John M S Bartlett

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (220)1151.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is present in approximately 15% of early invasive breast cancers, and is an important predictive and prognostic marker. The substantial benefits achieved with anti-HER2 targeted therapies in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer have emphasised the need for accurate assessment of HER2 status. Current data indicate that HER2 test accuracy improved following previous publication of guidelines and the implementation of an external quality assessment scheme with a decline in false-positive and false-negative rates. This paper provides an update of the guidelines for HER2 testing in the UK. The aim is to further improve the analytical validity and clinical utility of HER2 testing by providing guidelines of test performance parameters, and recommendations on the postanalytical interpretation of test results. HER2 status should be determined in all newly diagnosed and recurrent breast cancers. Testing involves immunohistochemistry with >10% complete strong membrane staining defining a positive status. In situ hybridisation, either fluorescent or bright field chromogenic, is used either upfront or in immunohistochemistry borderline cases to detect the presence of HER2 gene amplification. Situations where repeat HER2 testing is advised are outlined and the impact of genetic heterogeneity is discussed. Strict quality control and external quality assurance of validated assays are essential. Testing laboratories should perform ongoing competency assessment and proficiency tests and ensure the reliability and accuracy of the assay. Pathologists, oncologists and surgeons involved in test interpretation and clinical use should adhere to published guidelines and maintain accurate performance and consistent interpretation of test results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of clinical pathology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background:We investigated the impact of follow-up duration to determine whether two immunohistochemical prognostic panels, IHC4 and Mammostrat, provide information on the risk of early or late distant recurrence using the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series and the Tamoxifen vs Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial.Methods:The multivariable fractional polynomial time (MFPT) algorithm was used to determine which variables had possible non-proportional effects. The performance of the scores was assessed at various lengths of follow-up and Cox regression modelling was performed over the intervals of 0-5 years and >5 years.Results:We observed a strong time dependence of both the IHC4 and Mammostrat scores, with their effects decreasing over time. In the first 5 years of follow-up only, the addition of both scores to clinical factors provided statistically significant information (P<0.05), with increases in R(2) between 5 and 6% and increases in D-statistic between 0.16 and 0.21.Conclusions:Our analyses confirm that the IHC4 and Mammostrat scores are strong prognostic factors for time to distant recurrence but this is restricted to the first 5 years after diagnosis. This provides evidence for their combined use to predict early recurrence events in order to select those patients who may/will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14 October 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.530 www.bjcancer.com.
    British journal of cancer. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Deregulation of key PI3K/AKT pathway genes may contribute to endocrine resistance in breast cancer (BC). PIK3CA is the most frequently mutated gene in luminal BC (∼ 35%); however, the effect of mutations in helical versus kinase domains remains controversial. We hypothesize that improved outcomes occur in patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER positive) BC receiving endocrine therapy and possessing PIK3CA mutations.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: T-cell infiltration in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumours has been associated with longer survival. To investigate this association and the potential of tumour T-cell infiltration as a prognostic and predictive marker, we have conducted the largest study of T cells in breast cancer to date.
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The TACT trial is the largest study assessing the benefit of taxanes as part of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. The goal of this translational study was to clarify the predictive and prognostic value of Tau within the TACT trial. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were available from 3,610 patients. ER, PR, HER2 from the TACT trial and Tau protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on duplicate TMAs. Two parallel scoring systems were generated for Tau expression ('dichotomised' vs. 'combined' score). The positivity rate of Tau expression was 50 % in the trial population (n = 2,483). Tau expression correlated positively with ER (p < 0.001) and PR status (p < 0.001); but negatively with histological grade (p < 0.001) and HER2 status (p < 0.001). Analyses with either scoring systems for Tau expression demonstrated no significant interaction between Tau expression and efficacy of docetaxel. Contrary to the hypothesis that taxane benefit would be enriched in Tau negative/low patients, the only groups with a suggestion of a reduced event rate in the taxane group were the HER2-positive, Tau positive subgroups. Tau expression was seen to be a prognostic factor on univariate analysis associated with an improved DFS, independent of the treatment group (p < 0.001). It had no prognostic value in ER-negative tumours and the weak prognostic effect of Tau in ER-positive tumours (p = 0.02) diminished, when considering ER as an ordinal variable. On multivariable analyses, Tau had no prognostic value in either group. In addition, no significant interaction between Tau expression and benefit from docetaxel in patients within the PR-positive and negative subsets was seen. This is now the second large adjuvant study, and the first with quantitative analysis of ER and Tau expression, failing to show an association between Tau and taxane benefit with limited utility as a prognostic marker for Tau in ER-positive early breast cancer patients.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • John M S Bartlett, Kathleen I Pritchard, Melanie Spears
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 01/2014; 106(1):djt360. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2013, San Antonio, Texas; 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue MicroArrays (TMAs) are effective tool for performing high-throughput standardization analyses of biomarkers; but evidence implicating core number required to be representative of whole tumor is lacking. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. The number and size of cores that can best represent DCIS lesion is unknown. Rather than performing extensive experiments using several variants of physical TMAs, we have developed a "virtual TMA" approach which is effective at optimizing biomarker discovery and validation. Whole DCIS sections from 95 patients were evaluated by IHC for ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki-67. Histoscores were generated manually for ER, PgR and HER2 as well as% positivity for Ki-67. Slides were scanned using the FDA-approved Ariol SL50 Image Analysis system and utilized the V Array (Virtual Array) module. Virtual cores created virtual TMAs, and applied to our validated scoring classifiers. Automated histoscores and% positivity were determined, and compared against increasing numbers of cores. The number of optimal cores was based on concordant results between virtual TMAs and corresponding whole sections. We have shown that V Arrays is an important tool in digital pathology in both research and clinical settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Histopathology 11/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening for invasive cancer has led to a marked increase in the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS is, if appropriately managed, a low-risk disease which has a small chance of impacting on patient life expectancy. However, despite significant advances in prognostic marker development in invasive breast cancer, there are no validated diagnostic assays to inform treatment choice for women with DCIS. Therefore we are unable to target effective treatment strategies to women at high risk and avoid over-treatment of women at low risk of progression to invasive breast cancer. Paradoxically, one effect of this uncertainty is undertreatment of some women.Content:We review current practice and research in the field to identify key challenges in the management of DCIS. The impact of clinical research, particularly on the over and undertreatment of women with DCIS is assessed. We note slow progress toward development of diagnostic biomarkers and highlight key opportunities to accelerate advances in this area.Summary:DCIS is a low-risk disease, its incidence is increasing, and current treatment is effective. However, many women are either over- or undertreated. Despite repeated calls for development of diagnostic biomarkers, progress in this area has been slow, reflecting a relative lack of investment of research effort and funding. Given the low event rate in treated patients and the lateness of recurrences, many previous studies have only limited power to identify independent prognostic and predictive biomarkers. However, the potential for such biomarkers to personalize treatment for DCIS is extremely high.
    Clinical Chemistry 11/2013; · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67's value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study. Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays-one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided. Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation. Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world's most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without standardizing scoring methodology because analytical validity is limited.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 11/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Epidermal growth factor receptors contribute to breast cancer relapse during endocrine therapy. Substitution of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may improve outcomes in HER-positive cancers.Methods:Tissue microarrays were constructed. Quantitative analysis of HER1, HER2, and HER3 was performed. Data were analysed relative to disease-free survival and treatment using outcomes at 2.75 and 6.5 years.Results:Among 4541 eligible samples, 4225 (93%) had complete HER1-3 data. Overall, 5% were HER1-positive, 13% HER2-positive, and 21% HER3-positive; 32% (n=1351) overexpressed at least one HER receptor. In the HER1-3-negative subgroup, the hazard ratio (HR) for upfront exemestane vs tamoxifen at 2.75 years was 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.87), in the HER1-3-positive subgroup, the HR was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.85-1.56). A prospectively planned treatment-by-marker analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between HER1-3 and treatment at 2.75 years (HR=0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87; P=0.008), as confirmed by multivariate regression analysis adjusting for prognostic factors (HR=0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.85; P=0.005). This effect was time dependent.Conclusion:In the 2.75 years prior to switching patients initially treated with tamoxifen to exemestane, a significant treatment-by-marker effect exists between AI/tamoxifen treatment and HER1-3 expression, suggesting HER expression could be used to select appropriate endocrine treatment at diagnosis to prevent or delay early relapses.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.609 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing is required for newly diagnosed breast cancer and advised for recurrent and metastatic breast cancer, to determine treatment planning using HER2-directed therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and advanced disease settings. Wide variation, nationally, in the turnaround time for HER2 testing may hinder equity of access for patients to both clinical trials and the timely implementation of HER2-directed therapy particularly in the neo-adjuvant setting. Process mapping from three recognised laboratories in the UK was applied to the logistics of HER2 testing in different geographic hub and spoke models. Consequently, recommendations for HER2 testing likely to facilitate access to clinical trials and timely patient care are presented.
    Journal of clinical pathology 09/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is critical for optimizing breast cancer outcomes. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) developed guidelines for HER2 testing to reduce inaccuracy. However, current ASCO/CAP criteria may restrict access to HER2-targeted therapy for some patient groups who would derive a clear clinical benefit. ASCO/CAP are currently reviewing their guidelines to further optimize HER2 testing and include emerging techniques. Guidelines are critical for optimizing care, as is ongoing research into techniques that accurately and reproducibly assess HER2 status.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 09/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSESpecific adverse events (AEs) associated with endocrine therapy and related to depletion or blocking of circulating estrogens may be related to treatment efficacy. We investigated the relationship between survival outcomes and specific AEs including vasomotor symptoms (VMSs), musculoskeletal adverse events (MSAEs), and vulvovaginal symptoms (VVSs) in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer participating in the international Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Primary efficacy end points were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and distant metastases (DM). VMSs, MSAEs, and VVSs arising in the first year of endocrine treatment were considered. Patients who did not start or who discontinued their allocated therapy and/or had an event (recurrence/death) within 1 year after randomization were excluded. Landmark analyses and time-dependent multivariate Cox proportional hazards models assessed survival differences up to 5 years from the start of treatment. RESULTS: VMSs, 0.731 [95% CI, 0.618 to 0.866]; MSAEs, 0.826 [95% CI, 0.694 to 0.982]; VVSs, 0.769 [95% CI, 0.585 to 1.01]; multivariate HR for OS: VMSs, 0.583 [95% CI, 0.424 to 0.803]; MSAEs, 0.811 [95% CI, 0.654 to 1.005]; VVSs, 0.570 [95% CI, 0.391 to 0.831]) and fewer DM (VMSs, 0.813 [95% CI, 0.664 to 0.996]; MSAEs, 0.749 [95% CI, 0.601 to 0.934]; VVSs, 0.687 [95% CI, 0.436 to 1.085]) than patients not reporting these symptoms. Increasing numbers of specific AEs were also associated with better survival outcomes. Outcomes were unrelated to treatment allocation. CONCLUSION Certain specific AEs are associated with superior survival outcomes and may therefore be useful in predicting treatment responses in patients with breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Results from the NSABP B-28 trial suggest AKT activation may predict reduced benefit from taxanes following standard anthracycline therapy. Pre-clinical data support a link between PI3 K/AKT signalling and taxane resistance. Using the UK taxotere as adjuvant chemotherapy trial (TACT), we tested the hypothesis that activation of AKT or downstream markers, p70S6K or p90RSK, identifies patients with reduced benefit from taxane chemotherapy. TACT is a multi-centre open-label phase III trial comparing four cycles of standard FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) followed by four cycles of docetaxel versus eight cycles of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Samples from 3,596 patients were available for the current study. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of activation of AKT, p70S6 K and p90RSK. Using a training set with multiple cut-offs for predictive values (10 % increments in expression), we found no evidence for a treatment by marker interaction for pAKT473, pS6 or p90RSK. pAKT473, pS6 and p90RSK expression levels were weakly correlated. A robust, preplanned statistical analysis in the TACT trial found no evidence that pAKT473, pS6 or p90RSK identifies patients deriving reduced benefit from adjuvant docetaxel. This result is consistent with the recent NASBP B28 study where the pAKT473 effect is not statistically significant for the treatment interaction test. Therefore, neither TACT nor NASBP-B28 provides statistically robust evidence of a treatment by marker interaction between pAKT473 and taxane treatment. Alternative methods for selecting patients benefitting from taxanes should be explored.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer can be classified into molecular sub-types that have distinct survival patterns. We evaluated the prognostic significance of breast cancer sub-types in a cohort of women taking part in the NEAT and BR9601 clinical trials comparing cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) with ECMF (epirubicin and CMF). Furthermore we evaluated whether the sub-types were predictive of the added benefit of epirubicin in these trials. Tumour tissue microarrays were stained and scored for ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6. These were used to classify the tumours into six intrinsic sub-types. We used Cox regression to compare overall survival (OS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in the different sub-groups. We also compared the effect of ECMF with CMF by sub-group. Immunohistochemistry data were available for 1,725 cases of whom 805 were luminal 1-basal negative. Median follow-up time was 7 years. The luminal 1-basal negative tumours were associated with the best prognosis in five years after surgery and the HER2-like tumours were associated with the poorest prognosis. There was little evidence for significant heterogeneity of this effect by tumour sub-type (OS P =0.40, BCSS P=0.53 RFS P=0.50) - the largest additional benefit of epirubicin was in women with tumours of the 5-negative phenotype (OS HR=0.39 95% CI:0.21-0.73) and the smallest was in Luminal 1-basal negative tumours (OS HR=0.86 95% CI:0.64-1.16). We confirmed that breast cancer sub-types show distinct behaviour with differences in short- and long-term survival. The benefit of ECMF over CMF was statistically similar in all disease sub-types. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the past few years aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have shown superior efficacy to the previous standard adjuvant endocrine therapy, tamoxifen, and are now recommended as part of current adjuvant endocrine therapy. A range of treatment strategies have been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assess the role of initial AI therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and consider the relative value of initial therapy with an AI compared with switch or extended (>5-yr) adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: Both initial AI therapy and switching/sequential tamoxifen followed by an AI are associated with longer disease- and relapse-free survival versus 5 years of tamoxifen alone. Trials comparing initial therapy with the sequence of tamoxifen followed by an AI have not demonstrated any major efficacy differences between the treatment strategies. Several analyses have been conducted to identify prognostic or predictive markers of treatment benefit to enable selection of the most appropriate adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Initial and switching/sequential regimens are equally appropriate adjuvant treatment options for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The exact tumour biology which allows for initial AI therapy has not yet been determined with certainty.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 02/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) pathway is commonly activated in breast cancer and aberrations such as PI3K mutations are common. Recent exciting clinical trial results in advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER) breast cancer support mTOR activation is a major means of estrogen-independent tumor growth. Hence the means to identify a responsive breast cancer population that would most benefit from these compounds in the adjuvant or earlier stage setting is of high interest. Here we study PIK3CA genotype as well as a previously reported PI3K/mTOR-pathway gene signature (PIK3CA-GS) and their ability to estimate the level of PI3K pathway activation in two clinical trials of newly diagnosed ER-positive breast cancer patients- a total of 81 patients- one of which was randomized between letrozole and placebo vs letrozole and everolimus. The main objectives were to correlate the baseline PIK3CA genotype and GS with the relative change from baseline to day 15 in Ki67 (which has been shown to be prognostic in breast cancer) and phosphorylated S6 (S240) immunohistochemistry (a substrate of mTOR). In the randomized dataset, the PIK3CA-GS could identify those patients with the largest relative decreases in Ki67 to letrozole/everolimus (R = -0.43, p = 0.008) compared with letrozole/placebo (R = 0.07, p = 0.58; interaction test p = 0.02). In a second dataset of pre-surgical everolimus alone, the PIK3CA-GS was not significantly correlated with relative change in Ki67 (R = -0.11, p = 0.37) but with relative change in phosphorlyated S6 (S240) (R = -0.46, p = 0.028). PIK3CA genotype was not significantly associated with any endpoint in either datasets. Our results suggest that the PIK3CA-GS has potential to identify those ER-positive BCs who may benefit from the addition of everolimus to letrozole. Further evaluation of the PIK3CA-GS as a predictive biomarker is warranted as it may facilitate better selection of responsive patient populations for mTOR inhibition in combination with letrozole.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53292. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lapatinib is an effective anti-HER2 therapy in advanced breast cancer and docetaxel is one of the most active agents in breast cancer. Combining these agents in pre-treated patients with metastatic disease had previously proved challenging, so the primary objective of this study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in treatment-naive patients, by identifying acute dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) during cycle 1 in the first part of a phases 1–2 neoadjuvant European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial.Patients and methodsPatients with large operable or locally-advanced HER2 positive breast cancer were treated with continuous lapatinib, and docetaxel every 21 days for 4 cycles. Dose levels (DLs) were: 1000/75, 1250/75, 1000/85, 1250/85, 1000/100 and 1250/100 (mg/day)/(mg/m2).ResultsTwenty-one patients were included. Two DLTs occurred at dose level 5 (1000/100); one grade 4 neutropenia ⩾7 days and one febrile neutropenia. A further 3 patients were therefore treated at the same dose with prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and 3 patients at dose level 6. No further DLTs were observed.Conclusions Our recommended dose for phase II is lapatinib 1000 mg/day and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 with G-CSF in HER2 positive non-metastatic breast cancer. The dose of lapatinib should have been 1250 mg/day but we were mindful of the high rate of treatment discontinuation in GeparQuinto with lapatinib 1250 mg/day combined with docetaxel. No grade 3-4 diarrhoea was observed. Pharmacodynamics analysis suggests that concomitant medications altering P-glycoprotein activity (in addition to lapatinib) can modify toxicity, including non-haematological toxicities. This needs verification in larger trials, where it may contribute to understanding the sources of variability in clinical toxicity and treatment discontinuation.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 01/2013; 49(2):281–289. · 4.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,151.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Nottingham
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2014
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Cancer Research Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
    • Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Department of Histopathology and Molecular Pathology
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2013
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1992–2013
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1996–2012
    • University of Glasgow
      • Institute of Cancer Sciences
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2011
    • Edinburgh Sleep Centre
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Surgery
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008–2010
    • Helmholtz Zentrum München
      • Institut für Pathologie
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Tampere
      • Laboratory of Cancer Genetics
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2003
    • The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom