Xiang Gao

Sichuan University, Hua-yang, Sichuan, China

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Publications (24)100.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, and early responses of macrophages are vital in controlling the infected microbes. We used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis to determine the role of cisplatin (0.1, 0.5 and 1mg/kg) with respect to peritoneal macrophages, controlling peritoneal/blood bacterial infection, and systemic inflammation. We found that mice received low-dose (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) i.p. cisplatin had lower mortality rate and improved clinical scores compared with mice in normal saline treated group, and the level of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced after cisplatin administration in peritoneal fluid of mice underwent CLP. Although cisplatin had no directly bactericidal ability, the numbers of bacteria in peritoneal and blood were significantly reduced at 24 and 72 hours after the onset of CLP. Besides, in vivo phagocytosis and killing assay showed the ability of macrophage derived from peritoneum was significantly increased with cisplatin treatment (5μM, 10μM, and 15μM) for both gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This was associated with the macrophage phenotype polarization from CD11b(+) F4/80(high) CD206(-) to CD11b(+) F4/80(low) CD206(-) M1 group. These findings underscore the importance of low-dose cisplatin in the treatment of sepsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor (FGFR) system have been associated with breast cancer. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects and mechanisms of FGFR inhibition on tumor growth and metastasis on breast cancer. Our studies showed that the FGFR inhibitor PD173074 decreased the viability of several human breast cancer cells, as well as 4T1 murine mammary tumor cells. Therefore, we chose 4T1 cells to study PD173074's antitumor mechanism. Flow cytometry showed that PD173074 induced 4T1 cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot demonstrated that PD173074-induced apoptosis was correlated with the inhibition of Mcl-1 and survivin. Moreover, PD173074 also significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. PD173074 could also block 4T1 cell migration and invasion in vitro. In 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, PD173074 significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects. Meanwhile, PD173074 functionally reduced microvessel density and proliferation index and induced tumor apoptosis. Importantly, we found that FGFR inhibition by PD173074 reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the blood, spleens and tumors, accompanied by the increased infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the spleens and tumors. Furthermore, PD173074 significantly inhibited breast tumor metastasis to the lung of inoculated 4T1 breast cancer cells, which was accompanied by a reduction in MDSCs. Our findings suggested that FGFR inhibition could delay breast tumor progression, impair lung metastasis and break immunosuppression by effecting on tumor microenvironment, which may provide a promising therapeutic approach for breast cancer patient.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a kind of osteogenic biodegradable composite graft consisting of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) material for site-specific repair of bone defects and attenuation of clinical symptoms. The novel nano- to micro-structured biodegradable hybrid fibers were prepared by electrospinning. The characteristics of the hybrid membranes were investigated by a range of methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Morphological study with scanning electron microscopy showed that the average fiber diameter and the number of nanoscale pores on each individual fiber surface decreased with increasing concentration of poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCEC). The prepared polylactide (PLA)/PCEC fibrous membranes favored hPMSC attachment and proliferation by providing an interconnected, porous, three-dimensional mimicked extracellular environment. What is more, hPMSCs cultured on the electrospun hybrid PLA/PCEC fibrous scaffolds could be effectively differentiated into bone-associated cells by positive alizarin red staining. Given the good cellular response and excellent osteogenic potential in vitro, the electrospun PLA/PCEC fibrous scaffolds could be one of the most promising candidates for bone tissue engineering.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:1991-2003. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, L-lactide was used to modify the tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) surface which can form functionalized poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA)-grafted β-TCP (g-β-TCP) and PLLA-grafted TTCP (g-TTCP) particles. The g-β-TCP and g-TTCP obtained were incorporated into a PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) matrix to prepare injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composites. The morphology of the hydrogel composites showed that the g-β-TCP and g-TTCP particles dispersed homogeneously into the polymer matrix, and each hydrogel composite had a three-dimensional network structure. Rheologic analysis showed that the composite had good thermosensitivity. Changes in calcium concentration and pH in simulated body fluid solutions confirmed the feasibility of surface-functionalized calcium phosphate for controlled release of calcium. All the results indicate that g-β-TCP/PECE and g-TTCP/PECE hydrogels might be a promising protocol for tissue engineering.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:615-26. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia-induced adhesion is very common after surgery, and leads to severe abdominal adhesions. Unfortunately, many existing barrier agents used for adhesion prevention have only limited success. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biodegradable and thermosensitive poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) micelles for the prevention of postoperative ischemia-induced adhesion. We found that the synthesized PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer could self-assemble in an aqueous solution to form micelles with a mean size of 40.1±2.7 nm at 10°C, and the self-assembled micelles could instantly turn into a nonflowing gel at body temperature. In vitro cytotoxicity tests suggested that the copolymer showed little toxicity on NIH-3T3 cells even at amounts up to 1,000 μg/mL. In the in vivo test, the postsurgical ischemic-induced peritoneal adhesion model was established and then treated with the biodegradable and thermosensitive micelles. In the control group (n=12), all animals developed adhesions (mean score, 3.58±0.51), whereas three rats in the micelles-treated group (n=12) did not develop any adhesions (mean score, 0.67±0.78; P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Both hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome staining of the ischemic tissues indicated that the micelles demonstrated excellent therapeutic effects on ischemia-induced adhesion. On Day 7 after micelle treatment, a layer of neo-mesothelial cells emerged on the injured tissues, which confirmed the antiadhesion effect of the micelles. The thermosensitive micelles had no significant side effects in the in vivo experiments. These results suggested that biodegradable and thermosensitive PCL-PEG-PCL micelles could serve as a potential barrier agent to reduce the severity of and even prevent the formation of ischemia-induced adhesions.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:727-34. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells can kill tumor cells in a non-MHC-restricted manner. However, cancer cells frequently escape from the attack of NK cells by multiple ways. In this study, we investigated the effect of gefitinib on the interaction between NK cells and lung cancer cells. 51Cr release assay, CD107a assay, and IFN-gamma secretion assay were performed to detect the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1975 to NK cells cytotoxicity in the presence of gefitinib. Human NK cells were co-cultured with A549 and H1975 cell lines in the presence of gefitinib. NKG2D ligands, ULBP1, ULBP2, MICA, and MHC-I on tumor cells, and NKG2D, NKp44 and NKp46 on NK cells were evaluated with flow cytometry. 51Cr release assay was performed when NKG2D antibody were added into the co-culture system. Expressions of stat3 and LC3 I/II on tumor cells were determined with western blot after co-cultured with NK cells. After treated with gefitinib, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) on H1975 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. 51Cr release assay were performed when MPR antagonist were used. Gefitinib increased cytotoxicity of NK cells to human lung cancer H1975 cells with EGFR L858R + T790M mutations, while not in A549 cells with wild type EGFR. Gefitinib could block the immune escape by up-regulating the expression of NKG2D ligands ULBP1, ULBP2 or MICA on tumor cells and NKG2D on NK cells in the co-culture system. Gefitinib and NK cells up-regulated MHC-I expression in A549 while not in H1975 cells. NKG2D antibody blocked the enhanced NK cytotoxicity by gefitinib. The combination of NK cells and gefitinib could significantly down-regulate stat3 expression. Furthermore, NK cells-mediated tumor cell autophagy was observed in A549 cells while not in H1975 cells. Notably, gefitinib increased autophagy and MPR expression in H1975 cells, which improved the sensitivity to NK cell-based immunotherapy. Gefitinib greatly enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells with EGFR L858 + T790M resistance mutation. Combination of EGFR tyrokinase inhibitors and NK cells adoptive immunotherapy may represent a potentially effective strategy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 08/2013; 11(1):186. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The overexpression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) has been proved to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis through degradation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is often overexpressed in various cancers and accelerates tumor progression. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a synthase of PGE2, actively produces much PGE2 to counteract the 15-PGDH-induced antitumor efficacy. Here, we investigated the combinational effect by using pcDNA3.1(+) encoding mouse 15-PGDH gene therapy and celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in mouse breast cancers. METHODS: Mice bearing 4T1 were treated with short-term administration of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (40 mg/kg/day) plus liposome-encapsulated mouse 15-PGDH in order to determine their synergistic antitumor activity in vivo. And the possible mechanisms were investigated. RESULTS: We observed that the combination treatment of 15-PGDH and celecoxib significantly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastases than monotherapy or controls. Moreover, the effect of combination treatment was associated with significant reduction of PGE2 in serum, which resulted from increased 15-PDGH and decreased COX-2 in tumor tissues. The tumor tissues in combination treatment presented more apoptotic cells and less microvessel density. Notably, the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the spleen was also significantly decreased in the combination treatment than others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that celecoxib increased the antitumor activity of 15-PGDH by synergistically blocking PGE2 pathway, which might be a new feasible way for cancer therapy.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 02/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Star-shaped polymer micelles have good stability against dilution with water, showing promising application in drug delivery. In this work, biodegradable micelles made from star-shaped poly(å-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL/PEG) copolymer were prepared and used to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) in vitro and in vivo. First, an acrylated monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(å-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) diblock copolymer was synthesized, which then self-assembled into micelles, with a core-shell structure, in water. Then, the double bonds at the end of the PCL blocks were conjugated together by radical polymerization, forming star-shaped MPEG-PCL (SSMPEG-PCL) micelles. These SSMPEG-PCL micelles were monodispersed (polydispersity index = 0.11), with mean diameter of ≈25 nm, in water. Blank SSMPEG-PCL micelles had little cytotoxicity and did not induce obvious hemolysis in vitro. The critical micelle concentration of the SSMPEG-PCL micelles was five times lower than that of the MPEG-PCL micelles. Dox was directly loaded into SSMPEG-PCL micelles by a pH-induced self-assembly method. Dox loading did not significantly affect the particle size of SSMPEG-PCL micelles. Dox-loaded SSMPEG-PCL (Dox/SSMPEG-PCL) micelles slowly released Dox in vitro, and the Dox release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Also, encapsulation of Dox in SSMPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity of Dox in vitro. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficiency of Dox/SSMPEG-PCL on colon cancer mouse model was evaluated. Dox/SSMPEG-PCL caused a more significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth than did free Dox or controls (P < 0.05), which indicated that Dox/SSMPEG-PCL had enhanced anticolon cancer activity in vivo. Analysis with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) showed that Dox/SSMPEG-PCL induced more tumor cell apoptosis than free Dox or controls. These results suggested that SSMPEG-PCL micelles have promising application in doxorubicin delivery for the enhancement of anticancer effect.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:971-982. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCEC) had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10) did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001). The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7-9 days, transforming into a viscous fuid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days, respectively. This study confirms that PCEC hydrogel has potential application in the prevention of postoperative adhesions.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:2453-63. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A de novo VEGFR2-inhibited compound SKLB1002 which is independently developed in our laboratory has been described for antiangiogenesis and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present investigation, we aim to prove that combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia plays a synergy as an antitumor agent in solid tumor. In this study, we analyzed their synergetic inhibitory action on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), murine mammary cancer 4T1, murine colon carcinoma CT26 in vitro. Multiply-table tournament was performed to detect cell proliferation in vitro. 4T1 implantation and CT26 implantation in BALB/c mice were used to examine the activity of combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia in vivo. Vascular density was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. TUNEL was used to measure apoptosis in tumor tissue. Metastasis assay was investigated via measurement of pulmonary metastasis nodules under the microscope. Potential toxicity of combination therapy was observed by histologic analysis of main organs stained with H&E. In vitro, the combination therapy significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HUVEC, 4T1 and CT26. In vivo, 4T1 and CT26 model experiments showed that combination therapy remarkably inhibited tumor growth and prolonged life span. When compared with controls, combination therapy reached 61 % inhibition index of tumor growth against CT26 and 51 % against 4T1. Moreover, it reduced angiogenesis and increased tumor apoptosis and necrosis. It was further found that combination therapy could efficiently prevent tumor from metastasizing to lung. Importantly, it had no toxicity to main organs including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Combination treatment has been proved to be a novel and strong strategy in clinical antitumor therapy. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia has a synergistic antiangiogenesis, anticancer and promotion of apoptosis efficacy compared with controls. These findings could pave a new way in clinical tumor therapy.
    Clinical and Experimental Medicine 12/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of curcumin (Cur), we prepared Cur encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by solid dispersion method without using any surfactants or toxic organic solvent. Cur micelles could be lyophilized into powder form without any cryoprotector or excipient, and the re-dissolved Cur micelles are homogenous and stable. Molecular modeling study suggested that Cur tended to interact with PCL serving as a core embraced by PEG as a shell. After Cur was encapsulated into polymeric micelles, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake were both increased. Cur micelles had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs than free Cur. Besides, Cur micelles showed a sustained in vitro release behavior and slow extravasation from blood vessels in transgenic zebrafish model. Embryonic angiogenesis and tumor-induced angiogenesis were both dramatically inhibited by Cur micelles in transgenic zebrafish model. Furthermore, Cur micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival in both subcutaneous and pulmonary metastatic LL/2 tumor models. In pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies, Cur micelles showed higher concentration and longer retention time in plasma and tumors. Our findings suggested that Cur micelles may have promising applications in pulmonary carcinoma therapy.
    Biomaterials 11/2012; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Encapsulation of hydrophobic agents in polymer micelles can improve the water solubility of cargos, contributing to develop novel drugs. Quercetin (QU) is a hydrophobic agent with potential anticancer activity. In this work, we encapsulated QU into biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles and tried to provide proof-of-principle for treating ovarian cancer with this nano-formulation of quercetin. These QU loaded MPEG-PCL (QU/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 6.9% had a mean particle size of 36 nm, rendering the complete dispersion of quercetin in water. QU inhibited the growth of A2780S ovarian cancer cells on a dose dependent manner in vitro. Intravenous administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles significantly suppressed the growth of established xenograft A2780S ovarian tumors through causing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer activity of quercetin on ovarian cancer cells was studied in vitro. Quercetin treatment induced the apoptosis of A2780S cells associated with activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. MCL-1 downregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential change were observed, suggesting that quercetin may induce apoptosis of A2780S cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Otherwise, quercetin treatment decreased phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated Akt, contributing to inhibition of A2780S cell proliferation. Our data suggested that QU/MPEG-PCL micelles were a novel nano-formulation of quercetin with a potential clinical application in ovarian cancer therapy.
    Nanoscale 10/2012; · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some bladder disease therapies can benefit from intravesical drug delivery, which involves direct instillation of drug into the bladder via a catheter, to attain high local concentrations of the drug with minimal systemic effects. Deguelin is a potential anticancer agent, however, its poor water solubility and neurotoxicity restrict its clinical application. To address these challenges, we investigated the promising application of deguelin in the intravesical therapy of bladder cancer by designing a novel intravesical drug delivery system for deguelin. It was found that deguelin could efficiently kill bladder cancer cells and inhibit angiogenesis. Intravesically administrated deguelin had better tolerance than systemically applied deguelin. Encapsulation of deguelin in cationic DOTAP and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) hybrid nanoparticles (DMP) created the deguelin loaded DMP nanoparticles (D/DMP). They had a mean particle size of 35 nm and zeta potential of 21 mV, rendering deguelin completely dispersible in aqueous media. Encapsulation of deguelin in cationic DMP nanoparticles enhanced the anticancer activity of deguelin in vitro. In addition, D/DMP nanoparticles were incorporated into a thermo-sensitive Pluronic F127 hydrogel, forming a novel D/DMP-F system, which remained in a flowing liquid state at lower than 25 °C, but underwent gelation at higher temperatures. The DMP nanoparticles in the F127 hydrogel system (DMP-F) could significantly extend the hydrophobic drug residence time and increase the drug concentration within the bladder. These results suggested that DMP-F was a good intravesical drug delivery system and D/DMP-F may have promising applications in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer.
    Nanoscale 09/2012; 4(20):6425-33. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The article describes characterization of two liposome formulations containing thienopyridine derivatives, namely TP-58 and TP-67. By preparing the liposomes, the concentration of the two compounds in ultrapure water was increased up to three orders of magnitude. After i.v. administration of the liposomes in rats, the initial compound plasma concentrations were enhanced more than fifty times relative to that after i.g. administration of the compound suspensions. It was found out that the release rate of TP-67 from the liposome both in vitro and in vivo was not significantly different from that of TP-58. TP-58 was more lipophilic than TP-67 according to partition coefficiency, and TP-67 had greater polarity than TP-58 based on polar surface area (PSA). With DSC, it was found out that the interaction magnitude between TP-67 and the lipid bilayer was not significantly different from that between TP-58 and the lipid bilayer, which accounted for the similarity of the two compounds in release rate both in vitro and in vivo. It indicated liposome can be used as a potential carrier for broading the application of TP-58 and TP-67. Interaction between the thienopyridine derivatives and the lipid bilayer is probably the decisive factor for compound release from the liposomes.
    Drug Delivery 06/2012; 19(5):247-54. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the purpose of increasing incorporation efficiency and improving the release kinetics of plasmid DNA (pDNA) from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, a facile method for the fabrication of calcium phosphate (CaPi) embedded PLGA nanoparticles (CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs) was developed. The effect of several preparation factors on the particle size, incorporation efficiency, pDNA release and transfection efficiency in vitro was studied by Single Factor Screening Method. These preparation factors included the molecular weight (MW), hydrolysis degree (HD) of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sonication power and time, composition of organic phase, initial concentration of calcium phosphate and calcium (Ca) to phosphate ion (P) ratio (Ca/P ratio), etc. The CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs made according to the optimal formulation were spherical in shape observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with a mean particle size of 207±5 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 95.7±0.8%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) suggested that there existed interaction between the DNA-calcium-phosphate (CaPi-pDNA) complexes and the polymeric matrices of PLGA. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) further proved the conclusion and indicated that the CaPi-pDNA was in weak crystallization form inside the nanoparticles. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement demonstrated that the CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs are mesoporous with specific surface area of 57.5m(2)/g and an average pore size of 96.5 Å. The transfection efficiency of the CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells in vitro was 22.4±1.2%, which was much higher than those of both the pDNA loaded PLGA nanoparticles (pDNA-PLGA-NPs) and the CaPi-pDNA embedded PLGA microparticles (CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-MPs). The CaPi-pDNA-PLGA-NPs are promising vectors for gene delivery.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 04/2012; 431(1-2):210-21. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable cationic micelles show promise for applications in gene delivery. In this article, we used DOTAP to modify monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL, MP) micelles in one step, creating novel cationic self-assembled DOTAP and MPEG-PCL hybrid micelles (DMP). These micelles had a mean particle size of 46 ± 5.6 nm and a zeta potential of 41.8 ± 0.5 mV, and had the capacity to bind DNA. Compared with PEI25K (the gold standard), DMP micelles had higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity. Moreover, we used DMP to deliver the Survivin-T34A gene (S-T34A, a suicide gene) to treat colon cancer. DMP delivered the Survivin-T34A gene (DMP/S-T34A) and could induce apoptosis in cancer cells, resulting in inhibition of the growth of C-26 colon cancer cells in vitro. An in vivo study indicated that intraperitoneal administration of DMP micelles delivered the Survivin-T34A gene and efficiently inhibited the growth of abdominal metastatic C-26 colon cancer and the malignant ascites. These data suggest that DMP may be a novel gene carrier, and its delivery of the S-T34A gene may have promising applications in the treatment of colon cancer.
    Nanoscale 03/2012; 4(7):2400-7. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application. In an attempt to improve water solubility of QU, biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles were used to encapsulate QU by self-assembly methods, creating QU/MPEG-PCL micelles. These QU/MPEG-PCL micelles with DL of 7% had a mean particle size of <34 nm, and could release QU for an extended period in vitro. The in vivo study indicated that intravesical application of MPEG-PCL micelles did not induce any toxicity to the bladder, and could efficiently deliver cargo to the bladder. Moreover, the therapeutic efficiency of intravesical administration of QU/MPEG-PCL micelles on acute cystitis was evaluated in vivo. Results indicated that QU/MPEG-PCL micelle treatment efficiently reduced the edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bladder in an Escherichia coli-induced acute cystitis model. These data suggested that MPEG-PCL micelle was a candidate intravesical drug carrier, and QU/MPEG-PCL micelles may have potential application in acute cystitis therapy.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:2239-47. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an important dose-limiting toxicity during thoracic radiotherapy. Previous investigations have shown that curcumin is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and cancer, suggesting that curcumin may prevent RP and sensitize cancer cells to irradiation. However, the clinical advancement of curcumin is limited by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration. Here, a water-soluble liposomal curcumin system was developed to investigate its prevention and sensitizing effects by an intravenous administration manner in mice models. The results showed that liposomal curcumin inhibited nuclear factor-κB pathway and downregulated inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and transforming growth factor-β induced by thoracic irradiation. Furthermore, the combined treatment with liposomal curcumin and radiotherapy increased intratumoral apoptosis and microvessel responses to irradiation in vivo. The significantly enhanced inhibition of tumor growth also was observed in a murine lung carcinoma (LL/2) model. There were no obvious toxicities observed in mice. The current results indicate that liposomal curcumin can effectively mitigate RP, reduce the fibrosis of lung, and sensitize LL/2 cells to irradiation. This study also suggests that the systemic administration of liposomal curcumin is safe and deserves to be investigated for further clinical application.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:2601-11. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since bacterial invasion into host cells is an important step in the infection process, using the agents to interfere with bacterial internalization is an attractive approach to block the infection process. In this work, we describe a new, previously unrecognized role of the human cationic host defense peptide HMGN2 during Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Our results revealed that the internalization of K. pneumoniae strain 03183 into cultured bladder epithelial cells (T24) was significantly reduced at HMGN2 concentrations that were unable to produce any bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. Using microarrays and follow-up studies, we demonstrated that HMGN2 affected the internalization of K. pneumoniae strain 03183 by inhibiting the attachment of bacteria, and then decreasing bacteria-induced ERK1/2 activation and actin polymerization, which might contribute to bacterial internalization into T24 cells. This disruption of bacterial internalization implied that HMGN2 could provide protection against K. pneumoniae infections.
    Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 09/2011; 43(9):680-7. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), an antimicrobial peptide produced by epithelial cells, plays an important role in the body's innate and adaptive immunity. High-mobility group N2 (HMGN2), a member of the HMG superfamily, binds to chromatin to modulate gene transcription. Previously, we have shown that HMGN2 acts as a positive modulator of the signal transduction cascade in the process of inducible human β-defensin expression. In our current study, we found that down-regulation of HMGN2 reduces the expression level of murine β-defensin-3 and -4 (mBD-3 and mBD-4), but not mBD-1 upon LPS stimulation in various tissues of pregnant ICR mice, as well as in embryonic and neonatal lungs and livers at different developmental time points. In the control group, murine HMGN2 expression decreased, while mBD-1 and mBD-4 expression increased slightly during development. In the LPS-treated groups, murine HMGN2 and mBD-1 expression did not change significantly, whereas mBD-3 and mBD-4 expression significantly increased in maternal, embryonic, and neonatal tissues, especially the mBD-3 expression. HMGN2 shRNA interference led to decreased mBD-3 and mBD-4 expression, while mBD-1 expression did not significantly change. These results demonstrate that HMGN2 is a component of the LPS-induced mouse β-defensin response.
    Inflammation 05/2011; 35(2):456-73. · 2.46 Impact Factor