led us to refocus our vaccine development projects.
Three pDNAs encoding L. major cysteine proteinase type I and II (with or without CTE) were formulated by cSLN. BALB/c mice were immunized twice by 3-week interval, with cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b, pcDNA-cpa/b, cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b(-CTE), pcDNA-cpa/b(-CTE), cSLN, cSLN-pcDNA and PBS. Mice vaccinated with cSLN-pcDNA-cpa/b(-CTE) showed significantly higher levels of parasite inhibition related to protection with specific Th1 immune response development, compared to other groups. Parasite inhibition was determined by different techniques currently available in exploration vacciation efficacy, i.e., flowcytometry on footpad and lymph node, footpad caliper based measurements and imaging as well as lymph node microtitration assay. Among these techniques, lymph node flowcytometry was found to be the most rapid, sensitive and easily reproducible method for discrimination between the efficacy of vaccination strategies.
This report demonstrates cSLN's ability to boost immune response magnitude of cpa/cpb(-CTE) cocktail vaccination against leishmaniasis so that the average parasite inhibition percent could be increased significantly. Hence, cSLNs can be considered as suitable adjuvant and/or delivery systems for designing third generation cocktail vaccines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier generations of Leishmania vaccines have reached the third-phase of clinical trials, however none of them have shown adequate efficacy due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) were used to formulate three pDNAs encoding L. major cysteine proteinase type I (cpa), II (cpb) and III (cpc). BALB/c mice were immunized twice with a 3-week interval, with SLN-pcDNA-cpa/b/c, pcDNA-cpa/b/c, SLN, SLN-pcDNA and PBS. Footpad assessments, parasite burden, cytokine and antibody responses were evaluated. Mice vaccinated with SLN-pcDNA-cpa/b/c significantly (p<0.05) showed higher protection levels with specific Th1 immune response development compared to other groups. This is the first report demonstrating cSLNs as a nanoscale vehicle boosting immune response quality and quantity; in a designable trend. The nanomedical feature of this novel formulation can be applied for wide-spread use in genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis, which is currently managed only through relatively ineffectual therapeutic regimens.
Journal of Controlled Release 04/2011; 153(2):154-62. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different supercritical antisolvent processes were performed to co-precipitate 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) simultaneously. 5-FU is a hydrophilic antitumor agent, and is more effective when administered at a lower dose for a longer period of time.
Controlled-release polymeric systems of 5-FU were produced, and morphology, thermal behavior, in-vitro release and cytotoxicity of microparticles were analysed.
Dissolution studies showed that 33% of drug was released in 21 days, which represents a long-lasting profile. To evaluate the efficacy of the released drug on cancer cells, the MTT assay cytotoxicity test was performed using human lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. There was no significant difference between the cell inhibition rates of the released drug and unprocessed 5-FU at the same drug concentration level. IC50 values were 69.12 mg/ml for unprocessed 5-FU and 68.71 mg/ml for the released drug.
Application of supercritical processing for co-precipitation of 5-FU and PLGA provided mild and non-aqueous conditions, so the hydrophilic drug incorporated in the polymer had good stability during the process.
The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 04/2011; 63(4):500-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appropriate adjuvant, proper antigen(s) and a suitable formulation are required to develop stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. Leishmanial cysteine proteinase type I (CPB) is a promising vaccine candidate; nevertheless, it requires a delivery system to induce a potent immune response. Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been applied for CPB [with and without C-terminal extension (CTE)] formulation to utilize as a vaccine against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, SLN-CPB and SLN-CPB(-CTE) formulations were prepared from cetyl palmitate and cholesterol, using melt emulsification method. After intraperitoneal vaccination and subsequent L. major challenge, a strong antigen-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response was induced compared to control groups. Lymph node cells from immunized mice displayed lower parasite burden, higher IFN-γ, IgG2a and lower IL-4 production, indicating that robust Th1 immune response had been induced. Our results revealed that CTE is not necessary for inducing protective responses against L. major infection as the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was significantly higher, whereas IgG1 responses were lower in the SLN-CPB(-CTE) vaccinated group, post-challenge. Thus, SLN-CPB(-CTE) was shown to induce specific Th1 immune responses to control L. major infection, through effective antigen delivery to the peritoneal antigen presenting cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene delivery using cationic polymers such as chitosan shows good biocompatibility, but reveals low transfection efficiency. Fibronectin Attachment Protein of Mycobacterium bovis (FAP-B) which is responsible for the attachment of many Mycobacteria on the Fibronectin molecule of epithelial cell membrane can be considered as a new targeting ligand and can improve transfection rates in epithelial cells. In this study, chitosan-DNA nanoparticles were prepared using coacervation process. The effect of stirring speed and charge ratio (N/P) on the size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were evaluated. FAP-B ligand was added to nanoparticles at the specific condition to form chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles via electrostatic attraction. Transfection efficiency of the final nanoparticles was investigated in A549 (alveolar epithelial cells). Cell viability was investigated using MTT assay. The optimum speed of stirring which was yielded the smallest chitosan-DNA nanoparticles with a narrow distribution (227±43 nm), was 500 rpm with the corresponding N/P ratio of 20. Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles presented the size of 279±27 nm with transfection efficiency about 10-fold higher than chitosan-DNA nanoparticles and resulted in 97.3% cell viability compared to 71.7% using Turbofect controls. Chitosan-DNA-FAP-B nanoparticles showed good transfection efficiency without cell toxicity. They have small particle size around 279 nm which make them a promising candidate as a novel non-viral gene vector for gene delivery to lung epithelial cells.
International journal of pharmaceutics 02/2011; 409(1-2):307-13. · 2.96 Impact Factor