P M Kris-Etherton

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Maryland, United States

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Publications (161)826.57 Total impact

  • Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 10/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells. Methods and Results In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P=0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P=0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P=0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P=0.047). Conclusion DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources. Registration number NCT01351012.
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 08/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Kevin C Maki, Joanne L Slavin, Tia M Rains, Penny M Kris-Etherton
    Advances in Nutrition 05/2014; 5(3):293-4. · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • Kevin C Maki, Joanne L Slavin, Tia M Rains, Penny M Kris-Etherton
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    ABSTRACT: Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence primarily from observational data, particularly those from prospective cohort studies. Although such evidence is of critical importance, limitations are often underappreciated by nutrition scientists and policymakers. This editorial review is intended to 1) highlight some of these limitations of observational evidence for diet-disease relations, including imprecise exposure quantification, collinearity among dietary exposures, displacement/substitution effects, healthy/unhealthy consumer bias, residual confounding, and effect modification; and 2) advocate for greater caution in the communication of dietary recommendations for which RCT evidence of clinical event reduction after dietary intervention is not available.
    Advances in Nutrition 01/2014; 5(1):7-15. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutrient intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors. The association between the consumption of foods that met 2014 American Heart Association (AHA) Heart-Check Food Certification Program criteria and 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) scores, food-group intake, energy intake, nutrient intake, and cardiometabolic risk factors was analyzed in 11,296 men and women ≥19 y old by using 1-d dietary recall data from the NHANES 2007-2010. Individuals were categorized into consumers and nonconsumers of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods and quartiles of intakes on the basis of the percentage of calories. The consumption of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was positively associated with HEI-2005 scores and fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, total sugar, fiber, potassium, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and inversely associated with the percentage of energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, added sugars, alcohol, and intakes of cholesterol and sodium. The highest quartile of daily energy intake from AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was associated with lower risk of obesity (26%), lower risk of elevated waist circumference (29%), and lower risk of metabolic syndrome (24%) than with lowest intakes (all P < 0.05). The choice of foods meeting one front-of-pack labeling system positively influences food-group and nutrient intakes and is associated with a higher diet quality and lower risk of cardiometabolic syndrome.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    Endocrine Practice 09/2013; 19(5):875-887. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary guidance issued by various global government agencies recommends nut consumption within the context of a healthy-eating pattern. Nuts are nutrient dense and may promote nutrient adequacy. As an energy-dense food, nuts must replace other foods in the diet to prevent an excess of calories. We evaluated how recommending the inclusion of walnuts (75 g day(-1) ) in the diet affected energy and nutrient intake in men (45-75 years; mean body mass index = 27.6 kg m(-2) ; n = 19) at risk for developing prostate cancer. Guidance was provided about incorporating walnuts isocalorically in a healthy diet. Three-day food records and body weight were collected at baseline and after two 8-week diet periods (usual versus walnut supplement diets). Energy intake on the walnut supplement diet exceeded the usual diet, although body weight was maintained. Energy intake was lower on the actual walnut supplement diet than the calculated walnut diet [10 865 kJ (2595 kcal) versus 11 325 kJ (2705 kcal) per day, respectively] and contributed 23% less energy than 75 g of walnuts. Approximately, 86% and 85% of the total fat and saturated fatty acids from walnuts were not displaced, whereas the increase in fibre from the usual diet to the actual walnut supplement diet represented less than one-half (39%) of the fibre provided by 75 g of walnuts. Walnuts were substituted, in part, for other foods, and the nutrient profile of the diet was improved, however, the beneficial effect of walnuts on the diet quality was not optimized. Individuals do not optimally implement food-based guidance. Consequently, nutrition professionals play a key role in teaching the implementation of food-based recommendations.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 08/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term "fat" may refer to lipids as well as the cells and tissue that store lipid (ie, adipocytes and adipose tissue). "Lipid" is derived from "lipos," which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat and is derived from "adipo," referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, including triglycerides and free cholesterol. Adipocytes and adipose tissue are active from an endocrine and immune standpoint. Adipocyte hypertrophy and excessive adipose tissue accumulation can promote pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue effects (adiposopathy), resulting in abnormal levels of circulating lipids, with dyslipidemia being a major atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factor. It is therefore incumbent upon lipidologists to be among the most knowledgeable in the understanding of the relationship between excessive body fat and dyslipidemia. On September 16, 2012, the National Lipid Association held a Consensus Conference with the goal of better defining the effect of adiposity on lipoproteins, how the pathos of excessive body fat (adiposopathy) contributes to dyslipidemia, and how therapies such as appropriate nutrition, increased physical activity, weight-management drugs, and bariatric surgery might be expected to impact dyslipidemia. It is hoped that the information derived from these proceedings will promote a greater appreciation among clinicians of the impact of excess adiposity and its treatment on dyslipidemia and prompt more research on the effects of interventions for improving dyslipidemia and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 07/2013; 7(4):304-83. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Li Wang, Jennifer Fleming, Penny Kris-Etherton
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 05/2013; 7(3):267–268. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.
    Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation links obesity with development of insulin resistance. Macrophages and phagocytic immune cells communicate with metabolic tissues to direct an inflammatory response caused by overnutrition and expanding adipose tissue. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), modulate inflammatory signaling events, providing various anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective benefits. Moreover, EPA and DHA may improve insulin sensitivity by generating pro-resolving lipid mediators and promoting alternatively activated macrophages. This review will assess the role of EPA and DHA in ameliorating obesity-induced inflammation, evaluating clinical evidence and mechanisms of action. The pathophysiology of insulin resistance resulting from obesity-induced inflammation will be discussed, highlighting the relationship between metabolism and immunity, and in particular, how EPA and DHA work with both systems to modulate immunometabolic complications and chronic disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 04/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    Circulation 03/2013; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term “fat” may refer to lipids, as well as the cells and tissue which store lipid (i.e., adipocytes and adipose tissue). “Lipid” is derived from “lipos,” which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat, and is derived from “adipo,” referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, including triglycerides and cholesterol. Adipocytes and adipose tissue are active from an endocrine and immunological standpoint. Adipocyte hypertrophy and excessive adipose tissue accumulation can promote pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue effects (adiposopathy) resulting in abnormal levels of circulating lipids, with dyslipidemia being a major atherosclerotic coronary heart disease risk factor. It is therefore incumbent upon lipidologists to be among the most knowledgeable in the understanding of the relationship between excessive body fat and dyslipidemia. On September 16, 2012 the National Lipid Association held a Consensus Conference with the goal of better defining the effect of adiposity on lipoproteins, how the pathos of excessive body fat (adiposopathy) contributes to dyslipidemia, and how therapies such as appropriate nutrition, increased physical activity, weight-management drugs, and bariatric surgery might be expected to impact dyslipidemia. It is hoped that the information in these proceedings will promote a greater appreciation among clinicians of the impact of excess adiposity and its treatment on dyslipidemia, and prompt more research on the effects of interventions for improving dyslipidemia and reducing cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology - submitted for publication 4/13). 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The workshop discussions focused on how low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment can be enhanced with the use of health information technology (HIT) in different clinical settings. A gap is acknowledged in LDL-C goal attainment, but because of the passage of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Acts there is now reason for optimism that this gap can be narrowed. For HIT to be effectively used to achieve treatment goals, it must be implemented in a setting in which the health care team is fully committed to achieving these goals. Implementation of HIT alone has not resulted in reducing the gap. It is critical to build an effective management strategy into the HIT platform without increasing the overall work/time burden on staff. By enhancing communication between the health care team and the patient, more timely adjustments to treatment plans can be made with greater opportunity for LDL-C goal attainment and improved efficiency in the long run. Patients would be encouraged to take a more active role. Support tools are available. The National Lipid Association has developed a toolkit designed to improve patient compliance and could be modified for use in an HIT system. The importance of a collaborative approach between nongovernmental organizations such as the National Lipid Association, National Quality Forum, HIT partners, and other members of the health care industry offers the best opportunity for long-term success and the real possibility that such efforts could be applied to other chronic conditions, for example, diabetes and hypertension.
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology 01/2013; 7(6):573-609. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health.
    Advances in Nutrition 01/2013; 4(6):618-632. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past 30 years, rates of partial sleep deprivation and obesity have increased in the United States. Evidence linking partial sleep deprivation, defined as sleeping <6 hours per night, to energy imbalance is relevant to weight gain prevention and weight loss promotion. With a majority of Americans overweight or obese, weight loss is a recommended strategy for reducing comorbid conditions. Our purpose was to review the literature regarding the role of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and weight regulation. An inverse relationship between obesity and sleep duration has been demonstrated in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Several intervention studies have tested mechanisms by which partial sleep deprivation affects energy balance. Reduced sleep may disrupt appetitive hormone regulation, specifically increasing ghrelin and decreasing leptin and, thereby, influence energy intake. Increased wakefulness also may promote food intake episodes and energy imbalance. Energy expenditure may not be greatly affected by partial sleep deprivation, although additional and more accurate methods of measurements may be necessary to detect subtle changes in energy expenditure. Body weight loss achieved by reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure combined with partial sleep deprivation may contribute to undesirable body composition change with proportionately more fat-free soft tissue mass lost compared with fat mass. Evaluating sleep patterns and recommending regular, sufficient sleep for individuals striving to manage weight may be prudent.
    Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 11/2012; 112(11):1785-97. · 3.80 Impact Factor
  • Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Mike Flock
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Poor lifestyle behaviors, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use, are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) Media and educational campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other stakeholders to understand and implement the most effective approaches. New strategic initiatives and partnerships are needed to translate this evidence into action.
    Circulation 08/2012; 126(12):1514-1563. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 06/2012; 9(1):55. · 3.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
826.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2014
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • • Department of Nutritional Sciences
      • • Department of Biobehavioral Health
      • • Department of Statistics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Nutrition Science
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
      Urbana, IL, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2005
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2000
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Georgia State University
      • Division of Nutrition
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1997–2000
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Medicine
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • University of Nevada, Las Vegas
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Food Science and Technology
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1998
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Nutrition
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • West Chester University
      • Department of Health
      West Chester, PA, United States
  • 1996
    • McMaster University
      • Health Sciences Centre
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1992
    • JFK Medical Center
      Edison, New Jersey, United States