R H B Benedict

Charles University in Prague, Praha, Praha, Czech Republic

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Publications (82)289.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a well-established correlation between deep gray matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunction in MS. However, the cause of these signs of neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Iron accumulation in the deep gray matter is higher in patients with MS compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and could contribute to disease progression. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between iron and cognition in several deep gray matter structures while accounting for the influence of volume loss.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 06/2014; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire (MSNQ) in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Methods: 130 European CIS patients and 60 relatives completed the MSNQ. Results: The mean (SD) MSNQ score for CIS patients was 15.5 (10.8) and for their informants 11.3 (9.6). Neither the CIS patient nor relative MSNQ report scores correlated with any of the cognitive test scores in the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests, but they were significantly related to psychosocial scales including depression. Conclusions: In CIS, patient and relative MSNQ scores are influenced by psychosocial variables rather than actual objective cognitive status. Formal cognitive test assessment is recommended for CIS patients.
    European Neurology 04/2013; 69(6):346-351. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • F. Caceres, S. Vanotti, R.H.B. Benedict
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms impact many aspects of the lives of people with multiple sclerosis [MS]. This literature is based largely on North American and Western European samples, and little is known about these aspects of MS disability in Latin America. Objective RELACCEM is a longitudinal, multicenter study including MS centers in Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Venezuela, Uruguay and Mexico. The goal is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (two or more cognitive domains under the 5th percentile of healthy controls performance) and the full range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in these regions, and how these symptoms relate to caregiver burden and employment. Methods Participants were 110 patients with relapsing-remitting [RR] course and less than five years of disease duration. Thirty-four healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were evaluated in one of 14 specialized centers. Results In additional to overall neurological disability, both cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms distinguished patients and controls. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 34.5% and 20.9% presented with clinically significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Cognitive impairment was a significant predictor of employment status. Conclusions This is the first multicenter epidemiological study of MS-associated cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Latin America. Results indicate that cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric decline symptoms, fatigue, depression and caregiver burden are already apparent at an early stage of the disease. The presence of neuropsychiatric abnormalities indicates the need for appropriate interventions as early as possible to mitigate psychosocial consequences of caregiver burden.
    Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, debilitating and burdensome. Key evidence from trials was reviewed to enable recommendations to be made to guide clinical practice and research. Behavioural and pharmacological interventions on cognition reported in published studies were reviewed. Most studies evaluating behavioural treatment for impairment in learning and memory, deficits of attention and executive function have demonstrated some improvement. Controlled studies in relapsing remitting MS indicate interferon (IFN) β-1b and IFN β-1a were associated with modest cognitive improvement. The effects of symptomatic therapies such as modafinil and donepezil are inconsistent. Most studies yielding positive findings have significant methodological difficulties limiting the confidence in making any broad treatment recommendations. There are no published reports of glatiramer acetate, natalizumab and fingolimod being effective in improving cognition in controlled trials. The effects of disease modifying therapies in other forms of MS and clinically isolated syndrome have not yielded positive results. Data linking behavioural therapy, symptomatic treatment or disease modifying treatment, to either reducing cognitive decline or improving impaired cognition are limited and inconsistent. The treatment and prevention of cognitive impairment needs to remain a key research focus, identifying new interventions and improving clinical trial methodology.
    Journal of Neurology 11/2012; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the largest sample studied to date, we measured cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis (n = 187) as well as those with clinically isolated syndrome (n = 44). Participants were consecutively enrolled from six United States Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers of Excellence. Participants had a mean of 14.8 ± 2.6 years of age and an average disease duration of 1.9 ± 2.2 years. A total of 65 (35%) children with multiple sclerosis and 8 (18%) with clinically isolated syndrome met criteria for cognitive impairment. The most frequent areas involved were fine motor coordination (54%), visuomotor integration (50%), and speeded information processing (35%). A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (odds ratio = 3.60, confidence interval = 1.07, 12.36, P = .04) and overall neurologic disability (odds ratio = 1.47, confidence interval = 1.10, 2.10, P = .03) were the only independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may occur early in these patients, and prompt recognition is critical for their care.
    Journal of child neurology 11/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The available instruments for cognitive assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) require considerable time and resources, and are not readily available in all countries. The study aimed to examine validity of the Czech translation of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS), to validate the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS), and to compare their outcomes. We evaluated 367 MS patients and 134 healthy controls with the MACFIMS battery, which comprises the three tests of the BICAMS (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test, second edition). The most accurate BICAMS criterion of cognitive deficit was that of at least one of the overall three tests outside the normal range (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 86%, p = 10(-28)). Outcomes of the Czech translation of the MACFIMS were comparable to its original. The MACFIMS and the BICAMS identified cognitive deficit in 55% and 58% of the MS patients, respectively. Both batteries predicted patient self-reported vocational status. This is the first study to show that the BICAMS is highly sensitive and specific to cognitive impairment in MS as defined by the MACFIMS. This impairment is associated with vocational status. Czech versions of the studied batteries have now been validated.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 10/2012; 26(7):1186-200. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a d-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18–56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. −0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment.
    Journal of Neurology 09/2012; 260(2). · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Multiple Sclerosis Society Consensus Neuropsychological Battery for Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis (NBPMS) was designed to detect cognitive impairment in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis. One weakness of the battery is the reliance on published manual-based normative samples varying in size and quality. These primary sources base interpretation on discrete age bands, a practice which may be particularly problematic during periods of rapid development in childhood and adolescence. A further impediment to valid NBPMS interpretation is the lack of control for demographic factors other than age. We endeavored to develop regression-based norms for the NBPMS by gathering a demographically balanced sample of 102 healthy control children and using their performance to derive normalization, controlling for multiple demographic variables (i.e., age, age(2), gender, parent education). The regression-based normative equations were applied to the performance of 51 children with MS. For many of the major test scores, the regression-based norms more readily detected impairment. As in the case of adult MS, these results indicate that regression-based norms offer interpretive benefits over their manual-based counterparts.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 08/2012; 26(6):985-1002. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS.
    BMC Neurology 07/2012; 12(1):55. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and validated batteries are limited in languages other than English. We aimed to translate, cross-culturally adapt, validate, and assess reliability of Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) in Persian. The MACFIMS is a well-constructed battery in the MS literature. The battery was adapted to Persian in accordance with available guidelines. A total of 158 MS patients and 90 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment. For reliability assessment the battery was re-administered in a subset of 41 patients after a short interval using alternate forms to mitigate practice effects (approximately 10 days). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive tests, supporting discriminant validity of our adapted battery. Approximately half of patients (46.2%) showed cognitive impairment as defined by the impairment in two or more tests. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test was the most robust test by ROC analysis. All tests showed acceptable to good level of reliability. This is the first validation of gold-standard cognitive testing in Persian. The Persian MACFIMS shows nearly the same psychometrics as its English counterpart.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 06/2012; 26(6):975-84. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:CCSVI has been reported to occur at high frequency in MS. Its significance in relation to MR imaging parameters also needs to be determined, both in patients with MS and HCs. Therefore, this study determined the associations of CCSVI and conventional MR imaging outcomes in patients with MS and in HCs.MATERIALS AND METHODS:T2, T1, and gadolinium lesion number, LV, and brain atrophy were assessed on 3T MR imaging in 301 subjects, of whom 162 had RRMS, 66 had secondary-progressive MS subtype, and 73 were HCs. CCSVI was assessed using extracranial and transcranial Doppler evaluation. The MR imaging measure differences were explored with 27 borderline cases for CCSVI, added to both the negative and positive CCSVI groups to assess sensitivity of the results of these cases.RESULTS:No significant differences between subjects with and without CCSVI were found in any of the individual diagnostic subgroups or MS disease subtypes for lesion burden and atrophy measures, independently of the CCSVI classification criteria used, except for a trend for higher T2 lesion number (irrespective of how borderline cases were classified) and lower brain volume (when borderline cases were included in the positive group) in patients with RRMS with CCSVI. No CCSVI or MR imaging differences were found between 26 HCs with, or 47 without, a familial relationship.CONCLUSIONS:CCSVI is not associated with more severe lesion burden or brain atrophy in patients with MS or in HCs.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but is seldom assessed in clinical trials investigating the effects of disease-modifying therapies. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a particularly promising tool due to its sensitivity and robust correlation with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vocational disability. Unfortunately, there are no validated alternate SDMT forms, which are needed to mitigate practice effects. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and equivalence of SDMT alternate forms. Twenty-five healthy participants completed each of five alternate versions of the SDMT - the standard form, two versions from the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and two forms specifically designed for this study. Order effects were controlled using a Latin-square research design. All five versions of the SDMT produced mean values within 3 raw score points of one another. Three forms were very consistent, and not different by conservative statistical tests. The SDMT test-retest reliability using these forms was good to excellent, with all r values exceeding 0.80. For the first time, we find good evidence that at least three alternate versions of the SDMT are of equivalent difficulty in healthy adults. The forms are reliable, and can be implemented in clinical trials emphasizing cognitive outcomes.
    Multiple Sclerosis 01/2012; 18(9):1320-5. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in MS impacts negatively on many patients at all disease stages and in all subtypes. Full clinical cognitive assessment is expensive, requiring expert staff and special equipment. Test versions and normative data are not available for all languages and cultures. To recommend a brief cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis (MS) that is optimized for small centers, with one or few staff members, who may not have neuropsychological training and constructed to maximize international use. An expert committee of twelve members representing the main cultural groups that have so far contributed considerable data about MS cognitive dysfunction was convened. Following exhaustive literature review, peer-reviewed articles were selected to cover a broad spectrum of cultures and scales that targeted cognitive domains vulnerable to MS. Each was rated by two committee members and candidates scales were rated on psychometric qualities (reliability, validity, and sensitivity), international application, ease of administration, feasibility in the specified context, and acceptability to patients. Results: The committee recommended the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, if only 5 minutes was available, with the addition of the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised learning trials if a further 10 minutes could be allocated for testing. A brief cognitive assessment for MS has been recommended. A validation protocol has been prepared for language groups and validation studies have commenced.
    Multiple Sclerosis 12/2011; 18(6):891-8. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of neurological disability among young and middle-aged adults. One of the most devastating consequences of MS in this relatively young population group is unemployment. Although certain demographic and disease factors have been associated with employment, few studies have examined the contribution of person-specific factors, such as personality. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which personality, demographics, and clinical measures contribute to unemployment in MS. A total of 101 individuals with MS who were enrolled in a clinical trial on cognition underwent a brief neuropsychological battery and completed questionnaires related to vocation, mood, fatigue, and personality. Neurological impairment was measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Employment status was related with disease duration, MS subtype, level of neurological impairment, fatigue, performance on measures assessing information processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)), learning and memory (Selective Reminding Test), and the personality characteristic of persistence. Based on a forward logistic regression analysis, EDSS, SDMT, and persistence were the strongest predictors of employment status. These findings underscore the importance of personality on outcomes in MS and point to the need for more clinical attention and research in this area.
    Multiple Sclerosis 12/2011; 18(5):647-53. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    Robert W Motl, Brian M Sandroff, Ralph H B Benedict
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is a prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). This underscores the importance of considering alternative approaches, such as exercise training, for managing cognitive impairment in persons with MS. The consideration of exercise training is warranted based on evidence summarized in literature reviews and meta-analyses that (1) aerobic fitness, physical activity, and exercise training are associated with better cognitive function in older adults; and (2) exercise training has comparable effects on mobility and quality of life outcomes in older adults and persons with MS. To date, research examining aerobic fitness, physical activity, and exercise training effects on cognition in MS is nascent and mostly includes cross-sectional designs that provide preliminary evidence for a well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT). We believe that a future RCT should adopt research methodologies and practices from gerontology when examining exercise training and cognition in MS. This will maximize the potential for successfully generating a body of knowledge on exercise training and cognition with the potential for impacting the lives of persons with MS.
    Multiple Sclerosis 06/2011; 17(9):1034-40. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Memory impairment is prevalent in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no drugs are approved to treat these memory problems. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of l-amphetamine versus placebo on auditory/verbal memory and visual/spatial memory in MS patients with and without baseline memory impairment. We conducted a re-analysis of a previously published clinical trial in which MS patients were randomly assigned to treatment (30 mg l-amphetamine, N = 99) or placebo (N = 37) in a four-week, double-blind, parallel-group, dose titration trial. Auditory/verbal memory (CVLT-II: Long Delay Free Recall) and visual/spatial memory (BVMT-R: Delayed Recall) were assessed at baseline and follow-up across subgroups of patients with intact baseline memory (mean = 50th percentile) or impaired baseline memory (mean = 2nd percentile). Primary analyses: 2 (l-amphetamine, placebo) × 2 (baseline, follow-up), × 2 (baseline memory intact, baseline memory impaired) ANOVAs performed separately for auditory/verbal and visual/spatial memory. For both auditory/verbal and visual/spatial memory, we observed significant 2 × 2 × 2 interactions whereby l-amphetamine improved memory more than placebo, and this effect was specific to patients with baseline memory impairment. Among memory-impaired patients, memory improved about 48.5% for those on l-amphetamine, but only 1.0% on placebo. Treatment with l-amphetamine produced large memory gains among memory-impaired MS patients.
    Multiple Sclerosis 05/2011; 17(9):1141-5. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine if memory would be improved by donepezil as compared to placebo in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT). Donepezil 10 mg daily was compared to placebo to treat memory impairment. Eligibility criteria included the following: age 18-59 years, clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS), and performance ≤ ½ SD below published norms on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline and 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were change on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) of verbal memory and the participant's impression of memory change. Secondary outcomes included changes on other neuropsychological tests and the evaluating clinician's impression of memory change. A total of 120 participants were enrolled and randomized to either donepezil or placebo. No significant treatment effects were found between groups on either primary outcome of memory or any secondary cognitive outcomes. A trend was noted for the clinician's impression of memory change in favor of donepezil (37.7%) vs placebo (23.7%) (p = 0.097). No serious or unanticipated adverse events attributed to study medication developed. Donepezil did not improve memory as compared to placebo on either of the primary outcomes in this study. This study provides Class I evidence which does not support the hypothesis that 10 mg of donepezil daily for 24 weeks is superior to placebo in improving cognition as measured by the SRT in people with MS whose baseline RAVLT score was 0.5 SD or more below average.
    Neurology 04/2011; 76(17):1500-7. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was recently described in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A subject is considered CCSVI positive if ≥ 2 venous hemodynamic (VH) criteria are fulfilled. To determine prevalence of CCSVI in a large cohort of patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), other neurologic diseases (OND), and healthy controls (HC), using specific proposed echo-color Doppler (ECD) criteria. Transcranial and extracranial ECD were carried out in 499 enrolled subjects (289 MS, 163 HC, 26 OND, 21 CIS). Prevalence rates for CCSVI were calculated in 3 ways: first, using only the subjects for whom diagnosis was certain (i.e., borderline subjects were excluded); secondly, including the borderline subjects in the "no CCSVI" group; and finally, taking into account subjects who presented any of the VH criteria. CCSVI prevalence with borderline cases included in the "no CCSVI" group was 56.1% in MS, 42.3% in OND, 38.1% in CIS, and 22.7% in HC (p < 0.001). The CCSVI prevalence figures were 62.5% for MS, 45.8% for OND, 42.1% for CIS, and 25.5% for HC when borderline cases were excluded (p < 0.001). The prevalence of one or more positive VH criteria was the highest in MS (81.3%), followed by CIS (76.2%), OND (65.4%), and HC (55.2%) (p < 0.001). CCSVI prevalence was higher in patients with progressive than in nonprogressive MS (p = 0.004). Our findings are consistent with an increased prevalence of CCSVI in MS but with modest sensitivity/specificity. Our findings point against CCSVI having a primary causative role in the development of MS.
    Neurology 04/2011; 77(2):138-44. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Neurology 04/2011; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMTR) and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) oral-only administration are known to be sensitive to cerebral disease in adult samples, but pediatric norms are not available. A demographically balanced sample of healthy control children (N = 92) ages 6-17 was tested with the BVMTR and SDMT. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to develop demographically controlled normative equations. This analysis provided equations that were then used to construct demographically adjusted z-scores for the BVMTR Trial 1, Trial 2, Trial 3, Total Learning, and Delayed Recall indices, as well as the SDMT total correct score. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a comparison group of children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) or multiple sclerosis (MS) were also assessed. We find that these visual processing tests discriminate neurological patients from controls. As the tests are validated in adult multiple sclerosis, they are likely to be useful in monitoring pediatric onset multiple sclerosis patients as they transition into adulthood.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 03/2011; 25(3):402-12. · 1.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
289.42 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre
      Masku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2004–2012
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2012
    • Buffalo General Medical Center
      • Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 2011
    • Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • Royal Holloway, University of London
      Эгхем, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Kinesiology and Community Health
      Urbana, IL, United States
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 2009
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2008
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      • Department of Neurology
      Phoenix, AZ, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2000
    • Erie County Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1995
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States