[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-human primate studies must be conducted prior to the clinical trial of xenotransplantation. In order to develop clinically applicable immune-modulatory regimen through non-human primate studies, close monitoring of xenogeneic immune responses is required. We adopted multiplex cytokine analysis in assessment of the immune status during the course of pig-to-non-human primate islet transplantation. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of this multiplex cytokine assay in the development of immune-modulatory regimen. Using this assay, we were able to detect different cytokines with a minimal usage of blood samples, and this allowed us to detect various immunological situations in the recipients. Detection of TNF-α surge (347.8 pg/mL) guided us to block TNF-α in the early phase of transplantation. Supportive information for in vivo efficacy of cytokine neutralizing antibody could be speculated by in vitro neutralization assay (1,250 pg/mL → 0 pg/mL). In addition, periodic monitoring of cytokines in peripheral blood allowed the detection of the infection episode prior to other routine assays. These benefits of multiplex cytokine assay may be generally applied to other pre-clinical research, which is a prerequisite for clinical trials.
Journal of Korean medical science 12/2013; 28(12):1729-33. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) is a transmembrane protein that is structurally similar to CD28. As CTLA-4 has a much higher binding affinity to B7 than CD28, several approaches using soluble CTLA-4 have been tried to down-regulate T cell activity by blocking the interaction between CD28 and B7. We constructed soluble rhesus monkey CTLA-4 immunoglobulin (CTLA-4Ig) containing a critical binding site to B7 combined with a constant Ig heavy chain region in a mammalian system. Flow cytometry analyses indicated that soluble rhesus monkey CTLA-4Ig bound to rhesus monkey CD86 (B7.2). Moreover, soluble rhesus monkey CTLA-4Ig more effectively blocked the rhesus monkey-rhesus monkey allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction compared with that of humans. These results indicate that soluble rhesus monkey CTLA-4Ig may be useful in preclinical trials in a rhesus monkey model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maximum engraftment of transplanted islets is essential for the clinical application of a subcutaneous site. Significant barriers to the current approaches are associated with their low effectiveness, complexity and unproven biosafety. Here, we evaluated and optimized a fibrin-islet composite for effective glycemic control in a subcutaneous site whose environment is highly hypoxic due to low vascularization potential. In the setting of xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation into the subcutaneous space of a diabetic mouse, the in vivo islet functions were greatly affected by the concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin. The optimized hydrogel-type fibrin remarkably reduced the marginal islet mass to approximately one tenth that of islets without fibrin. This marginal islet mass was comparable to that in the setting of the subcapsular space of the kidney, which is a highly vascularized organ. Highly vascularized structures were generated inside and on the outer surface of the grafts. A hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite established early diabetic control within an average of 3.4days after the transplantation. In the mechanistic studies, fibrin promoted local angiogenesis, enhanced islet viability and prevented fragmentation of islets into single cells. In conclusion, in situ application of hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite may be a promising modality in the clinical success of subcutaneous islet transplantation.
Journal of Controlled Release 07/2012; 162(2):382-390. · 7.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human effector memory (EM) CD8(+) T cells include IL-7Rα(high) and IL-7Rα(low) cells with distinct cellular characteristics, including the expression of cytotoxic molecules. Both NK cells and the NK cell-associated molecule 2B4 that is expressed on CD8(+) T cells promote cytotoxicity. Here we analysed the expression of 2B4 on IL-7Rα(high) and IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells and its contribution to cytotoxicity. We also analysed the frequency of IL-7Rα(high) and IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells in patients with SLE or lupus and in healthy individuals given the potential role of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of lupus.
We used flow cytometry to measure the expression of 2B4 on IL-7Rα(high) and IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells as well as the frequency of these cell populations in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals and patients with SLE. Also, 2B4-mediated cytotoxicity was quantitated in IL-7Rα(high) and IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells using target cells with CD48 antigen.
We found that IL-7Rα(high) EM CD8(+) T cells had higher levels of 2B4 expression compared with IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells. Triggering 2B4 enhanced the cytotoxic function of IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells against target cells. We also noticed that patients with SLE had an increased frequency of IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells that correlated with disease manifestation.
Our findings show that SLE patients have increased IL-7Rα(low) EM CD8(+) T cells, possibly contributing to tissue damage through 2B4-mediated cytotoxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance would aid treatment of diverse immunological disorders and help prevent allograft rejection and graft versus host disease. In this study, we establish a method of inducing antigen-specific T cell tolerance in situ in diabetic humanized mice and Rhesus monkeys receiving porcine islet xenografts. Antigen-specific T cell tolerance is induced by administration of an antibody ligating a particular epitope on ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1). Antibody-mediated ligation of ICAM-1 on dendritic cells (DCs) led to the arrest of DCs in a semimature stage in vitro and in vivo. Ablation of DCs from mice completely abrogated anti-ICAM-1-induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance. T cell responses to unrelated antigens remained unaffected. In situ induction of DC-mediated T cell tolerance using this method may represent a potent therapeutic tool for preventing graft rejection.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2011; 208(12):2477-88. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical trials using adult porcine islet products, islets should be isolated from the designated pathogen-free (DPF) pigs under the current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Our previous studies suggested that male DPF pigs are better donors than retired breeder pigs and histomorphometrical parameters of donor pancreas predict the porcine islet quality. We aimed to investigate whether the use of the newer bovine nervous tissue-free enzymes and a revised donor selection strategy could improve the islet graft function in the context of islet isolation with DPF pigs.
Using 30 DPF pigs within a closed herd, we compared the islet yield of porcine islets isolated with Liberase PI (n = 11, as a historical control group), Liberase MTF C/T, which is a GMP-grade enzyme (n = 12), and CIzyme collagenase MA/BP protease (n = 7). We analyzed the relationship between the diabetes reversal rate of recipient NOD/SCID mice (n = 75) and histomorphometric parameters of each donor pancreas as well as donor characteristics.
Proportion of islets larger than 200 μm from the biopsied donor pancreas (P = 0.006) better predicted islet yield than age (P = 0.760) or body weight (P = 0.371) of donor. The proportion of islets larger than 200 μm from the biopsied donor pancreas was not related to the sex of the donor miniature pig (P = 0.358). The islet yield obtained with the three enzymes did not differ, even after stratification of the donor with the histomorphometric parameters of the biopsied donor pancreas and the sex of donor. The use of the newer bovine nervous tissue-free enzymes (P < 0.001), a higher proportion of large islets in donor pancreas (P = 0.006), and a male sex of the donor (P = 0.025) were independent predictors of earlier diabetes reversal.
Use of the newer bovine nervous tissue-free enzymes including a GMP-grade enzyme resulted in better islet quality than that of islet isolated using Liberase PI. To obtain high-quality islet from DPF pigs, the donor should be male pig and histomorphometrical parameters from donor pancreas should be considered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, non-hematopoietic stem cells that exhibit the capacity to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs are still obscure. Therefore, we attempted to identify the mechanisms underlying immunosuppression toward the activated T lymphocytes by MSCs in a murine model. In particular, we aimed to find possible factors derived from MSCs that drive this phenomenon. We found that T lymphocytes incubated with conditioned media of MSCs (MSC CM) entered into apoptosis and were subjected to cell cycle arrest during the course of activation, and these phenomena were accompanied by the reduction of IL-2 production. Specifically, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) derived from MSCs caused cleavage of IL-2 receptor α (CD25) from the surface of activated T cells, and as a consequence, IL-2 signaling in response to engagement of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) was downregulated. The inhibition of MMP activity in the MSC CM by GM6001 abrogated CD25 cleavage and restored IL-2 production from the activated splenocytes. However, the blockade of MMP activity could not fully restore the proliferative response and apoptosis of T cells altered by MSC CM. In conclusion, MSC-derived MMPs have a significant role in the suppression of IL-2 production through induction of CD25 cleavage and have a partial role in the suppression of T cell proliferation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disease amelioration by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to be closely related to their immunomodulatory functions on the host immune system in many disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these cells affect the immune cells in vivo are not fully understood. In this study, we report findings that a small but significant number of MSCs accumulate in the secondary lymphoid organs and attenuate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response by inducing apoptotic cell death of surrounding immune cells in the draining lymph node (LN). In the migration study, i.v. infused GFP-MSCs preferentially accumulated at the boundary between the paracortical area and the germinal center in the LNs, in close proximity to various types of immune cells including T, B, and dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, accumulated MSCs markedly attenuated DTH response in proportion to the number of MSCs infused. During the DTH response, the infiltration of T cells in the challenged site was significantly decreased, whereas a number of apoptotic T cells were remarkably increased in the draining LN. Apoptosis was significantly induced in activated T cells (CD3(+) and BrdU(+)), but not in the resting T cells (CD3(+) and BrdU(-)). NO was associated with these apoptotic events. Taken together, we conclude that significant numbers of i.v. infused MSCs preferentially localize in the draining LN, where they induce apoptosis of the activated T cells by producing NO and thus attenuate the DTH response.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(7):4022-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Memory T cells specific for donor antigens are currently recognized as a significant barrier for maintaining a successful transplant. Furthermore, it has been shown that commonly used immunosuppressive drugs do not alleviate this memory response. Here, we report that rapamycin allows significant proliferation of memory T cells and bortezomib can abrogate the proliferation of rapamycin-resistant memory T cells when preserving the survival of regulatory T cells.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells freshly isolated from non-human primates were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies, and inhibitory and apoptotic effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on memory T-cell proliferation were investigated. The CD95 marker in CD3+ T cells was used for the separate enrichment of memory T cells and naïve T cells.
Rapamycin at the level even higher than therapeutic concentration could not suppress the proliferation of a significant proportion of memory T cells. However, the combined administration of bortezomib and rapamycin abrogated the proliferation of rapamycin-resistant memory T cells. Furthermore, bortezomib preserved the survival of preexisting CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, while inducing apoptosis of CD4+ FoxP3- conventional T cells. The combined administration of low doses of rapamycin and bortezomib also exerted an additive effect on suppressing T-cell proliferation. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that bortezomib could not only suppress rapamycin-permissive interleukin (IL)-6 production, but also production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10.
This article provides in vitro data from which immunosuppressive regimens for the effective control of memory T cells in non-human preclinical experiments and in clinical trials are selected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-glycan structures released from miniature pig endothelial and islet cells were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS and normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) combined with exoglycosidase digestion. Totally, the identified structures were 181 N-glycans including 129 sialylated and 18 alpha-galactosylated glycans from pig endothelial cells and 80 N-glycans including 41 sialylated and one alpha-galactosylated glycans from pig islet cells. The quantity of the alpha-galactosylated glycans from pig islet cells was certainly neglectable compared to pig endothelial cells. A number of NeuGc-terminated N-glycans (80 from pig endothelial cells and 13 from pig islet cells) are newly detected by our mass spectrometric strategies. The detailed structural information will be a matter of great interest in organ or cell xenotransplantation using alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GalT-KO) pig.
Biological Mass Spectrometry 04/2009; 44(7):1087-104. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) can control inflammation in the central nervous system, although the underlying mechanisms are not understood fully. We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of hNSCs on human T cells and the underlying mechanisms. Culture supernatant from an immortalized hNSC cell line, HB1.F3, which has a therapeutic effect on acute stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, suppressed the proliferation of allogeneically or mitogenically stimulated human peripheral T cells, including the CD3(+)CD103(+) subpopulation. CFSE labeling and flow cytometry showed that the suppression of proliferation was caused by cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. The lack of significant change in caspase-8 levels and the significant reduction in Bcl-2 expression in the affected T cells suggest that the intrinsic pathway plays a major role in soluble-factor-mediated T-cell apoptosis. The addition of culture supernatant from hNSCs to activated T cells reduced the expression of the activation markers CD69 and CD25 at 24 hr after activation, but at 48 hr only CD69 was down-regulated. A cytometry bead assay showed that the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased significantly, whereas that of IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma increased. These results show that hNSCs can negatively affect human peripheral T cells by suppressing their activation and proliferation through soluble mediators, suggesting that hNSCs have a bystander immunomodulatory effect on T cells.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 04/2009; 87(10):2264-72. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic mediator that promotes tumor growth. The role of VEGF in T lymphocytes is unknown. We found that T lymphocytes activated by either anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) plus anti-CD28 mAb or by antigens on antigen-presenting cells transcribed mRNA for VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2. However, only VEGFR1 was expressed on the T cell surface. The addition of VEGF to either resting or activated T cells did not affect their proliferation, but VEGF increased IL-10 production and slightly decreased IFN-gamma production. A chemotaxis assay revealed that activated T lymphocytes migrate in response to VEGF. Our data suggest that VEGF has a direct immunomodulatory effect on T cells. Engagement of a high concentration of VEGF with VEGFR1 on T cells may cause T cells to migrate to tumor sites, and this interaction may play a role in IL-10-mediated immune evasion by tumor cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to induce and maintain antigen-specific immunologic tolerance is the ultimate goal in allo-transplantation. Here, we report that the transplantation of unmanipulated murine pancreatic islets across the HY disparity induced transplantation tolerance that prevented HY-mismatched skin grafts being rejected.
Three hundred islet equivalent of freshly isolated islets from male C57BL/6 donor mice was transplanted underneath the kidney capsule of syngeneic female recipients rendered diabetic by streptozotocin. Nephrectomy was carried out to remove the islet graft and retransplantation was performed using the contralateral kidney. For skin transplantation, donor tail skin was transplanted onto the lateral thorax.
Islets from male C57BL/6 donors transplanted to syngeneic female recipients cured diabetes and the mice survived indefinitely. The acceptance of second grafts and rejection of third party islet grafts indicated antigen-specific transplantation tolerance. However, flow cytometry and ELISPOT analysis demonstrated that the HY-specific T cells were not deleted or anergized. A 2-fold increase of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) was observed in spleen and lymph nodes. Notably, CD25- Tregs increased threefold over levels in naïve mice. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells to neonatal mice could transfer tolerance. At the graft site in long-term tolerant mice, CD4+ T cells, 40% of which were CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs (43% CD25-, 57% CD25+) infiltrated the peri-islet spaces.
Unmanipulated pancreatic islets can induce immunologic tolerance associated with peripherally induced CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs, a significant proportion of which notably are CD25-.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human bocavirus (hBoV) is regarded as one of the possible etiologic agents in lower respiratory tract infection and bronchial asthma exacerbation in children despite frequent co-detection with other respiratory viruses. The immunologic response in children with hBoV infection is still not clear.
To investigate the profiles of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in children with hBoV-associated bronchiolitis.
This study utilized of 59 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 59 infants aged 24 months or younger, including 29 from children with hBoV-related bronchiolitis and 30 with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis. Eighteen infants hospitalized for elective surgeries were included as controls. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested simultaneously for cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha using the Cytometric Bead Array.
Significantly higher concentrations of IFN-gamma (p=0.0001), IL-2 (0.006), and IL-4 (p=0.0002) were observed in hBoV positive specimens than in controls. The concentration of IL-10 (p=0.04) and TNF-alpha (p=0.006) in the RSV-positive group was significantly higher than in the hBoV-positive group, while there was no difference in other cytokines concentration between the two groups.
These results showed that both of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were increased in children with hBoV-related bronchiolitis compared to normal controls, but Th2-polarized responses were not observed.
Journal of Clinical Virology 10/2008; 43(2):223-5. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus UL18, a MHC class I homologue, is known to serve as a natural killer cell (NK) decoy and to ligate NK inhibitory receptors to prevent lysis of an infected target cell. To explore whether the cell surface expression of UL18 represents a potential immune suppressive approach to evade NK-mediated cytotoxicity in the prevention of xenograft rejection, we examined the effect of the UL18 expression in vitro upon human NK-mediated cytotoxicity against swine endothelial cells (SECs). UL18 expression on SECs by a retroviral vector (PLNCX2) significantly suppressed NK-mediated SEC lysis by approximately 25-100%. The protective effect of UL18 could be mediated through ILT-2 inhibitory receptor on NKs. Additionally, the interaction between UL18 and NKs resulted in the significant reduction of IFN-gamma production. This study demonstrates that UL18 can serve as an effective tool for the evasion of NK-mediated cytotoxicity and for the inhibition of IFN-gamma production during xenograft rejection.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2004; 315(1):144-50. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protection of pancreatic islet beta cells from pro-inflammatory cytokines-induced cell death and functional impairment is a key issue in developing therapeutic interventions of type 1 diabetes mellitus including islet transplantation. The effects of IL-6 on the protection of beta cells in vitro and in vivo were examined. Freshly isolated islets or MIN6 beta cells, when pre-incubated with IL-6, showed significantly higher viabilities measured by MTT assay and FACS analysis of PI stained cells against pro-apoptotic signaling delivered by IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Insulin secretory function was also significantly protected in static culture with glucose and KCl stimulation. In vivo assessment using marginal mass syngeneic islet transplantation in mouse model revealed IL-6 conferred significantly better blood glucose control and graft survival rate over 50 days. Conclusively, IL-6 protects pancreatic islets or beta-cells from inflammatory cytokines-induced cell death and functional impairment both in vitro and in vivo. This strategy could be exploited in the clinical setting to maintain functional islet mass.