[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using environmental wastes to produce energy materials is extremely attractive for economic social development. Herein, sludge flocs (SF), a kind of environmental wastes which are difficult to be disposed, were used as carbon and nitrogen source for the preparation of N-doped mesocellular graphene foam (SF-NMGF) via a simple one-step pyrolysis. Originated from the special composition and structure of SF, the obtained SF-NMGF had large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas, graphitic frameworks surrounded by ultrathin nanosheets, foam-like mesopores with size centered at about 15 nm, and homogeneous nitrogen incorporation with high percentage (40.5 at%) of graphitic nitrogen. Owing to these unique properties, SF-NMGF showed excellent electrocatalytic activity with 4e as a metal-free catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Specifically, the prepared SF-NMGF catalyst exhibited high diffusion-limited current, superior durability and better immunity towards methanol crossover for ORR in alkaline solution than a commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthesis of SF-NMGF can be scaled up with low cost, which will be beneficial for both the sludge handling and development of ORR materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between continuous electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring patterns and prognosis for children with severe brain damage. Patients and Methods The different patterns of EEG were analyzed for 103 children (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score < 8) who were monitored with continuous video-EEG (CVEEG) within 72 hours after the onset of coma. The clinical outcomes were scored and evaluated at hospital discharge by the modified Pediatric Cerebral and Overall Performance Category Scale (PCOPCS). EEG parameters of the different prognosis groups were compared and risk factors for prognosis were identified. Results Of the 103 children, 36 were in the good prognosis group (PCOPCS scores 1 and 2) and 67 were in the poor prognosis group (PCOPCS scores 3-6). The poor prognosis group had the lower proportion of events in reactive EEG patterns and sleep architecture, and a higher proportion of low-voltage events. Multivariate analyses showed that the lower GCS score and no sleep architecture were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions Comatose children with higher GCS score and sleep architecture have better clinical outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A facile co-calcination strategy with simultaneous N-doping, carbon graphitization, and palladium ion (Pd2+) reduction under high temperature was used to derive Pd nanoparticles budded on N-doped ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nanospheres (Pd/N-MCN). Pd/N-MCN was exploited as a cathode catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). It demonstrated strong stability with a relative current of 95% still persisting after 40 000 s. Most importantly, hybrids exhibited superior methanol tolerance, remaining stable after the addition of 2 M methanol in electrolyte. The outstanding performance of Pd/N-MCN in ORR could be attributed to its ordered mesopores, large surface area, homogeneous budding of abundant Pd active sites, graphitization generated by Pd catalysis, and the synergistic effects of Pd nanoparticles strongly coupled to N-MCN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are of great interest since they are involved in energy conversion between fuel and electricity. Here, we developed a bifunctional MnO2/graphene/carbon nanotube that is free of noble metals and that could be a promising candidate electrocatalyst for these oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. It was shown to be able to act as an efficient cathode catalyst for the ORR, having a positive half-wave potential that differs by only 55 mV from that of commercial Pt/C, and a high cathodic current density that is comparable to that of the Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, the hybrid exhibited superior durability with nearly no decay in ORR activity even after 10000 s of continuous operation in 0.1 M KOH, while Pt/C shows a 20% decrease in the activity. Most importantly, the hybrid was also shown to be highly active for the OER. These observations show this hybrid to be a high-performance non-precious metal-based bi-catalyst for both the ORR and OER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Currently, there is no cure for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD). However, clinical trials with new therapeutic strategies are being conducted or considered. A comprehensive database is critical for patient recruitment and efficacy evaluation. China has the largest population, yet, no comprehensive database for DMD/BMD is available. Our study registered the data of the DMD/BMD patients in East China.MethodsA modified registry form of Remudy (http://www.remudy.jp/) was applied to Chinese DMD/BMD patients through the outpatient clinic at Children¿s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai during the period of August 2011 to December 2013. The data included geographic distribution of patients, age at diagnosis, clinical manifestation, genetic analysis and treatment status.Results194 DMD and 35 BMD patients were registered. Most patients lived in East China, namely Jiangsu province, Anhui province, Zhejiang province, Shanghai, Jiangxi province, Fujian province and Shandong province. All individuals aged less than 18 years (age limit to a children¿s hospital). Diagnosis was made for a majority of patients during the age of 3¿4 (16.6%) and 7¿8 (14.8%) years old. Exon deletion was the most frequent genetic mutations (65.5% and 74.3%) followed by point mutations (14.4% and 11.4%), duplications (9.8% and 8.6%) and small insertion/deletion (9.3% and 2.9%) for DMD and BMD, respectively. 82.5% of DMD registrants were ambulatory, and all the BMD registrants were able to walk. 26.3% of DMD registrants have been treated with steroids. Cardiac functions were examined for 46.4% DMD boys and 45.7% BMD boys and respiratory functions were examined for 18.6% DMD boys and 14.3% BMD boys. Four boys with abnormal cardiac function were prescribed for treatment with cardiac medicine. 33.2% of DMD patients are eligible for exon skipping therapy, and among them 9.2% and 4.3% patients are eligible for skipping exon 51 and 53, respectively.Conclusions
The database is the first linking accurate genetic diagnosis with clinical manifestation and treatment status of dystrophinopathy patients in East China. It provides comprehensive information essential for further patient management, especially for promotion of international cooperation in developing experimental therapies such as exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations targeting a subgroup of DMD patient population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate effect of thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) and transcranial color Doppler ultrasound (TCCS) combined with microbubbles on histology of brain tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic fistula is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We introduce here a simple, secure and universal technique for pancreaticojejunostomy with a two-layer continuous running suture. We also report on the preliminary results for grades of pancreatic fistulas among patients who underwent this new technique. 51 consecutive cases were successfully performed using this new technique during pancreaticoduodenectomy. The overall morbidity was 29.4%. Only 3 (5.9%) grade B pancreatic fistulas were observed postoperatively, and were successfully treated with conservative management. The time taken to create the pancreatic anastomosis was less than 15 minutes in all cases. In conclusion, this novel pancreatic anastomosis technique is easy and quick to perform, universally applicable, and appears to be a secure technique that reduces pancreatic fistula rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EPAS1 involves in the hypoxic response and is suggested to be responsible for the genetic adaptation of high-altitude hypoxia in Tibetans. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs56721780:G>C and an insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism -742 indel in the promoter region showed divergence between Tibetans and non-Tibetan lowlanders. rs56721780:G>C regulated the transcription of EPAS1 by IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), which was identified as a new transcriptional repressor for EPAS1 gene. It demonstrated that the C allele of rs56721780:G>C decreased the binding of IKZF1, leading to the attenuated transcriptional repression of EPAS1 gene. The insertion at -742 indel provided a new binding site for Sp1 and was related to the activation of EPAS1 promoter. Further functional analysis revealed that lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene, which was reported to be responsible for extracellular matrix protein cross-linking of amnion previously, was a direct target of EPAS1. The CC genotype at rs56721780:G>C and the insertion genotype at -742 indel were found associated with higher EPAS1 and LOX expression levels in amnion, as well as higher birth weight of Tibetan newborns, suggesting that EPAS1 gene might play important roles in the development of amnion, fetus growth and high-altitude adaptation of Tibetans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the remission rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China and identify its potential determinants. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of the rheumatology outpatients in 28 tertiary hospitals in China. The remission rates were calculated in 486 RA patients according to different definitions of remission: the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) Boolean definition. Potential determinants of RA remission were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The remission rates of RA from this multi-center cohort were 8.6 % (DAS28), 8.4 % (SDAI), 8.2 % (CDAI), and 6.8 % (Boolean), respectively. Favorable factors associated with remission were: low Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, absence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and treatment of methotrexate (MTX) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Younger age was also predictive for the DAS28 and the Boolean remission. Multivariate analyses revealed a low HAQ score, the absence of anti-CCP, and the treatment with HCQ as independent determinants of remission. The clinical remission rate of RA patients was low in China. A low HAQ score, the absence of anti-CCP, and HCQ were significant independent determinants for RA remission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method is presented for beam quality improvement, in master oscillator power amplifier laser systems. Intensive study was first carried out with the beam wavefront evolution in a laser resonator. When the laser beam propagates inside the resonator, the spherical aberration coefficient of the beam wavefront can change sign, i.e., the negative spherical aberration coefficient can turn to positive, and vice versa. This process also occurs when the beam propagates outside the resonator in a free space. The laser beam, from an oscillator with negative spherical aberration, was found to be well-compensated by the positive spherical aberration of a strongly pumped laser rod in a laser amplifier. The laser beam quality M2 factor has been significantly improved, from 2.2 to 1.4, while the output power has been scaled from 31 W up to 60 W.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Valproic acid (VPA) follows a non-linear pharmacokinetic profile in terms of protein-binding saturation. The total daily dose regarding VPA clearance is a simple power function, which may partially explain the non-linearity of the pharmacokinetic profile; however, it may be confounded by the therapeutic drug monitoring effect. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for VPA based on protein-binding saturation in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods A total of 1,107 VPA serum trough concentrations at steady state were collected from 902 epileptic pediatric patients aged from 3 weeks to 14 years at three hospitals. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM® software. The ability of three candidate models (the simple power exponent model, the dose-dependent maximum effect [DDE] model, and the protein-binding model) to describe the non-linear pharmacokinetic profile of VPA was investigated, and potential covariates were screened using a stepwise approach. Bootstrap, normalized prediction distribution errors and external evaluations from two independent studies were performed to determine the stability and predictive performance of the candidate models. Results The age-dependent exponent model described the effects of body weight and age on the clearance well. Co-medication with carbamazepine was identified as a significant covariate. The DDE model best fitted the aim of this study, although there were no obvious differences in the predictive performances. The condition number was less than 500, and the precision of the parameter estimates was less than 30 %, indicating stability and validity of the final model. Conclusion The DDE model successfully described the non-linear pharmacokinetics of VPA. Furthermore, the proposed population pharmacokinetic model of VPA can be used to design rational dosage regimens to achieve desirable serum concentrations.