[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electronic structure of heme proteins is exquisitely tuned by the interaction of the iron center with the axial ligands. NMR studies of paramagnetic heme systems have been focused on the heme signals, but signals from the axial ligands have been rather difficult to detect and assign. We report an extensive assignment of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the axial His ligand in the NO-carrying protein nitrophorin 2 (NP2) in the paramagnetic high-spin and low-spin forms, as well as in the diamagnetic NO complex. We find that the high-spin protein has σ spin delocalization to all atoms in the axial His57, which decreases in size as the number of bonds between Fe(III) and the atom in question increases, except that within the His57 imidazole ring the contact shifts are a balance between positive σ and negative π contributions. In contrast, the low-spin protein has π spin delocalization to all atoms of the imidazole ring. Our strategy, adequately combined with a selective residue labeling scheme, represents a straightforward characterization of the electron spin density in heme axial ligands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-mediated electron transfer is an essential event in many biochemical processes. Efficient electron transfer requires the reorganization energy of the redox event to be minimized, which is ensured by the presence of rigid donor and acceptor sites. Electron transfer copper sites are present in the ubiquitous cupredoxin fold, able to bind one or two copper ions. The low reorganization energy in these metal centers has been accounted for by assuming that the protein scaffold creates an entatic/rack-induced state, which gives rise to a rigid environment by means of a preformed metal chelating site. However, this notion is incompatible with the need for an exposed metal-binding site and protein-protein interactions enabling metallochaperone-mediated assembly of the copper site. Here we report an NMR study that reveals a high degree of structural heterogeneity in the metal-binding region of the nonmetallated Cu(A)-binding cupredoxin domain, arising from microsecond to second dynamics that are quenched upon metal binding. We also report similar dynamic features in apo-azurin, a paradigmatic blue copper protein, suggesting a general behavior. These findings reveal that the entatic/rack-induced state, governing the features of the metal center in the copper-loaded protein, does not require a preformed metal-binding site. Instead, metal binding is a major contributor to the rigidity of electron transfer copper centers. These results reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements of a rigid, occluded center for electron transfer, and an accessible, dynamic site required for in vivo copper uptake.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2012; 109(24):9254-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioinorganic canon states that active-site thiolate coordination promotes rapid electron transfer (ET) to and from type 1 copper proteins. In recent work, we have found that copper ET sites in proteins also can be constructed without thiolate ligation (called "type zero" sites). Here we report multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data together with density functional theory (DFT) and spectroscopy-oriented configuration interaction (SORCI) calculations for type zero Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin variants. Wild-type (type 1) and type zero copper centers experience virtually identical ligand fields. Moreover, O-donor covalency is enhanced in type zero centers relative that in the C112D (type 2) protein. At the same time, N-donor covalency is reduced in a similar fashion to type 1 centers. QM/MM and SORCI calculations show that the electronic structures of type zero and type 2 are intimately linked to the orientation and coordination mode of the carboxylate ligand, which in turn is influenced by outer-sphere hydrogen bonding.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2012; 134(19):8241-53. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fet3p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) which oxidizes Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). The electronic structure of the different copper centers in this family of enzymes has been extensively studied and discussed for years with a particular focus on the exchange coupling regime in the trinuclear cluster (TNC). Using NMR spectroscopy we have quantified the exchange coupling constant in the type 3 center in a fully metalated oxidase; this value in Fet3p is significantly higher than that reported for proteins containing isolated type 3 centers as tyrosinase. We also provide evidence of exchange coupling between the type 2 and the type 3 Cu(2+) ions, which supports the crystallographic evidence of dioxygen binding to the TNC. This work provides the foundation for the application of NMR to these complex systems.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2010; 132(32):11191-6. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FapR protein of Bacillus subtilis has been shown to play an important role in membrane lipid homeostasis. FapR acts as a repressor of many genes involved in fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (the fap regulon). FapR binding to DNA is antagonized by malonyl-CoA, and thus FapR acts as a sensor of the status of fatty acid biosynthesis. However, malonyl-CoA is utilized for fatty acid synthesis only following its conversion to malonyl-ACP, which plays a central role in the initiation and elongation cycles carried out by the type II fatty acid synthase. Using in vitro transcription studies and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show here that malonyl-ACP binds FapR, disrupting the repressor-operator complex with an affinity similar to that of its precursor malonyl-CoA. NMR experiments reveal that there is no protein-protein recognition between ACP and FapR. These findings are consistent with the crystal structure of malonyl-ACP, which shows that the malonyl-phosphopantetheine moiety protrudes away from the protein core and thus can act as an effector ligand. Therefore, FapR regulates the expression of the fap regulon in response to the composition of the malonyl-phosphopantetheine pool. This mechanism ensures that fatty acid biosynthesis in B. subtilis is finely regulated at the transcriptional level by sensing the concentrations of the two first intermediates (malonyl-CoA and malonyl-ACP) in order to balance the production of membrane phospholipids.