[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors are heterodimers composed of two subunits GABAB(1) and GABAB(2), the former existing in two isoforms GABAB(1a) and GABAB(1b). The contributions of individual receptor subunits and isoforms to GABAB auto- and heteroreceptor functions were investigated, using release experiments in cortical slice preparations from corresponding
knockout mice. Presynaptic GABAB autoreceptors are located on GABAergic terminals and inhibit GABA release, whereas presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors control the release of other neurotransmitters (e.g. glutamate). Neither baclofen nor the selective antagonist
CGP55845 at maximally active concentrations affected [3H]GABA release in slices from GABAB(1)−/− mice. The amount of [3H]GABA released per pulse was unaffected by the stimulation frequency in slices from GABAB(1)−/− and GABAB(2)−/− demonstrating a loss of GABAB autoreceptor function in these knockout animals. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen was ineffective in modulating glutamate release in cortical slices from GABAB(2)−/− mice, showing that heteroreceptor function was abolished as well. Next we investigated knockout mice for the two predominant
GABAB(1) isoforms expressed in brain, GABAB(1a) and GABAB(1b). In cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices from both GABAB(1a)−/− and GABAB(1b)−/− mice, the frequency dependence of [3H]GABA released per pulse was maintained, suggesting that both isoforms participate or can substitute for each other in GABAB autoreceptor function. By contrast, the efficacy of baclofen to inhibit glutamate release was substantially reduced in GABAB(1a)−/−, but essentially unaltered in GABAB(1b)−/− mice. Our data suggest that functional GABAB heteroreceptors regulating glutamate release are predominantly, but not exclusively composed of GABAB(1a) and GABAB(2) subunits.
Journal of Neural Transmission 04/2012; 115(10):1401-1411. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinically established positron emission tomography (PET) tracers 6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-DOPA ([(18)F]FDOPA), 6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-m-tyrosine ([(18)F]FMT) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(2-[(18)F]-fluoroethyl)-nortropane ([(18)F]FECNT) serve as markers of presynaptic integrity of dopaminergic nerve terminals in humans. This study describes our efforts to adopt the methodology of human Parkinson's disease (PD) PET studies to mice.
The PET imaging characteristics of [(18)F]FDOPA, [(18)F]FMT and [(18)F]FECNT were analyzed in healthy C57BL/6 mice using the dedicated small-animal PET tomograph quad-HIDAC. Furthermore, [(18)F]FECNT was tested in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD.
[(18)F]FDOPA and [(18)F]FMT failed to clearly visualize the mouse striatum, whereas PET experiments using [(18)F]FECNT proved that the employed methodology is capable of delineating the striatum in mice with exquisite resolution. Moreover, [(18)F]FECNT PET imaging of healthy and MPTP-lesioned mice demonstrated that the detection and quantification of striatal degeneration in lesioned mice can be accomplished.
This study shows the feasibility of using [(18)F]FECNT PET to analyze noninvasively the striatal degeneration in the MPTP mouse model of PD. This methodology can be therefore considered as a viable complement to established in vivo microdialysis and postmortem techniques.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 08/2006; 33(5):607-14. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GABAB1-/- mice, which are devoid of functional GABAB receptors, consistently exhibit marked hyperlocomotion when exposed to a novel environment. Telemetry recordings now revealed that, in a familiar environment, GABAB1-/- mice display an altered pattern of circadian activity but no hyperlocomotion. This indicates that hyperlocomotion is only triggered when GABAB1-/- mice are aroused by novelty. In microdialysis experiments, GABAB1-/- mice exhibited a 2-fold increased extracellular level of dopamine in the striatum. Following D-amphetamine administration, GABAB1-/- mice released less dopamine than wild-type mice, indicative of a reduced cytoplasmic dopamine pool. The hyperdopaminergic state of GABAB1-/- mice is accompanied by molecular changes, including reduced levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA, D1 receptor binding-sites and Ser40 phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity, tissue dopamine content and dopamine metabolism do not appear to be measurably altered. Pharmacological and electrophysiological experiments support that the hyperdopaminergic state of GABAB1-/- mice is not severe enough to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors and to disrupt D2-mediated feedback inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The data support that loss of GABAB activity results in a sustained moderate hyperdopaminergic state, which is phenotypically revealed by contextual hyperlocomotor activity. Importantly, the presence of an inhibitory GABA tone on the dopaminergic system mediated by GABAB receptors provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2006; 97(4):979-91. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. gamma-Hydroxybutyrate and its prodrug, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), recently received increased public attention as they emerged as popular drugs of abuse. The actions of GHB/GBL are believed to be mediated by GABAB and/or specific GHB receptors, the latter corresponding to high-affinity [3H]GHB-binding sites coupled to G-proteins. To investigate the contribution of GABAB receptors to GHB actions we studied the effects of GHB in GABAB(1)-/- mice, which lack functional GABAB receptors. Autoradiography reveals a similar spatial distribution of [3H]GHB-binding sites in brains of GABAB(1)-/- and wild-type mice. The maximal number of binding sites and the KD values for the putative GHB antagonist [3H]6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene acetic acid (NCS-382) appear unchanged in GABAB(1)-/- compared with wild-type mice, demonstrating that GHB- are distinct from GABAB-binding sites. In the presence of the GABAB receptor positive modulator 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-phenol GHB induced functional GTPgamma[35S] responses in brain membrane preparations from wild-type but not GABAB(1)-/- mice. The GTPgamma[35S] responses in wild-type mice were blocked by the GABAB antagonist [3-[[1-(S)-(3,4dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl]-cyclohexylmethyl phosphinic acid hydrochloride (CGP54626) but not by NCS-382. Altogether, these findings suggest that the GHB-induced GTPgamma[35S] responses are mediated by GABAB receptors. Following GHB or GBL application, GABAB(1)-/- mice showed neither the hypolocomotion, hypothermia, increase in striatal dopamine synthesis nor electroencephalogram delta-wave induction seen in wild-type mice. It, therefore, appears that all studied GHB effects are GABAB receptor dependent. The molecular nature and the signalling properties of the specific [3H]GHB-binding sites remain elusive.
European Journal of Neuroscience 12/2003; 18(10):2722-30. · 3.75 Impact Factor