[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The search for molecules that can act as potential biomarkers is increasing in the scientific community, including in the field of psychiatry. The field of proteomics is evolving and its indispensability for identifying biomarkers is clear. Among proteomic tools, mass spectrometry is the core technique for qualitative and quantitative identification of protein markers. While significant progress has been made in the understanding of biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric disorders have not been as extensively investigated. Recent and successful applications of mass spectrometry-based proteomics in fields such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, infectious diseases and neurodegenerative disorders suggest a similar path for psychiatric disorders. In this brief review, we describe mass spectrometry and its use in psychiatric biomarker research and highlight some of the possible challenges of undertaking this type of work. Further, specific examples of candidate biomarkers are highlighted. A short comparison of proteomic with genomic methods for biomarker discovery research is presented. In summary, mass spectrometry-based techniques may greatly facilitate ongoing efforts to understand molecular mechanisms of psychiatric disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurobiology of suicidal behaviour, which constitutes one of the most serious problems both in psychiatry and general medical practice, still remains to a large degree unclear. As a result, scientists constantly look for new opportunities of explaining the causes underlying suicidality. In order to elucidate the biological changes occurring in the brains of the suicide victims, studies based on post-mortem brain tissue samples are increasingly being used. These studies employ different research methods to provide an insight into abnormalities in brain functioning on various levels, including gene and protein expression, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission, as well as many other areas. The aim of this paper to summarize the available data on the post-mortem studies, to provide an overview of main research directions and the most up-to-date findings, and to indicate the possibilities of further research in this field.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of the World Health Organization suggest that in the year 2020, depressive disorder will be the illness with the highest burden of disease. Especially unipolar depression is the psychiatric disorder with the highest prevalence and incidence, it is cost-intensive and has a relatively high morbidity. Lately, the biological process involved in the aetiology of depression has been in the focus of research. Since its emergence, the monoamine hypothesis has been adjusted and extended considerably. An increasing body of evidence points to alterations not only in brain function, but also in neuronal plasticity. The clinical presentations demonstrate these dysfunctions by accompanying cognitive symptoms such as problems with memory and concentration. Modern imaging techniques show e.g. volume reduction of the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. These findings are in line with post-mortem studies of patients with depressive disorder and they point to a significant decrease of neuronal and glial cells in cortico-limbic regions which can be seen as a consequence of alterations in neuronal plasticity in this disorder. This could be triggered by an increase of free radicals which in its turn eventually leads to cell death and consequently atrophy of vulnerable neuronal and glial cell population in these regions. Therefore, research on increased oxidative stress in unipolar depressive disorder, mediated by elevated concentrations of free radicals, has been undertaken. This review gives a comprehensive overview over the current literature discussing the involvement of oxidative stress and free radicals in depression. Methods: medline search "oxidative stress depression", "oxidative stress affective disorders", "free radicals and depression", "free radicals and affective disorders" "antidepressants oxidative stress" "antidepressants and free radicals". We found numerous reports elaborating on depressive disorder and oxidative stress. Most of the previous studies concentrated on investigating antioxidants in human blood as well as in animal models. However, few of these reports were able to show correlations of reduced oxidative stress with antidepressant treatment and clinical outcome measures. Fewer studies elaborated on the concentrations of antioxidants in the human brain and some on pro-oxidative enzymes in depression. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the complex role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of depression.
Current pharmaceutical design 06/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor