Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge

University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States

Are you Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)118.49 Total impact

  • Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The covalent attachment of SUMO polypeptides, or sumoylation, is an important regulator of the functional properties of many proteins. Among these are many proteins implicated in human diseases including cancer, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's Diseases, as well as spinocerebellar ataxia 1, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two more recent additions to the list of human disease-associated proteins that are sumoylated are amyloid precursor protein and lamin A. APP sumoylation modulates A-beta peptide levels, suggesting a potential role in Alzheimer's Disease, and decreased lamin A sumoylation due to mutations near its SUMO site has been implicated in causing some forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The findings of involvement of sumoylation in human diseases have sparked significant interest in finding pharmacologic and other mechanisms for altering the sumoylation of proteins in the cell, with the goal of developing new therapeutic interventions for combating these diseases.
    Biochimie 09/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3), the active form of vitamin D(3), has been reported to regulate the cell biology of skeletal muscle. However, there has been some controversy about the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thus the potential role of vitamin D(3) in skeletal muscle. In this study, we isolated and sequenced the full-length Vdr and Cyp27b1 transcripts in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes. Western blots and immunocytochemistry confirmed protein expression in both myoblasts and myotubes clearly demonstrating that C2C12 cells express VDR and CYP27B1. To determine the vitamin D(3) action, we found that C2C12 myoblasts treated with either 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 25(OH)D(3) inhibited cell proliferation and this was associated with increased Vdr expression. The observation that treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with the inactive form of vitamin D(3), [25(OH)D(3)], inhibited proliferation suggested that CYP27B1 was functionally active. We used small interfering RNA to knock down Cyp27b1 in myoblasts, and cells were treated with 25(OH)D(3). The growth-suppressive effects of 25(OH)D(3) were abolished, suggesting that CYP27B1 in myoblasts is necessary for the ability of 25(OH)D(3) to affect cell proliferation. Finally, we analyzed expression of VDR and CYP27B1 in regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. We found that expression of VDR and CYP27B1 increased significantly at day 7 of regeneration, and these results confirm the expression of Vdr and Cyp27b1 in vivo and suggest a potential role for vitamin D(3) in skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.
    AJP Cell Physiology 05/2012; 303(4):C396-405. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The covalent attachment of small ubiquition-like modifier (SUMO) polypeptides, or sumoylation, is an important regulator of the functional properties of many proteins. Among these are many proteins implicated in human diseases including cancer and Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases, as well as spinocerebellar ataxia 1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The results of two more recent studies identify two additional human disease-associated proteins that are sumoylated, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and lamin A. APP sumoylation modulates Aβ peptide levels, suggesting a potential role in Alzheimer's disease, and decreased lamin A sumoylation due to mutations near its SUMO site has been implicated in causing some forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy.
    International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2011; 288:167-83. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Covalent modification by SUMO polypeptides, or sumoylation, is an important regulator of the functional properties of many proteins. Among these are several proteins implicated in human diseases including cancer, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases, as well as spinocerebellar ataxia 1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent reports reveal two new examples of human disease-associated proteins that are SUMO modified: amyloid precursor protein and lamin A. These findings point to a function for sumoylation in modulating amyloid-beta peptide levels, indicating a potential role in Alzheimer's disease, and for decreased lamin A sumoylation as a causative factor in familial dilated cardiomyopathy.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 04/2009; 34(4):200-5. · 13.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order for cell lineages to be maintained, daughter cells must have the same patterns of gene expression as the cells from which they were divided so that they can have the same phenotypes. However, during mitosis transcription ceases, chromosomal DNA is compacted, and most sequence-specific binding factors dissociate from DNA, making it difficult to understand how the "memory" of gene expression patterns is remembered and propagated to daughter cells. The process of remembering patterns of active gene expression during mitosis for transmission to daughter cells is called gene bookmarking. Here we discuss current knowledge concerning the factors and mechanisms involved in mediating gene bookmarking, including recent results on the mechanism by which the general transcription factor TBP participates in the mitotic bookmarking of formerly active genes.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 04/2009; 8(6):818-23. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge, Kevin D Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is an ubiquitin-like protein that is covalently attached to a variety of target proteins. Unlike ubiquitination, sumoylation does not target proteins for proteolytic breakdown, but is instead involved in regulating a variety of different protein functional properties, including protein-protein interactions and subcellular targeting, to name a few. Protein sumoylation has been particularly well characterized as a regulator of many nuclear processes as well as of nuclear structure, making the characterization of this modification vital for understanding nuclear structure and function. Because sumoylation plays an important role in regulating so many important cellular processes, there has been intense interest in identifying new proteins that are targets of this modification and determining what role sumoylation plays in regulating the protein functions. This chapter presents methodologies for determining whether a particular protein is a substrate of sumoylation, and for identifying the lysine residue(s) where the modification occurs.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2009; 464:255-65. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kevin D Sarge, Hongyan Xing, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to fully understand the functions of a DNA-binding protein it is necessary to identify all of its binding sites in chromosomes and assess the role of each site in the overall biological function of the factor. An approach ChIP-on-Chip which combines the chromatin immunoprecipitation technique with chromosomal DNA microarray analysis, has proven to be a powerful means for the chromosome-wide identification of protein binding sites. This approach can also be used to characterize chromosome-wide variations in patterns of post-translational protein modifications, for example histone modifications. This chapter presents methodologies for the ChIP-on-Chip analysis, using as an example the identification of chromosome-wide binding sites for the TATA-binding protein in mitotic cells.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2009; 590:223-33. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is an ubiquitin-like protein that is covalently attached to a variety of target proteins. Unlike ubiquitination, sumoylation does not target proteins for proteolytic breakdown, but is instead involved in regulating multiple protein functional properties including protein-protein interactions and subcellular targeting, to name a few. Protein sumoylation has been particularly well characterized as a regulator of many nuclear processes as well as nuclear structure, making the characterization of this modification vital for understanding nuclear structure and function. Consequently, there has been intense interest in identifying new proteins that are targets of this modification and determining what role it plays in regulating their functions. This chapter presents methodologies for determining whether a particular protein is a substrate of sumoylation, and for identifying the lysine residue(s) where the modification occurs.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2009; 590:265-77. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Kevin D Sarge, Ok-Kyong Park-Sarge
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 'Gene bookmarking' is a mechanism of epigenetic memory that functions to transmit through mitosis the pattern of active genes and/or genes that can be activated to daughter cells. It is thought that, at a point before mitosis, genes that exist in an open, transcriptionally competent state are bound by proteins or marked by some kind of modification event. This is thought to facilitate the assembly of transcription complexes on the promoters in early G1, thereby ensuring that daughter cells have the same pattern of gene expression as the cell from which they derived. Little is known, however, about these 'bookmarking factors' and modifications or the mechanisms by which they mediate the transmission of transcriptional competence after mitosis is complete. Recent findings have provided new insights into the mechanisms, regulation and biological importance of gene bookmarking in eukaryotic cell function.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 12/2005; 30(11):605-10. · 13.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously identified a highly conserved specificity protein 1 (Sp1) DNA element in mammalian PTH promoters that acted as an enhancer of gene transcription and bound Sp1 and Sp3 proteins present in parathyroid gland nuclear extracts. More recently, a nuclear factor (NF)-Y element (NF-Y(prox)) was also described by our group, which was located approximately 30 bp downstream from the Sp1 site in the human PTH (hPTH) promoter and by itself acted as a weak enhancer of gene transcription. We now report that Sp proteins and NF-Y can synergistically enhance transcription of a minimal hPTH promoter construct. Positioning of the Sp1 DNA element appears to be critical for this synergism because deviations of one half of a helical turn caused an approximate 60% decrease in transactivation. Finally, examination of the bovine PTH (bPTH) promoter also revealed Sp1/NF-Y synergism, in conjunction with the identification of an analogous NF-Y binding site similarly positioned downstream from the bPTH Sp1 element. In summary, synergistic transactivation of the hPTH and bPTH promoters is observed by Sp proteins and the NF-Y complex. The conservation of this transactivation in the human and bovine promoters suggests that this may be a principle means of enhancing PTH gene transcription.
    Endocrinology 09/2005; 146(8):3409-16. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast to most genomic DNA in mitotic cells, the promoter regions of some genes, such as the stress-inducible hsp70i gene that codes for a heat shock protein, remain uncompacted, a phenomenon called bookmarking. Here we show that hsp70i bookmarking is mediated by a transcription factor called HSF2, which binds this promoter in mitotic cells, recruits protein phosphatase 2A, and interacts with the CAP-G subunit of the condensin enzyme to promote efficient dephosphorylation and inactivation of condensin complexes in the vicinity, thereby preventing compaction at this site. Blocking HSF2-mediated bookmarking by HSF2 RNA interference decreases hsp70i induction and survival of stressed cells in the G1 phase, which demonstrates the biological importance of gene bookmarking.
    Science 02/2005; 307(5708):421-3. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An earlier report in the literature indicated the vitamin D response element (VDRE) in the human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) promoter could be specifically bound by an unidentified transcription factor in addition to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex. We confirmed that OK and HeLa cell nuclear extracts formed a specific complex with the hPTH VDRE that was insensitive to competition with other VDRE sequences. However, this factor could be competed for by a consensus NF-Y DNA-binding site, and an anti-NF-Y antibody was able to supershift the bound band. Mutational analysis indicated that the NF-Y-binding site partially overlapped the 3' portion of the VDRE. Transfection studies using an hPTH promoter construct in Drosophila SL2 cells demonstrated strong synergistic transactivation by NF-Y interactions with both the VDRE site and a previously described distal NF-Y-binding site. Finally, mobility shift studies indicated that the VDR heterodimer competed with NF-Y for binding to the VDRE sequence, and NF-Y-stimulated activity of the hPTH promoter could be suppressed in a hormone-dependent manner when the VDR heterodimer complex was coexpressed in SL2 cells. In summary, these findings establish the presence of a proximal NF-Y-binding site in the hPTH promoter and highlight the potential for synergism between distal and proximal NF-Y DNA elements to strongly enhance transcription. Furthermore, findings suggest that the repressive effects of vitamin D on hPTH gene transcription may involve displacement of NF-Y binding to the proximal site by the VDR heterodimer, which subsequently attenuates synergistic transactivation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2004; 279(41):42431-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The identification of a highly conserved specificity protein 1 (Sp1) DNA element in mammalian PTH promoters was recently reported. However, the presence of a novel DNA-binding complex was subsequently observed exclusively with the human PTH (hPTH) Sp1 element in mobility shift studies. Point mutations in the hPTH Sp1 element revealed the factor recognized a CAAT-like sequence resulting from a single nucleotide difference unique to the human sequence relative to other mammalian promoters. A consensus nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) element was able to specifically compete for formation of the novel complex, whereas antiserum directed against the B-subunit of NF-Y supershifted the complex without disturbing binding by the Sp3/Sp1 proteins. Moreover, immunocytochemistry confirmed the nuclear localization of NF-Y in parathyroid gland cells. Transient expression of a dominant negative form of NF-Y impaired basal hPTH promoter activity in opossum kidney cells. Studies in Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that an intact NF-Y complex was required to strongly activate transcription from the hPTH promoter, and mutational analysis confirmed the identity of the NF-Y and Sp1 DNA elements. Finally, coexpression studies in SL2 cells indicated that NF-Y and Sp1 competed for binding to their adjoining sites in the hPTH promoter. In summary, an NF-Y enhancer DNA element has been identified that is uniquely positioned in the hPTH promoter and partially overlaps with the species-conserved Sp1 element. Binding appears to be mutually exclusive by the two transcription factors to this site and suggests that separate signaling pathways may be using this DNA locus to enhance transcription of the hPTH gene.
    Endocrinology 07/2004; 145(6):2713-20. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) mediates the uptake of bile salts from plasma across the basolateral domain of the hepatocyte. We have demonstrated that ntcp expression can be induced by prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen via the PRL receptor and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat)5a pathway. However, elevated levels of placental lactogen do not increase the expression of ntcp in pregnant rats. Because plasma estradiol (E(2)) levels are also elevated in pregnancy, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E(2) on PRL-induced ntcp activation. E(2) treatment inhibited the PRL-induced increase in liver ntcp mRNA to the same levels as in rats treated with E(2) alone. Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) mRNA and protein expression in liver were increased 2.6-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, in pregnancy relative to controls. In HepG2 cells, E(2) repressed PRL-induced ntcp reporter gene expression in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of cotransfected ERalpha. The ERalpha antagonist ICI 182,780 reversed E(2)-induced repression, indicating specificity of inhibition by E(2). Overexpression of coactivator p300 did not reverse the inhibitory effects of E(2) and ERalpha. Western and gel shift analysis revealed that E(2)-bound ERalpha decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of Stat5a, indicating that the inhibitory effect of E(2) was mediated, at least in part, by interfering with PRL-mediated signal transduction. The present studies demonstrate the physiological significance of cross-talk between ERalpha and Stat5a in liver, in which both proteins are expressed. These data also establish a novel mechanism by which expression of ntcp, an important hepatic bile acid transporter, can be regulated by multiple hormones.
    Endocrinology 05/2004; 145(4):1739-49. · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Induction of heat shock protein (HSP) gene expression by stress is initiated by binding of HSF1 to HSP gene promoters to increase their transcription. The cytoprotective functions of these HSPs are essential for cell survival, and thus it is critical that inducible HSP gene expression be executed rapidly and efficiently. Here we report an interaction between heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and symplekin, a protein known to form a complex with the polyadenylation factors CstF and CPSF. HSF1-symplekin complexes are detected only after stress treatment, and these two proteins co-localize in punctate nuclear structures in stressed cells. HSF1 also complexes in a stress-induced manner with the 3' processing factor CstF-64. Interfering with HSF1-symplekin interaction by overexpressing a non-DNA-binding mutant HSF1 protein significantly decreases Hsp70 mRNA polyadenylation in stressed cells, supporting the functional role for HSF1 in promoting 3' processing of this transcript. Importantly, this was also found to result in a significant loss of Hsp70 protein induction and increased cell death in response to stress exposure. These results indicate that the HSF1-symplekin interaction functions as a mechanism for recruiting polyadenylation factors to HSP genes to enhance the efficiency/kinetics of production of mature Hsp mRNA transcripts to achieve the critical cellular need for rapid HSP expression after stress. Thus, HSF1 regulates HSP gene expression at not one but two different steps of the expression pathway, functioning both as a transcription factor and a polyadenylation stimulatory factor.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2004; 279(11):10551-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf)-1 and Hsf2 are members of the heat shock factor (HSF) protein family involved in heat shock protein (hsp) gene regulation, a regulation that is critical for the ability of cells to survive exposure to stress conditions. Although the role of Hsf1 in binding and activating transcription of hsp gene promoters in response to cell stress is well established, how Hsf2 enhances stress-induced hsp expression is not understood. To gain an insight into the critical conserved features of the regulation and function of Hsf2, we have identified and characterized the Hsf2 protein from Xenopus laevis. We found that, similar to its human counterpart, Xenopus Hsf2 is sumoylated at lysine 82 and that, as it does in human Hsf2, the modification event of the small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 functions to increase the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding activity of this transcription factor in Xenopus. These results indicate that sumoylation is an evolutionarily conserved modification of Hsf2 proteins, supporting the position of this modification as a critical regulator of Hsf2 function.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 02/2004; 9(2):214-20. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Cell Stress and Chaperones 01/2004; 9(2). · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulatory protein HSF1 is the key mediator of induced heat shock protein gene expression in response to elevated temperature and other stresses. Our previous studies identified stress-induced SUMO-1 modification of HSF1 as an important regulator of the DNA-binding activity of this factor. The underlying molecular mechanism by which stress leads to sumoylation of HSF1 was unknown. Prompted by previous studies indicating stress-induced phosphorylation at serine 307 of HSF1, a site very near the sumoylation site at lysine 298, we examined the role of this phosphorylation event in regulating SUMO-1 modification of HSF1. Using a combination of transfection and in vitro phosphorylation/sumoylation experiments, our results indicate that phosphorylation at serine 307 stimulates sumoylation of HSF1. Our results also reveal a role for a conserved leucine zipper sequence in the C-terminal region of HSF1 in inhibiting its SUMO-1 modification. Based on these data, we postulate that phosphorylation at serine 307 could stimulate HSF1 sumoylation by causing a conformation change that relieves the inhibitory effect of the C-terminal leucine zipper.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2003; 303(1):196-200. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The induction of heat shock protein gene expression in response to stress is critical for the ability of organisms to cope with and survive exposure to these stresses. However, most studies on HSF1-mediated induction of hsp70 gene expression have utilized immortalized cell lines and temperatures above the physiologically relevant range. For these reasons much less is known about the heat shock response as it occurs in mammalian cells within tissues in the intact organism. To gain insight into this area we determined the temperature thresholds for activation of HSF1 DNA binding in different mouse tissues. We have found that HSF1 DNA binding activity and hsp70 synthesis are induced in spleen cells at significantly lower temperatures relative to cells of other tissues, with a temperature threshold for activation (39 degrees C) that is within the physiological range for fever. Furthermore, we found that the lowered temperature set point for induction of the stress response in spleen is specific to T-lymphocytes residing within this tissue and is not exhibited by B-lymphocytes. This lowered threshold is also observed in T-lymphocytes isolated from lymph nodes, suggesting that it is a general property of T-lymphocytes, and is seen in different mouse strains. Fever is an early event in the immune response to infection, and thus activation of the cellular stress response in T-lymphocytes by fever temperatures could serve as a way to give these cells enough time to express hsps in anticipation of their function in the coming immune response. The induced hsps likely protect these cells from the stressful conditions that can exist during the immune response, for example increasing their protection against stress-induced apoptosis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(11):9322-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PRL has been shown to stimulate mRNA expres- sion of both ER and ER in the rat corpus luteum and decidua of pregnancy. To investigate whether PRL may stimulate ER expression at the level of transcription and which transcription factors may mediate this stimulation, we have cloned the 5- flanking regions of both rat ER genes. A constitu- tively active PRL receptor (PRL-RCA) stimulated both ER and ER promoter activity, indicating that PRL is acting to stimulate ER transcription. Putative signal transducer and activator of tran- scription (Stat)5 response elements were identified at 189 in the ER promoter and at 330 in the ER promoter. Mutation of these response ele- ments or overexpression of dominant negative Stat5 prevented stimulation of ER and ER pro- moter activity, indicating that PRL regulation of ER expression requires both intact Stat5 binding sites as well as functional Stat5. Interestingly, either Stat5a or Stat5b could stimulate ER transcription while stimulation of ER occurred only in the pres- ence of Stat5b. Through mutational analysis, a sin- gle nucleotide difference between the ER and ER Stat5 response elements was shown to be responsible for the lack of Stat5a-mediated stim- ulation of ER. These findings indicate that PRL stimulation of ER expression occurs at the level of transcription and that PRL regulation of ER can be mediated by either Stat5a or Stat5b, while reg- ulation of ER appears to be mediated only by Stat5b. (Molecular Endocrinology 15: 2172-2181, 2001)
    Molecular Endocrinology - MOL ENDOCRINOL. 01/2001; 15(12):2172-2181.