[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this survey was to ascertain reporting habits of pathologists towards sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/P).
A questionnaire designed to highlight diagnostic criteria, approach and clinical implications of SSA/P was circulated electronically to 45 pathologists in the UK and North America.
Forty-three of 45 pathologists agreed to participate. The vast majority (88%) had a special interest in gastrointestinal (GI) pathology, had great exposure to GI polyps in general with 40% diagnosing SSA/P at least once a week if not more, abnormal architecture was thought by all participants to be histologically diagnostic, and 11% would make the diagnosis if a single diagnostic histological feature was present in one crypt only, while a further 19% would diagnose SSA/P in one crypt if more than one diagnostic feature was present. The vast majority agreed that deeper sections were useful and 88% did not feel proliferation markers were useful. More than one-third did not know whether, or did not feel that, their clinicians were aware of the implications of SSA/P.
98% of pathologists surveyed are aware that SSA/P is a precursor lesion to colorectal cancer, the majority agree on diagnostic criteria, and a significant number feel that there needs to be greater communication and awareness among pathologists and gastroenterologists about SSA/P.
Journal of clinical pathology 01/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colonic mucus gel layer is composed of mucins that may be sulphated or sialyated. Sulphated mucins predominate in health while in ulcerative colitis(UC) sulphation is reduced. These differences result directly from inflammatory events. It may also be hypothesised that they arise in part from alterations in the colonic microbiota, particularly changes in the burden of sulphated mucin metabolising species such as desulfovibrio(DSV). The aim of this study was to correlate colonic mucin chemotypes and inflammatory scores in health and UC and relate these changes to changes in DSV colonisation of colonic crypts.
Paired colonic biopsies from 34 healthy controls (HC) and 19 patients with active UC were collected for the purpose of parallel histological and microbiological assessment. High-Iron Diamine and Alcian-Blue staining and H&E staining of mucosal biopsy specimens were used to assess histological changes within the clinical spectrum of UC. Quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis was employed to determine the total and DSV copy number within the colonic crypts.
Compared with HC, mucin chemotype in UC was less sulphated and inversely correlated with the degree of mucosal inflammation. A weak but significant negative correlation was found between abundance of sulphated mucins and DSV burden.
Mucin composition strongly correlates with the degree of mucosal inflammation, and to a lesser extent with DSV burden. These data suggest that mucin chemotype and DSV burden are linked phenomena and highlight the need to consider changes in mucin chemotype in the setting of microbial dysbiosis occurring within the colitic colon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) and patient outcomes after terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease.
The primary indication for intestinal resection in Crohn's disease is fibrostenotic terminal ileal disease. CTGF is a cytokine overexpressed in the intestine of patients with Crohn's disease that influences outcomes in other disease processes.
DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 147 patients with Crohn's disease who had undergone terminal ileal resection between 1981 and 2009. Genotyping was performed for 4 CTGF SNPs (rs9402373, rs12526196, rs6918698, and rs9399005), which modulate nuclear factor binding and CTGF production, and a smad3 SNP (rs17293632) involved in the CTGF pathway. Patients were phenotyped using the Montreal Disease Classification.
Sixty-seven of 147 patients (45.6%) were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 30.3 ± 12.6 years and the mean follow-up duration was 8.3 ± 7.1 years. Genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that the rs6918698GG genotype was associated with an older age of disease onset [>40 years; 30.6% vs 13.2%; odds ratio (OR): 2.891; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.170-7.147). The rs9402373CC genotype was positively associated with type B1 disease (50.7% vs 26.3%; OR: 2.876; 95% CI: 1.226-6.743) and negatively associated with B2 disease (37.0% vs 65.0%; OR: 0.317; 95% CI: 0.144-0.699). None of the 5 SNPs assessed influenced clinical or surgical recurrence of Crohn's disease after intestinal resection. On multivariate analysis, male sex odds ratio (OR): 0.235; 95% CI: 0.073-0.755; P = 0.015] and never having smoked tobacco (OR: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.894; P = 0.033) reduced the risk, whereas having a prior appendectomy increased the risk (OR: 5.048; 95% CI: 1.632-15.617; P = 0.005) of surgical recurrence.
These data implicate the rs6918698GG genotype with an age of disease onset of greater than 40 years in Crohn's disease whereas the rs9402373CC genotype is associated with a nonstricturing, nonpenetrating disease phenotype. CTGF SNPs do not influence the rate of recurrence after terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease.
Annals of surgery 11/2013; 258(5):767-774. · 7.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor budding is an increasingly important prognostic feature for pathologists to recognize. The aim of this study was to correlate intra-tumoral budding in pre-treatment rectal cancer biopsies with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and with long-term outcome. Data from a prospectively maintained database were acquired from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pre-treatment rectal biopsies were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of intra-tumoral budding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors contributing to cancer-specific death, expressed as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Of the 185 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, 89 patients met the eligibility criteria, of whom 18 (20%) exhibited budding in a pre-treatment tumor biopsy. Intra-tumoral budding predicted a poor pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (higher ypT stage, P=0.032; lymph node involvement, P=0.018; lymphovascular invasion, P=0.004; and residual poorly differentiated tumors, P=0.005). No patient with intra-tumoral budding exhibited a tumor regression grade 1 or complete pathological response, providing a 100% specificity and positive predictive value for non-response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Intra-tumoral budding was associated with a lower disease-free 5-year survival rate (33 vs 78%, P<0.001), cancer-specific 5-year survival rate (61 vs 87%, P=0.021) and predicted cancer-specific death (hazard ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.93, P=0.040). Intra-tumoral budding at diagnosis of rectal cancer identifies those who will poorly respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and those with a poor prognosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.124.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is an emerging hallmark of neoplastic transformation. However, it is not known how the expression of metabolic genes in tumors differs from that in normal tissues, or whether different tumor types exhibit similar metabolic changes. Here we compare expression patterns of metabolic genes across 22 diverse types of human tumors. Overall, the metabolic gene expression program in tumors is similar to that in the corresponding normal tissues. Although expression changes of some metabolic pathways (e.g., upregulation of nucleotide biosynthesis and glycolysis) are frequently observed across tumors, expression changes of other pathways (e.g., oxidative phosphorylation) are very heterogeneous. Our analysis also suggests that the expression changes of some metabolic genes (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase) may enhance or mimic the effects of recurrent mutations in tumors. On the level of individual biochemical reactions, many hundreds of metabolic isoenzymes show significant and tumor-specific expression changes. These isoenzymes are potential targets for anticancer therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the international guidelines, a multidisciplinary approach is currently advised for the optimal care of patients with a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP NET). In our institution (tertiary care center), a systematic multidisciplinary approach was established in May 2007. In this study, we have aimed to assess the initial impact of establishing a systematic multidisciplinary approach to the management of GEP NET patients. We have collected and compared the biochemical, imaging, and pathological data and the therapeutic strategies in GEP NET patients diagnosed, treated, or followed-up from January 1993 to April 2007 versus GEP NET patients attending our institution after the multidisciplinary approach starting, from May 2007 to October 2008. Data of 91 patients before and 42 patients after the establishment of the multidisciplinary approach (total: 133 consecutive GEP NET patients) have been finally collected and analyzed. Before the establishment of the multidisciplinary approach, a lack of consistency in the biochemical, imaging, and pathological findings before treatment initiation as well as during follow-up of GEP NET patients was identified. These inconsistencies have been reduced by the systematic multidisciplinary approach. In addition, the therapeutic management of GEP NET patients has been altered by the multidisciplinary approach and became more consistent with recommended guidelines. We think that a systematic multidisciplinary approach significantly impacts on GEP NET patient care and should be established in all centers dealing with these tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of Castleman's Disease (CD), hyaline vascular subtype involving the biliary tract with obstruction. A 43 year old man presented with a 5 week history of abdominal and back pain with biliary obstructive symptoms. He was jaundiced with persistently high LFTs. Radiological investigation revealed a stricture in the extrahepatic biliary tract. The clinical impression at the time was of sclerosing cholangitis with bile duct cholangiocarcinoma. A Whipple's procedure was performed. Histology and immunohistochemistry supported the histologic diagnosis of CD of hyaline vascular subtype. There was no evidence of disease elsewhere and the patient was disease free after a 6 year follow-up. Our case describes the hyaline vascular subtype of CD, a relatively rare disease occurring in a previously undescribed location.
Irish medical journal 03/2013; 106(3):86. · 0.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinicopathological features and survival rates of patients with inflammatory bowel disease who developed colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a prospectively maintained institutional database (1981-2011) to identify patients with inflammatory bowel disease who developed CRC. Clinicopathological parameters, management and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 2,843 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were identified. One thousand six hundred and forty-two had ulcerative colitis (UC) and 1,201 had Crohn's disease (CD). Following exclusion criteria, there were 29 patients with biopsy-proven colorectal carcinoma, 22 of whom had UC and 7 had CD. Twenty-six patients had a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy/dysplasia; 16 of these were diagnosed at surveillance endoscopy. Nodal/distant metastasis was identified at presentation in 47 and 71 % of the UC and CD group, respectively. Operative morbidity for UC and CD was 33 and 17 %, respectively. Despite the less favourable operative outcomes following surgery management of UC-related CRC, overall 5-year survival was significantly better in the UC group compared to the CD group (41 vs. 29 %; p = 0.04) reflecting the difference in stage at presentation between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo surgery for UC-related CRC have less favourable short-term outcomes but present at a less advanced stage and have a more favourable long-term prognosis than similar patients with CRC and CD.
Techniques in Coloproctology 02/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is controversy regarding the use of adjuvant therapy in patients with Dukes' B colorectal cancer (CRC). New markers, identifying high-risk Dukes' B patients, are needed. Here, we examine the utility of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) as such a marker and promoter methylation as a mechanism of RKIP down-regulation.
We used a tissue microarray of 220 patients with Dukes' B CRC to examine the effect of RKIP expression on survival. Pyrosequencing was used to assess RKIP promoter methylation status.RKIP expression correlated inversely with disease-specific survival in this cohort. In multivariate analysis, RKIP was found to be an independent prognostic indicator, along with peritoneal invasion and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). RKIP promoter hypermethylation was seen in only one of 29 tumours analysed by pyrosequencing.
Raf kinase inhibitor protein, peritoneal invasion and LVI provide independent prognostic information in this cohort of Dukes' B CRC patients.This demonstrates the potential utility of RKIP in identifying 'high-risk' Dukes' B patients. It is this high-risk group which is most likely to benefit from close postoperative monitoring and may derive the most benefit from adjuvant therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to develop techniques for spatial microbial assessment in humans and to establish colonic luminal and mucosal spatial ecology, encompassing longitudinal and cross-sectional axes.
A microbiological protected specimen brush was used in conjunction with a biopsy forceps to sample the colon in nine healthy volunteers undergoing colonoscopy. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis was used to determine the major variables in the spatial organization of the colonic microbiota.
Protected Specimen Brush sampling retrieved region-specific, uncontaminated samples that were enriched for bacterial DNA and depleted in human DNA when compared to biopsy samples. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis revealed a segmentation of bacterial communities between the luminal brush and biopsy-associated ecological niches with little variability across the longitudinal axis of the colon and reduced diversity in brush samples.
These results support the concept of a microbiota with little longitudinal variability but with some degree of segregation between luminal and mucosal communities.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78835. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo. METHODS: The first study aim was to examine by immunohistochemistry, levels of DSB (expression of the protein MRE11) in normal colonic tissue outside the irradiated field post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy (group 1). These levels were compared to (a) irradiated tumour tissue post neo-adjuvant radiation within the same group, (b) a CRC patient group (group 2) who had not undergone neo-adjuvant radiotherapy and (c) a non-cancer patient group (group 3). The second aim was to determine if MRE11 expression levels were related to survival or radio-sensitivity post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy. RESULTS: There was a highly significant increase in MRE 11 expression in group 1 versus groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). There was no association between MRE11 levels and survival or radio-sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Our findings show radiotherapy causes DSBs at significantly higher levels in normal colonic mucosa of patients post neo-adjuvant treatment which may represent RIBE. If this damage remains unrepaired, increased levels of genomic instability may contribute to the higher occurrence of second cancers in patients treated post neo-adjuvant radiotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puppa G, Senore C, Sheahan K, Vieth M, Lugli A, Zlobec I, Pecori S, Wang L M, Langner C, Mitomi H, Nakamura T, Watanabe M, Ueno H, Chasle J, Conley S A, Herlin P, Lauwers G Y & Risio M (2012) Histopathology Diagnostic reproducibility of tumour budding in colorectal cancer: a multicentre, multinational study using virtual microscopy Aims: Despite the established prognostic relevance of tumour budding in colorectal cancer, the reproducibility of the methods reported for its assessment has not yet been determined, limiting its use and reporting in routine pathology practice. Methods and results: A morphometric system within telepathology was devised to evaluate the reproducibility of the various methods published for the assessment of tumour budding in colorectal cancer. Five methods were selected to evaluate the diagnostic reproducibility among 10 investigators, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and AE1-3 cytokeratin-immunostained, whole-slide digital scans from 50 pT1-pT4 colorectal cancers. The overall interobserver agreement was fair for all methods, and increased to moderate for pT1 cancers. The intraobserver agreement was also fair for all methods and moderate for pT1 cancers. Agreement was dependent on the participants' experience with tumour budding reporting and performance time. Cytokeratin immunohistochemistry detected a higher percentage of tumour budding-positive cases with all methods compared to H&E-stained slides, but did not influence agreement levels. Conclusions: An overall fair level of diagnostic agreement for tumour budding in colorectal cancer was demonstrated, which was significantly higher in early cancer and among experienced gastrointestinal pathologists. Cytokeratin immunostaining facilitated detection of budding cancer cells, but did not result in improved interobserver agreement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of bevacizumab has improved survival in colorectal cancer, however, currently there are no biomarkers that predict response to bevacizumab and it is unknown how it influences the immune system in colorectal cancer patients. Dendritic cells are important for the induction of an antitumor immune response; however tumors are capable of disabling dendritic cells and escaping immune surveillance. The aim of this study was to assess the numbers of CD11c+ cells infiltrating tumor tissue and to examine the effects of tumor conditioned media (TCM) and bevacizumab conditioned media (BCM) on dendritic cell maturation and correlate our findings with patient survival. colorectal cancer explant tissues were cultured with or without bevacizumab, to generate BCM and TCM, which were used to treat dendritic cells. CD80, CD86, CD83, CD54, HLA-DR, and CD1d expression was measured by flow cytometry. Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12p70 were measured by ELISA. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to associate survival with dendritic cell inhibition. TCM and BCM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dendritic cell maturation and IL-12p70 secretion (P < 0.0001), while increasing IL-10 secretion (P = 0.0033 and 0.0220, respectively). Inhibition of LPS-induced CD1d (P = 0.021, HR = 1.096) and CD83 (P = 0.017, HR = 1.083) by TCM and inhibition of CD1d (P = 0.017, HR = 1.067), CD83 (P = 0.032, HR = 1.035), and IL-12p70 (P = 0.037, HR = 1.036) by BCM was associated with poor survival in colorectal cancer patients. CD11c expression was elevated in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue (P < 0.001), but this did not correlate with survival. In conclusion, TCM and BCM inhibit dendritic cells, and this inhibition correlates with survival of colorectal cancer patients receiving bevacizumab.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 06/2012; 11(8):1829-37. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome instability is regarded as a hallmark of cancer. Human tumors frequently carry clonally expanded mutations in their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), some of which may drive cancer progression and metastasis. The high prevalence of clonal mutations in tumor mtDNA has commonly led to the assumption that the mitochondrial genome in cancer is genetically unstable, yet this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. In this study, we directly measured the frequency of non-clonal (random) de novo single base substitutions in the mtDNA of human colorectal cancers. Remarkably, tumor tissue exhibited a decreased prevalence of these mutations relative to adjacent non-tumor tissue. The difference in mutation burden was attributable to a reduction in C:G to T:A transitions, which are associated with oxidative damage. We demonstrate that the lower random mutation frequency in tumor tissue was also coupled with a shift in glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis, as compared to non-neoplastic colon. Together these findings raise the intriguing possibility that fidelity of mitochondrial genome is, in fact, increased in cancer as a result of a decrease in reactive oxygen species-mediated mtDNA damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of peritoneal involvement in colonic cancer (CC) can be difficult. We studied pT4N0 cancers and their association with pathological prognostic markers, including tumour budding.
Tumours were classified as (i) at the peritoneal surface or free in the peritoneal cavity (pT4a subgroup n = 44); (ii) directly invading adjacent organ (pT4b subgroup n = 8); or (iii) showing inflammatory involvement of the peritoneum (pT4I subgroup n = 25). A published pT3N0 cohort was used to compare Stage II subgroups. Standard pathological markers including tumour budding were assessed. Elastin staining was performed in the pT4I subgroup. Seventy-seven Stage II CCs met inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference in survival across subgroups. pT4b tumours were larger than pT4a tumours (P < 0.001). Over-represented features in pT4a versus pT4b tumours were tumour budding (P = 0.02) and infiltrative margin (P = 0.02). Tumour budding did not predict survival. Using multivariate analysis, neural invasion was the only parameter predictive of survival (hazard ratio = 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.4; P = 0.02).
Stage II pT4I CCs have a similar outcome to T4a/b tumours. Elastin staining is useful in defining this group. Tumour budding may facilitate peritoneal invasion in pT4a tumours, but does not predict outcome in pT4N0 disease. Only neural invasion independently predicted poor outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local excision of rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been proposed as an alternative to radical surgery in selected patients. However, little is known about the significance of the morphological and histological features of residual tumour.
Patients who had undergone CRT at the authors' institution between 1997 and 2010 were identified. Multiple features were assessed as putative markers of pathological response. These included: gross residual disease, diameter of residual mucosal abnormalities, tumour differentiation, presence of lymphovascular/perineural invasion and lymph node ratio.
Data from 220 of 276 patients were suitable for analysis. Diameter of residual mucosal abnormalities correlated strongly with pathological tumour category after CRT (ypT) (P < 0·001). Forty of 42 tumours downstaged to ypT0/1 had residual mucosal abnormalities of 2·99 cm or less after CRT. Importantly, 19 of 31 patients with a complete pathological response had evidence of a residual mucosal abnormality consistent with an incomplete clinical response. The ypT category was associated with both pathological node status after CRT (P < 0·001) and lymph node ratio (P < 0·001). Positive nodes were found in only one of 42 patients downstaged to ypT0/1. The risk of nodal metastases was associated with poor differentiation (P = 0·027) and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0·001).
In this series, the majority of patients with a complete pathological response did not have a complete clinical response. In tumours downstaged to ypT0/1 after CRT, residual mucosal abnormalities were predominantly small and had a 2 per cent risk of positive nodes, thus potentially facilitating transanal excision. The presence of adverse histological characteristics risk stratified tumours for nodal metastases.
British Journal of Surgery 02/2012; 99(7):993-1001. · 4.84 Impact Factor