Thomas E Hall

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (23)112.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: FUS mutations can occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a neurodegenerative disease with cytoplasmic FUS inclusion bodies in motor neurons. To investigate FUS pathology, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP-tagged wild-type or fALS (R521C) human FUS. Cell cultures were made from these zebrafish and the subcellular localization of human FUS and the generation of stress granule (SG) inclusions examined in different cell types, including differentiated motor neurons. We demonstrate that mutant FUS is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytosol to a similar extent in motor neurons and all other cell types. Both wild-type and R521C FUS localized to SGs in zebrafish cells, demonstrating an intrinsic ability of human FUS to accumulate in SGs irrespective of the presence of disease-associated mutations or specific cell type. However, elevation in relative cytosolic to nuclear FUS by the R521C mutation led to a significant increase in SG assembly and persistence within a sub population of vulnerable cells, although these cells were not selectively motor neurons.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e90572. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the central questions of developmental biology is how cells of equivalent potential-an equivalence group-come to adopt specific cellular fates. In this study we have used a combination of live imaging, single cell lineage analyses, and perturbation of specific signaling pathways to dissect the specification of the adaxial cells of the zebrafish embryo. We show that the adaxial cells are myogenic precursors that form a cell fate equivalence group of approximately 20 cells that consequently give rise to two distinct sub-types of muscle fibers: the superficial slow muscle fibers (SSFs) and muscle pioneer cells (MPs), distinguished by specific gene expression and cell behaviors. Using a combination of live imaging, retrospective and indicative fate mapping, and genetic studies, we show that MP and SSF precursors segregate at the beginning of segmentation and that they arise from distinct regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the adaxial cell compartment. FGF signaling restricts MP cell fate in the anterior-most adaxial cells in each somite, while BMP signaling restricts this fate to the middle of the DV axis. Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2012; 8(10):e1003014. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laminins form essential components of the basement membrane and are integral to forming and maintaining muscle integrity. Mutations in the human Laminin-alpha2 (LAMA2) gene result in the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy, MDC1A. We have previously identified a zebrafish model of MDC1A called candyfloss (caf), carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the zebrafish lama2 gene. In the skeletal muscle, laminins connect the muscle cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by binding either dystroglycan or integrins at the cell membrane. Through epistasis experiments, we have established that both adhesion systems individually contribute to the maintenance of fibre adhesions and exhibit muscle detachment phenotypes. However, larval zebrafish in which both adhesion systems are simultaneously genetically inactivated possess a catastrophic failure of muscle attachment that is far greater than a simple addition of individual phenotypes would predict. We provide evidence that this is due to other crucial laminins present in addition to Lama2, which aid muscle cell attachments and integrity. We have found that lama1 is important for maintaining attachments, whereas lama4 is localized and up-regulated in damaged fibres, which appears to contribute to fibre survival. Importantly, our results show that endogenous secretion of laminins from the surrounding tissues has the potential to reinforce fibre attachments and strengthen laminin-ECM attachments. Collectively these findings provide a better understanding of the cellular pathology of MDC1A and help in designing effective therapies.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2012; 21(21):4718-31. · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Santiago Barrera Acevedo, Thomas E. Hall
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we show the existence of perfect sequences, of unbounded lengths, over the basic quaternions {1,−1,i,−i,j,−j,k,−k}. Perfect sequences over the quaternion algebra were first introduced in 2009. One year later, a perfect sequence of length 5,354,228,880, over a quaternion alphabet with 24 elements, was shown. At this point two main questions were stated: Are there perfect sequences of unbounded lengths over the quaternion algebra? If so, is it possible to restrict the alphabet size to a small one? We answer these two questions by proving that any Lee sequence can always be converted into a sequence over the basic quaternions, which is an alphabet with 8 elements, and then by using the existence of Lee sequences of unbounded lengths to prove the existence of perfect sequences of unbounded lengths over the basic quaternions.
    Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Sequences and Their Applications; 06/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Adult zebrafish show a remarkable capacity to regenerate their spinal column after injury, an ability that stands in stark contrast to the limited repair that occurs within the mammalian CNS post-injury. The reasons for this interspecies difference in regenerative capacity remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a novel role for Fgf signaling during glial cell morphogenesis in promoting axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Zebrafish glia are induced by Fgf signaling, to form an elongated bipolar morphology that forms a bridge between the two sides of the resected spinal cord, over which regenerating axons actively migrate. Loss of Fgf function inhibits formation of this "glial bridge" and prevents axon regeneration. Despite the poor potential for mammalian axonal regeneration, primate astrocytes activated by Fgf signaling adopt a similar morphology to that induced in zebrafish glia. This suggests that differential Fgf regulation, rather than intrinsic cell differences, underlie the distinct responses of mammalian and zebrafish glia to injury.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2012; 32(22):7477-92. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a central regulator of embryonic development, controlling the pattern and proliferation of a wide variety of organs. Previous studies have implicated the secreted protein, Scube2, in HH signal transduction in the zebrafish embryo (Hollway et al., 2006; Kawakami et al., 2005; Woods and Talbot, 2005) although the nature of the molecular function of Scube2 in this process has remained undefined. This analysis has been compounded by the fact that removal of Scube2 activity in the zebrafish embryo leads to only subtle defects in HH signal transduction in vivo (Barresi et al., 2000; Hollway et al., 2006; Ochi and Westerfield, 2007; van Eeden et al., 1996; Wolff et al., 2003). Here we present the discovery of two additional scube genes in zebrafish, scube1 and scube3, and demonstrate their roles in facilitating HH signal transduction. Knocking down the function of all three scube genes simultaneously phenocopies a complete loss of HH signal transduction in the embryo, revealing that Scube signaling is essential for HH signal transduction in vivo. We further define the molecular role of scube2 in HH signaling.
    Developmental Biology 05/2012; 368(2):193-202. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-α2 gene (LAMA2). Laminin-α2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC) complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2(cl501/cl501), exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8-15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-α2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-α2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43794. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition.
    PLoS Biology 10/2011; 9(10):e1001168. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the distribution of the important extracellular matrix protein laminin in a novel biomaterial consisting of a hydrogel underpinned by nanofibrillar networks. These are formed by the immobilised enzyme mediated self-assembly of fmoc-L(3) (9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-tri-leucine). The peptide assembly yields nanofibrils formed of β-sheets that are locked together via π-stacking interactions. This ordering allows the localisation of the peptide sidechains on the surface, creating a hydrophobic environment. This induces the formation of bundles of these nanofibrils producing a clear hydrogel. This mechanism enables the three dimensional distribution of laminin throughout the network via supramolecular interactions. These forces favour the formation and improve the order of the network itself, as observed by spectroscopic and mechanical testing. In order to test the stability and suitability of this class of material for in vivo applications, we utilise microinjection to deliver the biomaterial under fine spatial control into a dystrophic zebrafish model organism, which lacks laminin as a result of a genetic mutation. Using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, we confirm that the biomaterial remains stable structurally, and is confined spatially to the site of injection.
    Biomaterials 08/2011; 32(22):5304-10. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laminins are essential components of all basement membranes and are fundamental to tissue development and homeostasis. Humans possess at least 16 different heterotrimeric laminin complexes formed through different combinations of alpha, beta, and gamma chains. Individual chains appear to exhibit unique expression patterns, leading to the notion that overlap between expression domains governs the constitution of complexes found within particular tissues. However, the spatial and temporal expression of laminin genes has not been comprehensively analyzed in any vertebrate model to date. Here, we describe the tissue-specific expression patterns of all laminin genes in the zebrafish, throughout embryonic development and into the "post-juvenile" period, which is representative of the adult body form. In addition, we present phylogenetic and microsynteny analyses, which demonstrate that the majority of our zebrafish sequences are orthologous to human laminin genes. Together, these data represent a fundamental resource for the study of vertebrate laminins.
    Developmental Dynamics 02/2011; 240(2):422-31. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the morphology of a zebrafish strain which lacks pelvic fins but no other abnormalities. This description is the first step of analyzing hindlimb loss in an established model organism. By combining light microscopy, bone and cartilage staining, scanning electron microscopy and histological sections we were able to comprehensively describe the morphology of the developing pelvic fins of a pelvic finless zebrafish in contrast with the developing pelvic fins of wild-type zebrafish. We have shown that although adult pelvic finless zebrafish completely lack pelvic fins, they do develop mesenchymal bulges in the pelvic regions at the pelvic fin development stage. Understanding the morphology and the subsequent genetic analysis of this fish will lead to important insights into both pelvic fin/hindlimb developmental mechanisms and the evolution of hindlimb loss. It is for this reason that we present a morphological analysis of pelvic fin development and loss in this genetically tractable model species.
    Journal of Morphology 02/2011; 272(5):583-9. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. As in humans, zebrafish dystrophin is initially expressed at the peripheral ends of the myofibres adjacent to the myotendinous junction and gradually shifts to non-junctional sites. Dystrophin-deficient zebrafish larvae are characterised by abundant necrotic fibres being replaced by mono-nucleated infiltrates, extensive fibrosis accompanied by inflammation, and a broader variation in muscle fibre cross-sectional areas. Muscle progenitor proliferation cannot compensate for the extensive skeletal muscle loss. Live imaging of dystrophin-deficient zebrafish larvae documents detaching myofibres elicited by muscle contraction. Correspondingly, the progressive phenotype of dystrophin-deficient zebrafish resembles many aspects of the human disease, suggesting that specific advantages of the zebrafish model system, such as the ability to undertake in vivo drug screens and real time analysis of muscle fibre loss, could be used to make novel insights relevant to understanding and treating the pathological basis of dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 12/2010; 20(12):826-32. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The skeletal muscle basement membrane fulfils several crucial functions during development and in the mature myotome and defects in its composition underlie certain forms of muscular dystrophy. A major component of this extracellular structure is the laminin polymer, which assembles into a resilient meshwork that protects the sarcolemma during contraction. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant, softy, which displays severe embryonic muscle degeneration as a result of initial basement membrane failure. The softy phenotype is caused by a mutation in the lamb2 gene, identifying laminin beta2 as an essential component of this basement membrane. Uniquely, softy homozygotes are able to recover and survive to adulthood despite the loss of myofibre adhesion. We identify the formation of ectopic, stable basement membrane attachments as a novel means by which detached fibres are able to maintain viability. This demonstration of a muscular dystrophy model possessing innate fibre viability following muscle detachment suggests basement membrane augmentation as a therapeutic strategy to inhibit myofibre loss.
    Development 11/2009; 136(19):3367-76. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human laminin alpha2 (LAMA2) gene result in the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A). There are currently three models for the molecular basis of cellular pathology in MDC1A: (i) lack of LAMA2 leads to sarcolemmal weakness and failure, followed by cellular necrosis, as is the case in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); (ii) loss of LAMA2-mediated signaling during the development and maintenance of muscle tissue results in myoblast proliferation and fusion defects; (iii) loss of LAMA2 from the basement membrane of the Schwann cells surrounding the peripheral nerves results in a lack of motor stimulation, leading to effective denervation atrophy. Here we show that the degenerative muscle phenotype in the zebrafish dystrophic mutant, candyfloss (caf) results from mutations in the laminin alpha2 (lama2) gene. In vivo time-lapse analysis of mechanically loaded fibers and membrane permeability assays suggest that, unlike DMD, fiber detachment is not initially associated with sarcolemmal rupture. Early muscle formation and myoblast fusion are normal, indicating that any deficiency in early Lama2 signaling does not lead to muscle pathology. In addition, innervation by the primary motor neurons is unaffected, and fiber detachment stems from muscle contraction, demonstrating that muscle atrophy through lack of motor neuron activity does not contribute to pathology in this system. Using these and other analyses, we present a model of lama2 function where fiber detachment external to the sarcolemma is mechanically induced, and retracted fibers with uncompromised membranes undergo subsequent apoptosis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2007; 104(17):7092-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somites are transient, mesodermally derived structures that give rise to a number of different cell types within the vertebrate embryo. To achieve this, somitic cells are partitioned into lineage-restricted domains, whose fates are determined by signals secreted from adjacent tissues. While the molecular nature of many of the inductive signals that trigger formation of different cell fates within the nascent somite has been identified, less is known about the processes that coordinate the formation of the subsomitic compartments from which these cells arise. Utilizing a combination of vital dye-staining and lineage-tracking techniques, we describe a previously uncharacterized, lineage-restricted compartment of the zebrafish somite that generates muscle progenitor cells for the growth of appendicular, hypaxial, and axial muscles during development. We also show that formation of this compartment occurs via whole-somite rotation, a process that requires the action of the Sdf family of secreted cytokines.
    Developmental Cell 03/2007; 12(2):207-19. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D) models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. FishNet contains more than 36,000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1,500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.
    BMC Biology 02/2007; 5:34. · 7.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryos of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were reared from fertilization of the eggs to inflation of the swim bladder in the larval stage at 18 and 25 degrees C. cRNA probes were used to detect transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5 and myogenin, and five myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms during development. The genes encoding Myf-5 and MyoD were switched on first in the unsegmented mesoderm, followed by myogenin as the somites developed. Myf-5 and MyoD transcripts were initially limited to the adaxial cells, but Myf-5 expression spread laterally into the presomitic mesoderm before somite formation. Two distinct bands of staining could be seen corresponding to the cellular fields of the forming somites, but as each furrow delineated, Myf-5 mRNA levels declined. Upon somite formation, MyoD expression spread laterally to encompass the full somite width. Expression of the myogenin gene was also switched on during somite formation, and expression of both transcripts persisted until the somites became chevron-shaped. Expression of MyoD was then downregulated shortly before myogenin. The expression patterns of the carp myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) genes most-closely resembled that seen in the zebrafish rather than the rainbow trout (where expression of MyoD remains restricted to the adaxial domain of the somite for a prolonged period) or the herring (where expression of MyoD persists longer than that of myogenin). Expression of two embryonic forms of MyHC began simultaneously at the 25-30 somite stage and continued until approximately two weeks post-hatch. However, the three adult isoforms of fast muscle MyHC were not detected in any stage examined, emphasizing a developmental gap that must be filled by other, as yet uncharacterised, MyHC isoform(s). No differences in the timing of expression of any mRNA transcripts were seen between temperature groups. A phylogenetic analysis of the MRFs was conducted using all available full-length amino acid sequences. A neighbour-joining tree indicated that all four members evolved from a common ancestral gene, which first duplicated into two lineages, each of which underwent a further duplication to produce Myf-5 and MyoD, and myogenin and MRF4. Parologous copies of MyoD from trout and Xenopus clustered closely together within clades, indicating recent duplications. By contrast, MyoD paralogues from gilthead seabream were more divergent, indicating a more-ancient duplication.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 12/2004; 207(Pt 24):4239-48. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    Thomas E Hall, Peter Smith, Ian A Johnston
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    ABSTRACT: The early development of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua was studied from fertilization until first-feeding. Multiple families were reared at 7 degrees C and a developmental staging series was prepared using morphological landmarks visible with the light microscope. Stages were named rather than numbered to allow for future additions and broadly grouped into larger time intervals called periods. The most useful staging features were found to be initially cell number, and later in development, somite number. The mean cell cycle time for the first six cleavages was 135 min and the linear regression equation for development of somites(s) over time (t) was s = 0.29t - 18.14. The segmentation period began at 220 h postfertilization (hpf), and unlike some other teleosts, the addition of new somites continued throughout the majority of embryonic development, until just prior to hatching. Hatching occurred at 256 hpf, after which individuals remained motionless at the water's surface, undergoing negative phototaxis only after the first day posthatch. The first-feeding stage was reached at the end of the third day posthatch, subsequent to development of a functional jaw and hindgut. This staging series provides an essential baseline reference for future experiments involving developing cod embryos and for the aquaculture industry.
    Journal of Morphology 04/2004; 259(3):255-70. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seven cDNA clones coding for different muscle-specific proteins (MSPs) were isolated from the fast muscle tissue of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. In situ hybridization using cRNA probes was used to characterize the temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression with respect to somite stage in embryos incubated at 4 degrees C, 7 degrees C and 10 degrees C. MyoD transcripts were first observed in the presomitic mesoderm prior to somite formation, and in the lateral compartment of the forming somites. MyoD expression was not observed in the adaxial cells that give rise to the slow muscle layer, and expression was undetectable by in situ hybridization in the lateral somitic mesoderm after the 35-somite stage, during development of the final approximately 15 somites. RT-PCR analysis, however, confirmed the presence of low levels of the transcript during these later stages. A phylogenetic comparison of the deduced aminoacid sequences of the full-length MyoD cDNA clone and those from other teleosts, and inference from the in situ expression pattern suggested homology with a second paralogue (MyoD2) recently isolated from the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Following MyoD expression, alpha-actin was the first structural gene to be switched on at the 16-somite stage, followed by myosin heavy chain, troponin T, troponin I and muscle creatine kinase. The final mRNA in the series to be expressed was troponin C. All genes were switched on prior to myofibril assembly. The troponin C sequence was unusual in that it showed the greatest sequence identity with the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss cardiac/slow form, but was expressed in the fast myotomal muscle and not in the heart. In addition, the third TnC calcium binding site showed a lower level of sequence conservation than the rest of the sequence. No differences were seen in the timing of appearance or rate of posterior progression (relative to somite stage) of any MSP transcripts between embryos raised at the different temperatures. It was concluded that myofibrillar genes are activated asynchronously in a distinct temporal order prior to myofibrillar assembly and that this process was highly canalized over the temperature range studied.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 10/2003; 206(Pt 18):3187-200. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    Thomas E. Hall, Ian A. Johnston
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    ABSTRACT: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) embryos were reared at 4 C, 7 C, and 10 C, and the relative timing of developmental events was characterized, with particular reference to myotomal muscle. Embryos started to feed at an apparently equivalent stage of development, so comparisons were made between temperature groups on the basis of percentage of time to first feeding and somite stage. No differences were found in the time of hatching or timing of appearance of the otic placode, unpaired median fin fold, gut lumen, otic vesicle, lens of the eye, otoliths, first muscular contractions, swim bladder, and hindgut, or in the rate of development of somites, myotubes, myofibrils, and acetylcholinesterase activity over the temperature range studied. In contrast, closure of the blastopore occurred late with respect to segmentation at higher temperatures, at the 3-somite, 10-somite, and 12-somite stages at 4 C, 7 C, and 10 C respectively. Muscle cellularity was also markedly altered in the 10 C group relative to the 4 C and 7 C groups. Larvae reared at 10 C had significantly more (+14%) deep white fibers at hatch (P <0.001), whereas numbers of superficial red fibers remained unchanged. It is suggested that differences in muscle cellularity might be related to changes in the relative timing of epiboly, through differential proliferation of presomitic myogenic cells and/or their relative exposure to inductive signals.
    Marine Biology 04/2003; 142(5):833-840. · 2.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

398 Citations
112.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Queensland
      • Institute for Molecular Bioscience
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2010–2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007–2012
    • Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute
      Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004
    • University of Dundee
      • Division of Cell and Developmental Biology
      Dundee, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2004
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Biology
      Saint Andrews, SCT, United Kingdom