Peter Howard

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (19)58.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: The Alberta Stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS) is a semiquantative scale for estimating extent and distribution of early ischemic changes within the MCA territory in the acute stroke setting. Good interobserver agreement of total ASPECTS is demonstrated for noncontrast CT (NCCT) and other imaging modalities. Our purpose is to assess interobserver agreement for individual ASPECTS regions for different imaging modalities. Methods: One hundred and eighty-one consecutive patients presenting with acute stroke symptoms within 4.5 hours of onset were included. Four readers assigned total and individual ASPECTS for NCCT, CT angiography source images (CTA-SI), and CTP maps of cerebral blood volume (CTP-CBV). Interobserver agreement was assessed by measuring internal consistency and concordance of total and individual ASPECTS using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Results: Total ASPECTS demonstrated very good concordance and internal consistency for all 3 modalities. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α were 0.834 and 0.859 for NCCT, 0.876 and 0.894 for CTA, and 0.903 and 0.911 for CTP-CBV, respectively. Performance for individual ASPECTS regions was inferior to total ASPECTS, but incremental improvement in interobserver reliability was demonstrated for NCCT, CTA-SI, and CTP-CBV, respectively. Highest concordance was shown for caudate, lentiform, and M1-M3, whereas performance for internal capsule and M4-M6 was poorer. Conclusions: CTP-CBV demonstrates the highest interobserver agreement for individual ASPECTS regions.
    Stroke 10/2012; 44(1). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.665208 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction (≥20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2012; 84(3):e343-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.04.034 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • A J Fox · S P Symons · P Howard · R Yeung · R I Aviv
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2012; 33(5):792-4. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3099 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 05/2011; 62(2):151-3. DOI:10.1016/j.carj.2009.12.004 · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • Medical Physics 01/2011; 38(6):3622-. DOI:10.1118/1.3612539 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidetector computerized tomography angiography (MDCTA) is now a widely accepted technique for the management of intracranial aneurysms. To evaluate its accuracy for the postoperative assessment of clipped intracranial aneurysms. We analyzed a consecutive series of 31 patients that underwent direct surgical clipping procedures of 38 aneurysms. A 64 slice MDCT scanner (Aquilion 64, Toshiba) was used and results were compared with digital subtraction angiographies (DSA). Two independent neuroradiologists analyzed the following data: examination quality, artifacts, aneurysm remnant, and patency of collateral branches. Interobserver agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Seventy-nine percent of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Significant artifacts were found with multiple and cobalt-alloy clips. According to DSA, remnants >2 mm were found in 21% of the cases, and 2 patients had one collateral branch occluded. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of aneurysm remnants were 50% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of a significant remnant (>2 mm) and the detection of the occlusion of a collateral branch were, respectively, 67% and 100% and 50% and 100%. No relationship was found with the location, type, shape, size, or number of clips, but missed remnants tended to be larger with cobalt-alloy clips. 64-MDCTA is a valuable technique to assess the presence of a significant postoperative remnant in single titanium clip application cases and might be useful for long-term follow-up. DSA remains the most accurate postoperative radiological examination.
    Neurosurgery 09/2010; 67(3):844-53; discussion 853-4. DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000374684.10920.A2 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to evaluate CT angiographic (CTA) features that are able to predict the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) as defined by MR-IPH. One hundred sixty-seven consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, SD 12.8; 58 females) underwent both MR-IPH and CTA within 3 weeks. MR-IPH, the gold standard, was performed at 1.5 T using a neurovascular phased-array coil as a coronal T1-weighted 3-dimensional fat-suppressed acquisition. CTA was performed using a 4-slice or a 64-slice CT machine and evaluated, blinded to MR-IPH findings, for carotid stenosis, plaque density, and plaque ulceration. Plaque density was defined as the mean attenuation of plaque at the site of maximum stenosis and 2 sections above and below. Plaque ulceration was defined as outpouching of contrast into the plaque at least 2 mm deep on any single plane. Prevalence of IPH increased at higher degrees of carotid stenosis. Mean CT plaque density was higher for plaques with MRI-defined IPH (47 Hounsfield units) compared with without IPH (43 Hounsfield units; P=0.02). However, significant overlap between distributions of plaque densities limited the value of mean plaque density for prediction of IPH. CTA plaque ulceration had high sensitivity (80.0% to 91.4%), specificity (93.0% to 92.3%), positive predictive value (72.0% to 71.8%), and negative predictive value (95.0% to 97.9%) for prediction of IPH. Interobserver agreement for presence/absence of CTA plaque ulceration was excellent (kappa=0.80). CTA plaque ulceration, but not mean CTA plaque density, was useful for prediction of IPH as defined by the MR-IPH technique.
    Stroke 08/2010; 41(8):1623-9. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.579474 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated the validity of axial source (AxS) image quantification of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) visualized carotid stenosis. There is concern that AxS images may not accurately measure stenosis in patients with obliquely orientated stenosis and that measurements on axial oblique (AxO) multiplanar reformats (MPR), maximum intensity projections (MIP) images, or Doppler ultrasound (DUS) are superior. We tested the performance of AxS images against AxO MPRs, MIPs, and DUS techniques for stenosis quantification. A total of 120 consecutive patients with CTA and DUS detected carotid disease were enrolled; carotids with occlusion, near occlusion, or stenosis <40% were excluded. Proximal and distal carotid diameters and North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) style ratios were measured independently by 2 neuroradiologists on AxS, AxO, and MIP images on separate occasions in a blinded protocol. Intra- and interobserver agreements were determined for all measurements. The performance of different image types to identify > or =70% stenosis was assessed against a NASCET-style reference standard. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities for stenosis measurements were higher for both AxS (interclass correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.87-0.93 and 0.84-0.89) and AxO images (ICCs, 0.82-0.89 and 0.86-0.92) than for MIPs (ICCs, 0.66-0.86 and 0.79-0.82), respectively. Intra- and interobserver agreements on the NASCET ratio tended to be lower than proximal stenosis measurements. AxS and AxO image proximal stenosis measurements most accurately distinguished patients with > or =70% stenosis (0.90), followed by DUS (0.83) and MIP images (0.76). A single AxS image stenosis measurement was highly reproducible and accurate in the estimation of carotid stenosis, which precluded the need for AxO MPRs.
    Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 06/2010; 61(3):127-32. DOI:10.1016/j.carj.2009.10.013 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether computed tomography angiography (CTA) is comparable to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in assessing clipped intracranial aneurysms. Retrospective collection of clipped aneurysms that had both CTA and DSA within 2 months of one another. Computed tomography angiograms were independently reviewed by 2 blinded neuroradiologists; rereviewed by one at least 4 months later. Each was classified as complete obliteration, neck remnant, or residual aneurysm. Parent vessel was classified as patent or occluded. Digital subtraction angiograms were reviewed in a similar manner by a third blinded neuroradiologist. Forty-eight patients with 53 clipped aneurysms were collected. On DSA, 35 were completely obliterated, 10 neck remnants, and 8 residual aneurysms. The ability of CTA to detect residual aneurysms versus complete obliterations or neck remnants was excellent (mean sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value [PPV], 100%; negative predictive value [NPV], 98%). The ability of CTA to detect neck remnants versus complete obliterations was poor (mean sensitivity, 20%; specificity, 99%; PPV, 83%; NPV, 81%). The CTAs were good at detecting parent vessel occlusion (mean sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 97%; PPV, 75%; NPV, 99%). Interrater and intrarater agreement was good to excellent for aneurysm and parent vessel assessment, with kappa values ranging from 0.6 to 1.0. Computed tomography angiography has high sensitivity and specificity for residual aneurysm detection and parent vessel occlusion. It is not accurate in neck remnant detection, although these were small and of uncertain clinical significance. This suggests that CTA is useful for follow-up of clipped aneurysms. However, given the potential to miss neck remnants or small residual aneurysms, it is recommended to perform initial DSA and CTA to select cases in which CTA follow-up is appropriate.
    Journal of computer assisted tomography 05/2010; 34(3):440-5. DOI:10.1097/RCT.0b013e3181d27393 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic benefits and inter- and intraobserver reliability of an incremental computed tomographic (CT) protocol in the confirmation of clinically suspected stroke, with combined imaging and clinical data as the reference standard. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and participants gave informed consent. A total of 191 patients (mean age, 67 years +/- 16 [standard deviation]; 105 men) with strokelike symptoms of no more than 3 hours duration were recruited. Blinded review was performed by four readers with limited stroke imaging experience. Diagnostic confidence was recorded on a five-point scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the difference between the real and observed diagnoses, adjusting for confidence. Predictive effects of observed diagnostic performance and confidence score were quantified with the entropy r(2) value. Sensitivity, specificity, and confidence intervals were calculated while accounting for multiple reader assessments. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, including area under the ROC curve, were conducted for three modalities in combination with confidence score. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was established with the Cohen kappa statistic. The final diagnosis was infarct in 64% of the patients, transient ischemic attack in 18%, and stroke mimic in 17%. Large-vessel occlusion occurred in 70% of the patients with an infarct. Sensitivity for stroke determination with noncontrast CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion increased by 12.4% over that with noncontrast CT and CT angiography and by 18.2% over that with only noncontrast CT for a confidence level of 4 or higher. The incremental protocol was more likely to enable confirmation of clinical stroke diagnosis (odds ratio, 13.3) than was noncontrast CT and CT angiography (odds ratio, 6.4) or noncontrast CT alone (odds ratio, 3.3), The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 for the combination of noncontrast CT and confidence score, 0.72 for the combination of CT angiography and confidence score, and 0.81 for the combination of CT perfusion and confidence score. Inter- and intraobserver agreement increased with progressive sequence use. An incremental stroke protocol that includes CT perfusion increases diagnostic performance for stroke diagnosis and inter- and intraobserver agreement.
    Radiology 04/2010; 255(1):142-53. DOI:10.1148/radiol.09091021 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Middle ear aneurysms are rare and difficult to treat. An innovative, parent vessel-preserving, aneurysm occlusion stent is a treatment alternative. It redirects blood flow away from the aneurysm, resulting in stasis within, and ultimate aneurysm thrombosis. Concurrent coiling is not needed with this stent, eliminating the risk of coils extruding or migrating, or acting as a nidus for infection in the middle ear. We review a successful treatment using this device.
    The Laryngoscope 04/2010; 120(4):796-9. DOI:10.1002/lary.20811 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 03/2010; 37(2):286-8. DOI:10.1017/S0317167100010106 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    Radiology 11/2009; 253(2):574-5; author reply 575. DOI:10.1148/radiol.2532090821 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    Stroke 10/2009; 40(11):3411-2. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.558452 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    E.J. Lee · S.K. Lee · R Agid · P Howard · J.M. Bae · K terBrugge
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    ABSTRACT: The combined automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) technique adapts and modulates the x-ray tube current in the x-y-z axis according to the patient's individual anatomy. We compared image quality and radiation dose of the combined ATCM technique with those of a fixed tube current (FTC) technique in craniocervical CT angiography performed with a 64-section multidetector row CT (MDCT) system. A retrospective review of craniocervical CT angiograms (CTAs) by using combined ATCM (n = 25) and FTC techniques (n = 25) was performed. Other CTA parameters, such as kilovolt (peak), matrix size, FOV, section thickness, pitch, contrast agent, and contrast injection techniques, were held constant. We recorded objective image noise in the muscles at 2 anatomic levels: radiation exposure doses (CT dose index volume and dose-length product); and subjective image quality parameters, such as vascular delineation of various arterial vessels, visibility of small arterial detail, image artifacts, and certainty of diagnosis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. No significant difference was detected in subjective image quality parameters between the FTC and combined ATCM techniques. Most subjects in both study groups (49/50, 98%) had acceptable subjective artifacts. The objective image noise values at shoulder level did not show a significant difference, but the noise value at the upper neck was higher with the combined ATCM (P < .05) technique. Significant reduction in radiation dose (18% reduction) was noted with the combined ATCM technique (P < .05). The combined ATCM technique for craniocervical CTA performed at 64-section MDCT substantially reduced radiation exposure dose but maintained diagnostic image quality.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 06/2009; 30(9):1754-9. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A1675 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Neurochirurgie 10/2008; 54(5):673-673. DOI:10.1016/j.neuchi.2008.08.022 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of paraclinoid aneurysms may be difficult because of the complexity of anatomic structures involved, and differentiation between intradural and extradural lesions is crucial. We report a case of a patient with a unique presentation of a paraclinoid aneurysm with intrasellar hemorrhage in which the presence of intrasellar blood and the relationship of the paraclinoid aneurysmal neck and sac to the dural rings were elegantly demonstrated on MR imaging and were critical in choosing the target lesion for treatment.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 06/2008; 29(5):980-2. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A1022 · 3.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

150 Citations
58.71 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2012
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Department of Medical Imaging
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      • • Division of Neuroradiology
      • • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada