ABSTRACT: We present a set of force field (FF) parameters compatible with the AMBER03 FF to describe five cofactors in photosystem II (PSII) of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms: plastoquinone-9 (three redox forms), chlorophyll-a, pheophytin-a, heme-b, and β-carotene. The development of a reliable FF for these cofactors is an essential step for performing molecular dynamics simulations of PSII. Such simulations are important for the calculation of absorption spectrum and the further investigation of the electron and energy transfer processes. We have derived parameters for partial charges, bonds, angles, and dihedral-angles from solid theoretical models using systematic quantum mechanics (QM) calculations. We have shown that the developed FF parameters are in good agreement with both ab initio QM and experimental structural data in small molecule crystals as well as protein complexes.
Journal of Computational Chemistry 06/2012; 33(25):1969-80. · 4.58 Impact Factor