[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-world data on the benefit/risk profile of medicines is needed, particularly in patients who are ineligible for randomised controlled trials conducted for registration purposes. This paper describes the methodology and source data verification which enables the conduct of pre-licensing clinical trials of COPD and asthma in the community using the electronic medical record (EMR), NorthWest EHealth linked database (NWEH-LDB) and alert systems.
Dual verification of extracts into NWEH-LDB was performed using two independent data sources (Salford Integrated Record [SIR] and Apollo database) from one primary care practice in Salford (N = 3504). A feasibility study was conducted to test the reliability of the NWEH-LDB to support longitudinal data analysis and pragmatic clinical trials in asthma and COPD. This involved a retrospective extraction of data from all registered practices in Salford to identify a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of asthma (aged ≥18) and/or COPD (aged ≥40) and ≥2 prescriptions for inhaled bronchodilators during 2008. Health care resource utilisation (HRU) outcomes during 2009 were assessed. Exacerbations were defined as: prescription for oral corticosteroids (OCS) in asthma and prescription of OCS or antibiotics in COPD; and/or hospitalisation for a respiratory cause.
Dual verification demonstrated consistency between SIR and Apollo data sources: 3453 (98.6%) patients were common to both systems; 99.9% of prescription records were matched and of 29,830 diagnosis records, one record was missing from Apollo and 272 (0.9%) from SIR. Identified COPD patients were also highly concordant (Kappa coefficient = 0.98). A total of 7981 asthma patients and 4478 COPD patients were identified within the NWEH-LDB. Cohort analyses enumerated the most commonly prescribed respiratory medication classes to be: inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (42%) and ICS plus long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) (40%) in asthma; ICS plus LABA (55%) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (36%) in COPD. During 2009 HRU was greater in the COPD versus asthma cohorts, and exacerbation rates in 2009 were higher in patients who had ≥2 exacerbations versus ≤1 exacerbation in 2008 for both asthma (137.5 vs. 20.3 per 100 person-years, respectively) and COPD (144.6 vs. 41.0, respectively).
Apollo and SIR data extracts into NWEH-LDB showed a high level of concordance for asthma and COPD patients. Longitudinal data analysis characterized the COPD and asthma populations in Salford including medications prescribed and health care utilisation outcomes suitable for clinical trial planning.
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12911-015-0132-z · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Aim: We hypothesized that medically treated exacerbations in COPD defined as treatments with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics by register linkage with a nationwide prescription registry is a valid, robust and low-biased measure of exacerbations.
Methods: A total of 13,591 individuals with COPD in the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013) were linked to the Danish prescription registry. Exacerbations were defined as dispensing of oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics, dispensed less than four weeks apart during three years of follow-up. Construct validity of this definition of medically treated exacerbations was assessed by studying baseline determinants as well as by studying the association between GOLD 1 through 4 grades and time to first exacerbation during follow-up.
Results: Among individuals with COPD, 964 individuals (7.1%) had at least one exacerbation during follow-up. At baseline, comparing those with versus without exacerbations during follow-up, FEV1, 72% of predicted vs. 85% (p<0.001), previous exacerbations, 43% vs. 11% (p<0.001), breathlessness, 33% vs. 14% (p<0.001), and use of inhaled medications, 54% vs. 14% (p<0.001) were associated with exacerbations. Compared to individuals with GOLD 1, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR) for exacerbations was HR=17.4 (12.3-24.5, p<0.001) for GOLD 4, HR=4.8 (3.9-5.9, p<0.001) for GOLD 3, and HR=2.0 (1.7-2.3, p<0.001) for GOLD 2. In sensitivity analyses, our definition of exacerbations was robust and without major biases.
Conclusions: Compared to individuals with GOLD 1, the risk of exacerbations was 17-fold for GOLD 4, 5-fold for GOLD 3, and 2-fold for GOLD 2. Medically treated exacerbations defined by register linkage seem a valid, robust, and low-biased measure of exacerbations in COPD.
Respiratory medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2015.10.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-acting β2-agonist bronchodilators are the most common medications used in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Genetic variants determining bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) in COPD have not been identified. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR in 5789 current or former smokers with COPD in one African-American and four white populations. BDR was defined as the quantitative spirometric response to inhaled β2-agonists. We combined results in a meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes KCNK1 (P=2.02 × 10(-7)) and KCNJ2 (P=1.79 × 10(-7)) were the top associations with BDR. Among African Americans, SNPs in CDH13 were significantly associated with BDR (P=5.1 × 10(-9)). A nominal association with CDH13 was identified in a gene-based analysis in all subjects. We identified suggestive association with BDR among COPD subjects for variants near two potassium channel genes (KCNK1 and KCNJ2). SNPs in CDH13 were significantly associated with BDR in African Americans.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 27 October 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.65.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1038/tpj.2015.65 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe asthma, mild/moderate asthma and healthy controls from 11 European countries consisted of analyses of patient-reported outcomes, lung function, blood and airway inflammatory measurements.Patients with severe asthma (nonsmokers, n=311; smokers/ex-smokers, n=110) had more symptoms and exacerbations compared to patients with mild/moderate disease (n=88) (2.5 exacerbations versus 0.4 in the preceding 12 months; p<0.001), with worse quality of life, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. They also had a higher incidence of nasal polyps and gastro-oesophageal reflux with lower lung function. Sputum eosinophil count was higher in severe asthma compared to mild/moderate asthma (median count 2.99% versus 1.05%; p=0.004) despite treatment with higher doses of inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids.Consistent with other severe asthma cohorts, U-BIOPRED is characterised by poor symptom control, increased comorbidity and airway inflammation, despite high levels of treatment. It is well suited to identify asthma phenotypes using the array of "omic" datasets that are at the core of this systems medicine approach.
European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1183/13993003.00779-2015 · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New treatments need to be evaluated in real-world clinical practice to account for co-morbidities, adherence and polypharmacy.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ≥40 years old, with exacerbation in the previous 3 years are randomised 1:1 to once-daily fluticasone furoate 100 μg/vilanterol 25 μg in a novel dry-powder inhaler versus continuing their existing therapy. The primary endpoint is the mean annual rate of COPD exacerbations; an electronic medical record allows real-time collection and monitoring of endpoint and safety data.
The Salford Lung Study is the world's first pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a pre-licensed medication in COPD.
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01551758 .
Respiratory research 09/2015; 16(1):101. DOI:10.1186/s12931-015-0267-6 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We tested the hypotheses that fibrinogen and α1-antitrypsin are observationally and genetically associated with exacerbations in COPD.
METHODS: We studied 13 591 individuals with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013), of whom 6857 were genotyped for FGB -455 (rs1800790, G>A) and FGB -448 (rs4220, G>A) and had plasma fibrinogen measured. Furthermore, 13 405 individuals were genotyped for the SERPINA1 S-allele (rs17580) and the Z-allele (rs28929474) and had measurements of plasma α1-antitrypsin. Exacerbations were defined as hospital admissions or treatments with systemic corticosteroids. We studied observational associations between plasma measurements and exacerbations in Cox regression analyses, associations between genotypes and exacerbations in logistic regression analyses and associations between genetically determined plasma levels and exacerbations in instrumental variable analyses.
RESULTS: Elevated fibrinogen and α1-antitrypsin levels were associated with increased risk of exacerbations in COPD, HR=1.14 (1.07 to 1.22, p<0.001) and 1.18 (1.11 to 1.25, p<0.001), respectively, per SD increase. Presence of the Z-allele was associated with increased odds of exacerbations, OR=1.25 (1.05 to 1.48, p=0.01), as was α1-antitrypsin level genetically lowered by the Z-allele, OR=1.07 (1.02 to 1.13, p=0.004), per SD decrease. Fibrinogen elevating genotypes, FGB -455 (AA) and FGB -448 (AA), were not associated with exacerbations, OR=0.96 (0.73 to 1.25, p=0.77) and OR=1.01 (0.75 to 1.33, p=0.90), respectively, and neither was genetically elevated fibrinogen level, OR=1.11 (0.76 to 1.63, p=0.58) per SD increase.
CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen and α1-antitrypsin were observationally associated with increased risk of exacerbations. However, genetically, fibrinogen per se was not associated with exacerbations, while lowered α1-antitrypsin was associated with increased odds of exacerbations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to result from an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time. Yet it is possible that a normal decline in FEV1 could also lead to COPD in persons whose maximally attained FEV1 is less than population norms.
We stratified participants in three independent cohorts (the Framingham Offspring Cohort, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Lovelace Smokers Cohort) according to lung function (FEV1 ≥80% or <80% of the predicted value) at cohort inception (mean age of patients, approximately 40 years) and the presence or absence of COPD at the last study visit. We then determined the rate of decline in FEV1 over time among the participants according to their FEV1 at cohort inception and COPD status at study end.
Among 657 persons who had an FEV1 of less than 80% of the predicted value before 40 years of age, 174 (26%) had COPD after 22 years of observation, whereas among 2207 persons who had a baseline FEV1 of at least 80% of the predicted value before 40 years of age, 158 (7%) had COPD after 22 years of observation (P<0.001). Approximately half the 332 persons with COPD at the end of the observation period had had a normal FEV1 before 40 years of age and had a rapid decline in FEV1 thereafter, with a mean (±SD) decline of 53±21 ml per year. The remaining half had had a low FEV1 in early adulthood and a subsequent mean decline in FEV1 of 27±18 ml per year (P<0.001), despite similar smoking exposure.
Our study suggests that low FEV1 in early adulthood is important in the genesis of COPD and that accelerated decline in FEV1 is not an obligate feature of COPD. (Funded by an unrestricted grant from GlaxoSmithKline and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2015; 373(2):111-22. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1411532 · 55.87 Impact Factor