[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide problem and the need for new drugs is increasingly more urgent with the emergence of multidrug- and extensively-drug resistant TB. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an attractive drug target. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-monophosphate into xanthosine 5'-monophosphate with the concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. This reaction controls flux into the guanine nucleotide pool. We report seventeen selective IMPDH inhibitors with antitubercular activity. The crystal structures of a deletion mutant of MtbIMPDH2 in the apo form and in complex with the product XMP and substrate NAD+ are determined. We also report the structures of complexes with IMP and three structurally distinct inhibitors, including two with antitubercular activity. These structures will greatly facilitate the development of MtbIMPDH2-targeted antibiotics.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0138976. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0138976 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a promising target for the treatment of Cryptosporidium infections. Here, the structure of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) in complex with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and P131, an inhibitor with in vivo anticryptosporidial activity, is reported. P131 contains two aromatic groups, one of which interacts with the hypoxanthine ring of IMP, while the second interacts with the aromatic ring of a tyrosine in the adjacent subunit. In addition, the amine and NO2 moieties bind in hydrated cavities, forming water-mediated hydrogen bonds to the protein. The design of compounds to replace these water molecules is a new strategy for the further optimization of C. parvum inhibitors for both antiparasitic and antibacterial applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7-Oxygenated aporphines 1-6 possessing anti-configurations have previously been reported. In order to explore their bioactivities, a synthesis was established by utilizing a diastereoselective reductive acid-mediated cyclization followed by palladium-catalyzed ortho-arylations. Moderate XPhos precatalyst loading (10 mol %) and short reaction times (30 min) were sufficient to mediate the arylations. Alkaloids 1-5 were successfully prepared, while (-)-artabonatine A was revised to syn-isomer 30. Consequently, (-)-artabonatine E likely also has a syn-configuration (31).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (CpIMPDH) has emerged as a therapeutic target for treating Cryptosporidium parasites because it catalyzes a critical step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. A 4-oxo-benzopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazole derivative was identified as a moderately potent (IC50 = 1.5 mu M) inhibitor of CpIMPDH. We report a SAR study for this compound series resulting in 8k (IC50 = 20 +/- 4 nM). In addition, an X-ray crystal structure of CpIMPDH IMP 8k is also presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the pivotal step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. IMPDH is a target for immunosuppressive, antiviral, and anticancer drugs, but, as of yet, has not been exploited for antimicrobial therapy. We have previously reported potent inhibitors of IMPDH from the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum (CpIMPDH). Many pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, contain IMPDHs that should also be inhibited by these compounds. Herein, we present the structure-activity relationships for the inhibition of B. anthracis IMPDH (BaIMPDH) and antibacterial activity of 140 compounds from five structurally distinct compound series. Many potent inhibitors of BaIMPDH were identified (78% with IC50 ≤ 1 μM). Four compounds had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 2 μM against B. anthracis Sterne 770. These compounds also displayed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are currently no effective therapies for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a debilitating and progressive heterotopic ossification disease caused by activating mutations of ACVR1 encoding the BMP type I receptor kinase ALK2. Recently a subset of these same mutations of ACVR1 have been identified in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) tumors. Here we describe the structure activity relationship for a series of novel ALK2 inhibitors based on the 2-aminopyridine compound K02288. Several modifications increased potency in kinase, thermal shift, or cell-based assays of BMP signaling and transcription, as well as selectivity for ALK2 versus closely related BMP and TGF-β type I receptor kinases. Compounds in this series exhibited a wide range of in vitro cytotoxicity that was not correlated with potency or selectivity, suggesting mechanisms independent of BMP or TGF-β inhibition. The study also highlighted a potent 2-methylpyridine derivative 10 (LDN-214117) with high degree of selectivity for ALK2 and low cytotoxicity that could provide a template for pre-clinical development. Contrary to the notion that activating mutations of ALK2 might alter inhibitor efficacy due to potential conformational changes in the ATP-binding site, the compounds demonstrated consistent binding to a panel of mutant and wild-type ALK2 proteins. Thus, BMP inhibitors identified via activity against wild-type ALK2 signaling are likely to be of clinical relevance for the diverse ALK2 mutant proteins associated with FOP and DIPG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is a neuron-specific phosphatase that regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking, as well as ERK1/2, p38, Fyn, and Pyk2 activity. STEP is overactive in several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The increase in STEP activity likely disrupts synaptic function and contributes to the cognitive deficits in AD. AD mice lacking STEP have restored levels of glutamate receptors on synaptosomal membranes and improved cognitive function, results that suggest STEP as a novel therapeutic target for AD. Here we describe the first large-scale effort to identify and characterize small-molecule STEP inhibitors. We identified the benzopentathiepin 8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (known as TC-2153) as an inhibitor of STEP with an IC50 of 24.6 nM. TC-2153 represents a novel class of PTP inhibitors based upon a cyclic polysulfide pharmacophore that forms a reversible covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine in STEP. In cell-based secondary assays, TC-2153 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates ERK1/2, Pyk2, and GluN2B, and exhibited no toxicity in cortical cultures. Validation and specificity experiments performed in wild-type (WT) and STEP knockout (KO) cortical cells and in vivo in WT and STEP KO mice suggest specificity of inhibitors towards STEP compared to highly homologous tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, TC-2153 improved cognitive function in several cognitive tasks in 6- and 12-mo-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, with no change in beta amyloid and phospho-tau levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PERK is serine/threonine kinase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. PERK is activated and contributes to cell survival in response to a variety of physiological stresses that affect protein quality control in the ER, such as hypoxia, glucose depravation, increased lipid biosynthesis, and increased protein translation. Pro-survival functions of PERK are triggered by such stresses, suggesting that development of small-molecule inhibitors of PERK may be efficacious in a variety of disease scenarios. Hence, we have conducted a detailed enzymatic characterization of the PERK kinase to develop a high-throughput-screening assay (HTS) that will permit the identification of small-molecule PERK inhibitors. In addition to establishing the Km of PERK for both its primary substrate, eIF2α, and for adenosine triphosphate, further mechanistic studies revealed that PERK targets its substrate via either a random/steady-state ordered mechanism. For HTS, we developed a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay that yielded a robust Z' factor and percent coefficient of variation value, enabling the successful screening of 79,552 compounds. This approach yielded one compound that exhibited good in vitro and cellular activity. These results demonstrate the validity of this screen and represent starting points for drug discovery efforts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 plays a major role in glutamate clearance in synaptic clefts. Several lines of evidence indicate that strategies designed to increase EAAT2 expression have potential for preventing excitotoxicity, which contributes to neuronal injury and death in neurodegenerative diseases. We previously discovered several classes of compounds that can increase EAAT2 expression through translational activation. Here, we present efficacy studies of the compound LDN/OSU-0212320, which is a pyridazine derivative from one of our lead series. In a murine model, LDN/OSU-0212320 had good potency, adequate pharmacokinetic properties, no observed toxicity at the doses examined, and low side effect/toxicity potential. Additionally, LDN/OSU-0212320 protected cultured neurons from glutamate-mediated excitotoxic injury and death via EAAT2 activation. Importantly, LDN/OSU-0212320 markedly delayed motor function decline and extended lifespan in an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also found that LDN/OSU-0212320 substantially reduced mortality, neuronal death, and spontaneous recurrent seizures in a pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy model. Moreover, our study demonstrated that LDN/OSU-0212320 treatment results in activation of PKC and subsequent Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation, which regulates activation of EAAT2 translation. Our data indicate that the use of small molecules to enhance EAAT2 translation may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; 124(3). DOI:10.1172/JCI66163 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parasites are a major cause of diarrhea and malnutrition in the developing world, a frequent cause of waterborne disease in the developed world and a potential bioterrorism agent. Currently available treatment is limited and Cryptosporidium drug discovery remains largely unsuccessful. As a result, the pharmacokinetic properties required for in vivo efficacy have not been established. We have been engaged in a Cryptosporidium drug discovery program targeting inosine 5' -monophosphate dehydrogenase (CpIMPDH). Here we report the activity of eight potent and selective inhibitors of CpIMPDH in the IL-12 knockout mouse model, which mimics acute human cryptosporidiosis. Two compounds displayed significant antiparasitic activity, validating CpIMPDH as a drug target. The best compound, P131 (250 mg/kg-day), performed equivalently to paromomycin (2000 mg/kg-day) when administered in a single dose, and better than paromomycin when administered in three daily doses. One compound, A110, appeared to promote Cryptosporidium infection. The pharmacokinetic, uptake and permeability properties of the eight compounds were measured. P131 had the lowest systemic distribution, but accumulated to high concentrations within intestinal cells. A110 had the highest systemic distribution. These observations suggest that systemic distribution is not required, and may be a liability, for in vivo antiparasitic activity. Intriguingly, A110 caused specific alterations in fecal microbiota that were not observed with P131 or vehicle alone. Such changes may explain how A110 promotes parasitemia. Collectively, these observations suggest a blueprint for the development of anticryptosporidial therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimized reaction conditions are established for an intramolecular SRN1 type cyclization of 2-(2-haloarylamino)pyridines (I) to give pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles in good yield.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of DNA-binding-1 (ID1) transcription factor is essential for the proliferation and progression of many cancer types including leukemia. However, the ID1 protein has not yet been therapeutically targeted in leukemia. ID1 is normally polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Recently, it has been shown that USP1, a ubiquitin specific protease, deubiquitinates ID1 and rescues it from proteasome degradation. Inhibition of USP1 therefore offers a new avenue to target ID1 in cancer. Here, using a Ubiquitin-Rhodamine-based high throughput screening, we identified small molecule inhibitors of USP1 and investigated their therapeutic potential for leukemia. These inhibitors blocked the deubiquitinating enzyme activity of USP1 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 in the high nanomolar range. USP1 inhibitors promoted the degradation of ID1 and, concurrently, inhibited the growth of leukemic cell lines in a dose dependent manner. A known USP1 inhibitor, Pimozide, also promoted ID1 degradation and inhibited growth of leukemic cells. In addition, the growth of primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patient-derived leukemic cells was inhibited by a USP1 inhibitor. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel small molecule inhibitors of USP1 promote ID1 degradation and are cytotoxic to leukemic cells. The identification of USP1 inhibitors therefore opens up a new approach for leukemia therapy.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2013; 12(12). DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0103-T · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visible advance: A mild, one-pot Stadler-Ziegler process for CS bond formation has been developed. The method employs the photoredox catalyst [Ru(bpy)3 Cl2 ]⋅6 H2 O irradiated with visible light. A variety of aryl-alkyl and diaryl sulfides were prepared from readily available arylamines and aryl/alkylthiols in good yields. The use of a photo microreactor led to a significant improvement with respect to safety and efficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photo-stimulated cyclization of 2-(2-halophenylamino)pyridines in liquid ammonia afforded pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles via SRN1 mediated C–N bond forming reactions in moderate to excellent yields (58–94%). This general synthetic strategy was also extended to a 2-(2-bromophenylamino)pyrazine to give pyrazino[1,2-a]benzimidazole. Attempts to employ this reaction using N-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-isoquinolinamine, however, resulted in C–C bond formation generating 7H-indolo[2,3-c]isoquinoline.