ABSTRACT: introduction Metallomics is one of most recent -omics whose impor-tance is associated to the presence of metals or any other heteroelement (e.g. elements different of c, H, n, or o) in biomolecules. These metal-linked molecules play important roles in the cells and by extension in the biological behaviour of the organisms. some of these elements are essential for life, marked in green in the Fig. 1, other are non-essential or toxic, marked in red. This is the case of transition elements, such as fe in cytochrome P450, a superfamily of enzymes that regulate the metabolism of pollutants, drugs and steroids. as well as Fe in transferrin, that transport and deliver this element. Cobalt is the key-element of B12 vitamin and ni in urease (the enzyme for urea hydrolysis into carbon hydroxide and ammonia). other transition elements such as cu and Zn are responsible for the activity of the superoxide dismutase, which is invol-ved in the elimination of superoxide radical. Together with elements linked to these proteinous molecules other non-proteinous molecules of high molecular weigh, such as dna is characterized by the presence of phos-phorus, or boron in polysaccharides from vegetal cell walls. Therefore, the chemistry of a cell and by extension of living tissues and biological fluids can be characterized, not only by its typical genome and proteome, but also by the metallome, the distribution of metals and metalloids among the different biomolecules. The metallome describes, per analogy with genome and proteome, the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type. 1–4 The scope of metallomics is very broad, focusing on developments of new analytical techniques and instruments, as well as innovative applications focused on environmental, food or health issues. i n s t r u m e n t a l a p p r o a c h e s i n M e t a l -l o m i c s Three-dimensional systems should be at least used in Metallomics: (i) a separation component by gel electro-phoresis or HPlc; (ii) an very sensitive elemental monito-ring system, for metal or non-metal quantification, mainly icP-Ms; and (iii) a component for the structural characte-rization of the molecules, generally based on mass spectro-metry. Therefore, the metal or heteroelement act as tag of the experiment, heteroatom-tagged proteomics 5 .
Chemicke Listy 01/2008; 102:s303-s308. · 0.53 Impact Factor