[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein arginine deiminase activity (PAD) is increased in cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Although the link between abnormal PAD activity and disease is clear, the relative contribution of the individual PADs to human disease is not known; there are 5 PAD isozymes in humans. Building on our previous development of F- and Cl-amidine as potent pan-PAD irreversible inhibitors, we describe herein a library approach that was used to identify PAD-selective inhibitors. Specifically, we describe the identification of Thr-Asp-F-amidine (TDFA) as a highly potent PAD4 inactivator that displays ≥15-fold selectivity for PAD4 versus PAD1 and ≥50-fold versus PADs 2 and 3. This compound is active in cells and can be used to inhibit PAD4 activity in cellulo. The structure of the PAD4·TDFA complex has also been solved, and the structure and mutagenesis data indicate that the enhanced potency is due to interactions between the side chains of Q346, R374, and R639. Finally, we converted TDFA into a PAD4-selective ABPP and demonstrated that this compound, biotin-TDFA, can be used to selectively isolate purified PAD4 in vitro. In total, TDFA and biotin-TDFA represent PAD4-selective chemical probes that can be used to study the physiological roles of this enzyme.
ACS Chemical Biology 01/2012; 7(1):160-5. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein arginine deiminase (PAD) activity is upregulated in a number of human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and cancer. These enzymes, there are five in humans (PADs 1-4 and 6), regulate gene transcription, cellular differentiation, and the innate immune response. Building on our successful generation of F- and Cl-amidine, which irreversibly inhibit all of the PADs, a structure-activity relationship was performed to develop second generation compounds with improved potency and selectivity. Incorporation of a carboxylate ortho to the backbone amide resulted in the identification of N-α-(2-carboxyl)benzoyl-N(5)-(2-fluoro-1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine amide (o-F-amidine) and N-α-(2-carboxyl)benzoyl-N(5)-(2-chloro-1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine amide (o-Cl-amidine), as PAD inactivators with improved potency (up to 65-fold) and selectivity (up to 25-fold). Relative to F- and Cl-amidine, the compounds also show enhanced potency in cellulo. As such, these compounds will be versatile chemical probes of PAD function.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2011; 54(19):6919-35. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein arginine deiminases (PAD), which catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline, play important roles in a variety of cell signaling pathways, including apoptosis, differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. In addition to these important cellular roles, PAD activity is dysregulated in multiple human diseases [e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, and colitis], and significantly, PAD inhibition with Cl-amidine has been shown to reduce disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model of RA. Although these enzymes play important roles in human cell signaling and disease, the mechanisms that regulate PAD activity under both physiological and pathological conditions are poorly understood. One possible mechanism for regulating PAD activity is autodeimination, to which PAD4 has been shown by us and others to be subjected in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate that PAD4 autodeimination does not alter the activity, substrate specificity, or calcium dependence of this isozyme. However, the results of these studies indicate a novel role for autodeimination in modulating the ability of PAD4 to interact with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), citrullinated histone H3 (Cit H3), and protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein arginine deiminases (PADs), which catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline, are potential targets for the development of a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapeutic, as well as other human diseases including colitis and cancer. Additionally, these enzymes, and in particular PAD4, appear to play important roles in a variety of cell signaling pathways including apoptosis, differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. To better understand the factors that regulate in vivo PAD4 activity, we set out to design and synthesize a series of activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) reagents that target this enzyme. Herein we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of six ABPPs including (i) FITC-conjugated F-amidine (FFA1 and 2) and Cl-amidine (FCA1 and 2), and (ii) biotin-conjugated F-amidine (BFA) and Cl-amidine (BCA). We further demonstrate the utility of these probes for labeling PAD4 in cells, as well as for isolating PAD4 and PAD4 binding proteins. These probes will undoubtedly prove to be powerful tools that can be used to dissect the factors controlling the dynamics of PAD4 expression, activity, and function.
ACS Chemical Biology 02/2011; 6(5):466-76. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent approvals of anticancer therapeutic agents targeting the histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases have highlighted the important role that epigenetics plays in human diseases, and suggested that the factors controlling gene expression are novel drug targets. Protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is one such target because its effects on gene expression parallel those observed for the histone deacetylases. We demonstrated that F- and Cl-amidine, two potent PAD4 inhibitors, display micromolar cytotoxic effects towards several cancerous cell lines (HL-60, MCF7 and HT-29); no effect was observed in noncancerous lines (NIH 3T3 and HL-60 granulocytes). These compounds also induced the differentiation of HL-60 and HT29 cells. Finally, these compounds synergistically potentiated the cell killing effects of doxorubicin. Taken together, these findings suggest PAD4 inhibition as a novel epigenetic approach for the treatment of cancer, and suggest that F- and Cl-amidine are candidate therapeutic agents for this disease.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2011; 68(4):709-20. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) activity is dysregulated in numerous diseases, e.g., Rheumatoid Arthritis. Herein we describe the development of a fluorescence polarization-Activity Based Protein Profiling (fluopol-ABPP) based high throughput screening assay that can be used to identify PAD-selective inhibitors. Using this assay, streptonigrin was identified as a potent, selective, and irreversible PAD4 inactivator.
Chemical Communications 10/2010; 46(38):7175-7. · 6.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many membrane-bound proteins, including cytokines, receptors, and growth factors, are proteolytically cleaved to release a soluble form of their extracellular domain. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17) is a transmembrane metalloproteinase responsible for the proteolytic release or "shedding" of several cell-surface proteins, including TNF and p75 TNFR. We established a TACE-reconstitution system using TACE-deficient cells co-transfected with TACE and substrate cDNAs to study TACE function and regulation. Using the TACE-reconstitution system, we identified two additional substrates of TACE, interleukin (IL)-1R-II and p55 TNFR. Using truncations and chimeric constructs of TACE and another ADAM family member, ADAM-10, we studied the function of the different domains of TACE in three shedding activities. We found that TACE must be expressed with its membrane-anchoring domain for phorbol ester-stimulated shedding of TNF, p75 TNFR, and IL-1R-II, but that the cytoplasmic domain is not required for the shedding of these substrates. The catalytic domain of ADAM-10 could not be functionally substituted for that of TACE. IL-1R-II shedding required the cysteine-rich domain of TACE as well as the catalytic domain, whereas TNF and p75 TNFR shedding required only the tethered TACE catalytic domain.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2000; 275(19):14608-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interleukin-1 receptor is the prototype for a family of proteins, which play a central role in early responses to injury and infection. The similarity of function across the family is reflected in similarity in signaling: all members tested couple to activation of NFkappaB and stress kinases. The coupling to these pathways is mediated by a 200-residue intracellular domain (the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain), in which sequence conservation is primarily confined to three short motifs (boxes 1, 2, and 3) located at amino acid residue positions 10 (box 1), 60 (box 2), and 170 (box 3). We have analyzed the contribution of these motifs to function by alanine scanning mutagenesis of the human interleukin-1 receptor type I. Mutant receptors were tested for expression, ligand binding, activation of receptor-associated kinase(s), NFkappaB, stress kinases, and transcription. Mutations in all three motifs led to low cell surface expression. Mutants in box 3 were, however, wild type for signaling, whereas mutants in boxes 1 and 2 were defective. We conclude that the conserved motifs box 1 and box 2 mediate the coupling of molecules in the family to inflammation signaling pathways.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2000; 275(7):4670-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ectodomains of numerous proteins are released from cells by proteolysis to yield soluble intercellular regulators. The responsible protease, tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), has been identified only in the case when tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is released. Analyses of cells lacking this metalloproteinase-disintegrin revealed an expanded role for TACE in the processing of other cell surface proteins, including a TNF receptor, the L-selectin adhesion molecule, and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha). The phenotype of mice lacking TACE suggests an essential role for soluble TGFalpha in normal development and emphasizes the importance of protein ectodomain shedding in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid protein, Abeta, which accumulates in the brains of Alzheimer patients, is derived by proteolysis of the amyloid protein precursor (APP). APP can undergo endoproteolytic processing at three sites, one at the amino terminus of the Abeta domain (beta-cleavage), one within the Abeta domain (alpha-cleavage), and one at the carboxyl terminus of the Abeta domain (gamma-cleavage). The enzymes responsible for these activities have not been unambiguously identified. By the use of gene disruption (knockout), we now demonstrate that TACE (tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme), a member of the ADAM family (a disintegrin and metalloprotease-family) of proteases, plays a central role in regulated alpha-cleavage of APP. Our data suggest that TACE may be the alpha-secretase responsible for the majority of regulated alpha-cleavage in cultured cells. Furthermore, we show that inhibiting this enzyme affects both APP secretion and Abeta formation in cultured cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1998; 273(43):27765-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells proteolytically release (shed) the extracellular domains of many cell-surface proteins. Modification of the cell surface in this way can alter the cell's responsiveness to its environment and release potent soluble regulatory factors. The release of soluble tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from its membrane-bound precursor is one of the most intensively studied shedding events because this inflammatory cytokine is so physiologically important. The inhibition of TNF-alpha release (and many other shedding phenomena) by hydroxamic acid-based inhibitors indicates that one or more metalloproteinases is involved. We have now purified and cloned a metalloproteinase that specifically cleaves precursor TNF-alpha. Inactivation of the gene in mouse cells caused a marked decrease in soluble TNF-alpha production. This enzyme (called the TNF-alpha-converting enzyme, or TACE) is a new member of the family of mammalian adamalysins (or ADAMs), for which no physiological catalytic function has previously been identified. Our results should facilitate the development of therapeutically useful inhibitors of TNF-alpha release, and they indicate that an important function of adamalysins may be to shed cell-surface proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is released from cells by a proteolytic cleavage. Previous work suggested that a specific, non-matrix metalloproteinase carries out this cleavage, but matrix metalloproteinases have also been implicated. In this paper, we report that none of the matrix metalloproteinases tested cleaved peptide substrates as specifically as the non-matrix metalloproteinase. A matrix metalloproteinase did process tumor necrosis factor-alpha extracted from COS cells, but neither tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 nor -2 blocked tumor necrosis factor-alpha processing by human monocytes. Moreover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 had at most a partial effect on the in vivo release of the cytokine in mice. We conclude that a non-matrix metalloproteinase is the major physiological tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1996; 225(2):400-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through data base searches, we have discovered new proteins that share homology with the signaling domain of the type I interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1RI): human "randomly sequenced cDNA 786" (rsc786), murine MyD88, and two partial Drosophila open reading frames, MstProx and STSDm2245. Comparisons between these new proteins and known IL-1RI homologous proteins such as Toll, 18-Wheeler, and T1/ST2 revealed six clusters of amino acid similarity. We tested the hypothesis that sequence similarity between the signaling domain of IL-1RI and the three mammalian family members might indicate functional similarity. Chimeric IL-1RI receptors expressing the putative signaling domains of T1/ST2, MyD88, and rsc786 were assayed by three separate IL-1 responsive assays, NF-kappaB, phosphorylation of an epidermal growth factor receptor peptide, and an interleukin 8 promoter-controlled reporter construct, for their ability to transduce an IL-1-stimulated signal. All three assays were positive in response to the T1/ST2 chimera, while the MyD88 and rsc786 chimeras failed to respond. These data indicate that the sequence homology between IL-1RI and T1/ST2 indicates a functional homology as well.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1996; 271(10):5777-83. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T1/ST2 is a receptor-like molecule homologous to the type I interleukin-1 receptor. Despite this sequence similarity, we have been unable to demonstrate binding of T1/ST2 to any of the three interleukin-1 species. In searching for a ligand for T1/ST2, we have cloned a cell surface protein to which it binds. This protein is unable to initiate signal transduction by the T1/ST2 receptor in several in vitro assays.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1996; 271(10):5784-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies against a pan-B cell-surface marker have been statistically clustered to define the CDw78 antigen. Molecular characterization of the CDw78 antigen was performed to determine its functional role in T and B cell interactions. Screening a direct expression cDNA library, made from the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed, B lymphoblastoid cell line MP-1 with an anti-CDw78 mAb, we have isolated a 3.8 kb cDNA encoding the transcription factor CIITA, previously shown to transactivate human MHC class II expression. Using several anti-CD78 mAb, we observed induced expression of the CDw78 antigen on the surface of monkey CV-1/EBNA cells transfected with the CIITA cDNA clone. Apparently, recombinant human CIITA can regulate the expression of monkey MHC class II which is recognized by anti-human CDw78 mAb. The anti-human CDw78 mAb seem to recognize a monomorphic determinant of MHC class II. Expression of recombinant human MHC class II antigens in CV-1/EBNA cells was recognized by a panel of CDw78 mAb, as well as by anti-human MHC class II mAb. These data show that the CDw78 antigen is expressed as part of the MHC class II molecule and appears similar if not identical to the alpha beta heterodimeric MHC class II antigen.
International Immunology 08/1995; 7(7):1087-92. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two types of cellular IL-1Rs have been characterized and cloned from both human and murine sources. The type II IL-1R has a very short cytoplasmic domain and does not seem to participate in IL-1 signaling. We demonstrate that type II IL-1Rs are released from the surface of neutrophils in response to treatment with TNF or endotoxin. In addition, serum from patients with sepsis syndrome contains elevated levels of soluble type II IL-1Rs. Neutrophils isolated from patients with sepsis have greatly enhanced expression of type II IL-1R mRNA and cell surface receptors and are therefore a likely source for the shed receptors in serum. Of the three forms of IL-1, soluble type II IL-1R binds IL-1 beta with highest affinity and also selectively inhibits IL-1 beta activity. We propose that increased cell surface expression and rapid release of preformed type II IL-1R from neutrophils, as a soluble IL-1 beta binding protein, represents a mechanism that has evolved for regulating IL-1 activity in sepsis.
The Journal of Immunology 01/1995; 153(12):5802-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These studies have examined the binding of the three IL-1 ligands, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), to soluble forms of types I and II IL-1Rs (sIL-1RI and sIL-1RII). This interaction was measured in direct binding experiments, in which the ligands bound to immobilized sIL-1R, and in inhibition experiments, in which sIL-1R in solution inhibited the binding of IL-1 ligands to immobilized sIL-1R. In addition, the effects of sIL-1R on the detection of IL-1 ligands by ELISA were examined. Finally, levels of sIL-1R in synovial fluid samples were determined, and their effects on measurement of IL-1 in these samples were estimated. IL-1 beta bound more avidly to sIL-1RII than IL-1 alpha or IL-1ra, primarily because of a slow dissociation rate. In contrast, IL-1 ra bound more avidly than IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta to sIL-1RI, again because of a slow dissociation rate. sIL-1RII and sIL-1RI inhibited the detection of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra, respectively, by ELISA. Low levels of sIL-1RI (approximately 1.0-2.5 ng/ml) were present in all synovial fluids, irrespective of the degree of inflammation, and were correlated inversely with the levels of measured IL-1ra. In contrast, higher levels of sIL-1RII (approximately 10-20 ng/ml) were found in inflammatory synovial fluids and were not correlated with IL-1ra levels. IL-1 beta could not be detected in any synovial fluid. These results suggest that some IL-1 beta and IL-1ra may be bound in vivo to sIL-1RII and sIL-1RI, respectively, leading to underestimations of cytokine concentrations in body fluids when measured by ELISA.
The Journal of Immunology 12/1994; 153(10):4766-74. · 5.52 Impact Factor