ABSTRACT: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The ability to modulate cytokine production has been formerly described as one of the mechanisms of its action. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IVIG on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytic cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or THP-1 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were stimulated with LPS. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)] in the culture supernatants were determined using appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The mRNA of TNF-α was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases was examined by Western blot analyses. IVIG suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. Furthermore, IVIG inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1 production from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells treated with PMA. In addition, Fc fragment prepared from the IVIG inhibited production of these cytokines from the cells to the same degree as IVIG, whereas Fab and F(ab')(2) fragments inhibited this only partially. We showed that IVIG and Fc fragments suppressed LPS-induced signal transduction pathways involving phosphorylation of NF-κB, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, our results suggest that IVIG attenuates LPS-induced cytokine production predominantly mediated by its Fc region. The activity might be regulated by inhibiting NF-κB, p38, and JNK pathways in human monocytic cells.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2012; 385(9):891-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor