Niels Birbaumer

Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Tübingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (639)2046.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent experimental evidence has indicated that the motor system coordinates muscle activations through a linear combination of muscle synergies that are specified at the spinal or brainstem networks level. After stroke upper limb impairment is characterized by abnormal patterns of muscle activations or synergies. Objective: This study aimed at characterizing the muscle synergies in severely affected chronic stroke patients. Furthermore, the influence of integrity of the sensorimotor cortex on synergy modularity and its relation with motor impairment was evaluated. Methods: Surface electromyography from 33 severely impaired chronic stroke patients was recorded during 6 bilateral movements. Muscle synergies were extracted and synergy patterns were correlated with motor impairment scales. Results: Muscle synergies extracted revealed different physiological patterns dependent on the preservation of the sensorimotor cortex. Patients without intact sensorimotor cortex showed a high preservation of muscle synergies. On the contrary, patients with intact sensorimotor cortex showed poorer muscle synergies preservation and an increase in new generated synergies. Furthermore, the preservation of muscle synergies correlated positively with hand functionality in patients with intact sensorimotor cortex and subcortical lesions only. Conclusion: Our results indicate that severely paralyzed chronic stroke patient with intact sensorimotor cortex might sculpt new synergy patterns as a response to maladaptive compensatory strategies.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2014; 8:744. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Sunjung Kim, Niels Birbaumer
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to provide a critical overview of recent research in the field of neuroscientific and clinical application of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf).
    Current opinion in psychiatry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present an experimental approach to design systems sensitive to emotion. We describe a system for the detection of emotional states based on physiological signals and an application use case utilizing the detected emotional state. The application is an emotion management system to be used for the support in the improvement of life conditions of users suffering from cerebral palsy (CP). The system presented here combines effectively biofeedback sensors and a set of software algorithms to detect the current emotional state of the user and to react to them appropriately.
    Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Paris France; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cognition is affected. Cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal areas has been associated with the cognitive profile of patients. Additionally, reduced metabolic turnover and regional cerebral blood flow in frontal areas indicative of reduced neural activity have been reported for ALS. We hypothesize that functional connectivity in non-task associated functional default mode network (DMN) is associated with cognitive profile and white matter integrity. This study focused on specific cognitive tasks known to be impaired in ALS such as verbal fluency and attention, and the relationship with functional connectivity in the DMN and white matter integrity. Nine patients and 11 controls were measured with an extensive neuropsychological battery. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired. Results showed that ALS patients performed significantly worse in attention and verbal fluency task. Patients showed increased functional connectivity in parahippocampal and parietal areas of the non-task associated DMN compared to controls. The more pronounced the cognitive deficits, the stronger the increase in functional connectivity in those areas. White matter integrity was reduced in frontal areas in the patients. In conclusion, increased connectivity in the DMN in parahippocampal and parietal areas might represent recruitment of accessory brain regions to compensate for dysfunctional frontal networks.
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration 05/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can result in the locked-in state (LIS), characterized by paralysis, and eventual respiratory failure, compensated by artificial ventilation,(1) or the completely LIS (CLIS), with additional total paralysis of eye muscles. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been used to allow paralyzed people to regain basic communication,(2) although current EEG-based BCIs have not succeeded with CLIS patients.(3) We present Class IV case evidence to establish that communication in the CLIS is possible with a metabolic BCI based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
    Neurology 04/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Niels Birbaumer, Friedhelm C Hummel
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) allow manipulation of external devices and computers directly with brain activity without involvement of overt motor actions. The neurophysiological principles of such robotic brain devices and BMIs follow Hebbian learning rules as described and realized by Valentino Braitenberg in his book "Vehicles," in the concept of a "thought pump" residing in subcortical basal ganglia structures. We describe here the application of BMIs for brain communication in totally locked-in patients and argue that the thought pump may extinguish-at least partially-in those people because of extinction of instrumentally learned cognitive responses and brain responses. We show that Pavlovian semantic conditioning may allow brain communication even in the completely paralyzed who does not show response-effect contingencies. Principles of skill learning and habit acquisition as formulated by Braitenberg are the building blocks of BMIs and neuroprostheses.
    Biological Cybernetics 03/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR, 8-15 Hz) are brain oscillations associated with successful motor performance, imagery, and imitation. Voluntary modulation of SMR can be used to control brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the absence of any physical movements. The mechanisms underlying acquisition of such skill are unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a causal link between function of the primary motor cortex (M1), active during motor skill learning and retention, and successful acquisition of abstract skills such as control over SMR. Thirty healthy participants were trained on 5 consecutive days to control SMR oscillations. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups that received either 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1. Learning SMR control across training days was superior in the anodal tDCS group relative to the other 2. Cathodal tDCS blocked the beneficial effects of training, as evidenced with sham tDCS. One month later, the newly acquired skill remained superior in the anodal tDCS group. Thus, application of weak electric currents of opposite polarities over M1 differentially modulates learning SMR control, pointing to this primary cortical region as a common substrate for acquisition of physical motor skills and learning to control brain oscillatory activity.
    Cerebral Cortex 03/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    Klinische Neurophysiologie 03/2014; 45:32. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Patients in the completely locked-in state (CLIS), due to, for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no longer possess voluntary muscle control. Assessing attention and cognitive function in these patients during the course of the disease is a challenging but essential task for both nursing staff and physicians. Approach. An electrophysiological cognition test battery, including auditory and semantic stimuli, was applied in a late-stage ALS patient at four different time points during a six-month epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording period. Event-related cortical potentials (ERP), together with changes in the ECoG signal spectrum, were recorded via 128 channels that partially covered the left frontal, temporal and parietal cortex. Main results. Auditory but not semantic stimuli induced significant and reproducible ERP projecting to specific temporal and parietal cortical areas. N1/P2 responses could be detected throughout the whole study period. The highest P3 ERP was measured immediately after the patient's last communication through voluntary muscle control, which was paralleled by low theta and high gamma spectral power. Three months after the patient's last communication, i.e., in the CLIS, P3 responses could no longer be detected. At the same time, increased activity in low-frequency bands and a sharp drop of gamma spectral power were recorded. Significance. Cortical electrophysiological measures indicate at least partially intact attention and cognitive function during sparse volitional motor control for communication. Although the P3 ERP and frequency-specific changes in the ECoG spectrum may serve as indicators for CLIS, a close-meshed monitoring will be required to define the exact time point of the transition.
    Journal of Neural Engineering 02/2014; 11(2):026006. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decisions and determinants of decisions to prolong or shorten life in the course of fatal diseases like ALS are poorly understood. Decisions and desire for hastened death of N = 93 ALS patients were investigated in a prospective longitudinal approach three times in the course of 1 year. Determinants of decisions were evaluated: quality of life (QoL), depression, feeling of being a burden, physical function, social support and cognitive status. More than half of patients had a positive attitude towards life-sustaining treatments and they had a low desire for hastened death. Of those with undecided or negative attitude, 10 % changed attitudes towards life-sustaining treatments in the course of 1 year. Patients' desire to hasten death was low and decreased significantly within 1 year despite physical function decline. Those with a high desire for hastened death decided against invasive therapeutic treatments. QoL, depression and social support were not predictors for vital decisions and remained stable. Feeling of being a burden was a predictor for decisions against life-supporting treatments. Throughout physical function loss, decisions to prolong life are flexibly adapted while desire to shorten life declines. QoL was stable and not a predictor for vital decisions, even though anticipated low QoL has been reported to be the reason to request euthanasia. In contrast, feeling of being a burden in decision making needs more attention in clinical counselling. Considering a patient's possible adaptation processes in the course of a fatal disease is necessary.
    Journal of Neurology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Niels Birbaumer
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    ABSTRACT: Censor et al. (2014) combine behavioral, TMS, and neuroimaging to identify task-free neural signatures that relate to modification of motor memories. Modulation of memories using TMS may provide a powerful approach to improve human brain function in neurorehabilitation and cognitive neuroscience.
    Neuron 01/2014; 81(1):3-5. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient's motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e., phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis. Results: Both event-related brain activity and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:285. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI), it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (“yes”) and negative (“no”) responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting. Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS), respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1) and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2), in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR). The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000 ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000 ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks.
    Brain and Cognition 01/2014; 90:157–164. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves motor learning and can affect emotional processing and attention. However, it is unclear whether learned electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-machine interface (BMI) control during tDCS is feasible, how application of transcranial electric currents during BMI control would interfere with feature-extraction of physiological brain signals and how it affects brain control performance. Here we tested this combination and evaluated stimulation-dependent artifacts across different EEG frequencies and stability of motor imagery-based BMI control. Approach: Ten healthy volunteers were invited to two BMI-sessions, each comprising two 60-trial blocks. During the trials, learned desynchronization of mu-rhythms (8-15 Hz) associated with motor imagery (MI) recorded over C4 was translated into online cursor movements on a computer screen. During block 2, either sham (session A) or anodal tDCS (session B) was applied at 1 mA with the stimulation electrode placed 1 cm anterior of C4. Main results: tDCS was associated with a significant signal power increase in the lower frequencies most evident in the signal spectrum of the EEG channel closest to the stimulation electrode. Stimulation-dependent signal power increase exhibited a decay of 12 dB per decade, leaving frequencies above 9 Hz unaffected. Analysis of BMI control performance did not indicate a difference between blocks and tDCS conditions. Conclusion: Application of tDCS during learned EEG-based self-regulation of brain oscillations above 9 Hz is feasible and safe, and might improve applicability of BMI systems.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:93. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior insula (AI) plays a key role in affective processing, and insular dysfunction has been noted in several clinical conditions. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) provides a means of helping people learn to self-regulate activation in this brain region. Using the Blood Oxygenated Level Dependant (BOLD) signal from the right AI (RAI) as neurofeedback, we trained participants to increase RAI activation. In contrast, another group of participants were shown 'control' feedback from another brain area. Pre- and post- training affective probes were shown, with subjective ratings and skin conductance response (SCR) measured. We also investigated a reward-related reinforcement learning model of rtfMRI-NF In contrast to controls, we hypothesised a positive linear increase in RAI activation in participants shown feedback from this region, alongside increases in valence ratings and skin conductance response (SCR) to affective probes. Hypothesis-driven analyses showed a significant interaction between the RAI / control neurofeedback groups and the effect of self-regulation. Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant linear increase in RAI activation across four training runs in the group who received feedback from RAI. Increased activation was also observed in the caudate body and thalamus, likely representing feedback-related learning. No positive linear trend was observed in the RAI in the group receiving control feedback, suggesting that these data are not a general effect of cognitive strategy or control feedback. The control group did, however, show diffuse activation across the putamen, caudate and posterior insula which may indicate the representation of false feedback. No significant training-related behavioural differences were observed for valence ratings, or SCR. In addition, correlational analyses based on a reinforcement learning model showed the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex underpinned learning in both groups. In summary, these data demonstrate that it is possible to regulate the RAI using rtfMRI-NF within one scanning session, and that such reward-related learning is mediated by the dorsal anterior cingulate.
    NeuroImage 11/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that a dysfunction of the supplementary motor area (SMA), secondary to a deficit of the nigrostriatal dopamine system, partially contributes to the symptomatology of Parkinson's disease (PD), i.e., akinesia. In this pilot study we investigated the effect of real-time fMRI neurofeedback based volitional up-regulation of SMA on hand motor performance of one PD patient and 3 healthy volunteers. The effect of learned self-regulation was evaluated with speeded, bimanual, sequenced button-pressing trials, assessed immediately after each baseline and up-regulation block. Our pilot results indicate that volitional up-regulation of SMA is accompanied by slowing of sequenced button presses.
    6th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, San Diego, California, USA; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the main cause of hemiparesis in developed countries. Very often upper limbs are compromised and the hemiparesis is characterized by abnormal muscle activations especially at the level of the wrist and fingers (distal muscles). In this study we investigated the stability and strength of paretic upper limb muscle activity during different bilateral movements eliciting different postures and muscle recruitment. We recorded surface EMG of 45 severe chronic stroke patients without residual finger extension during six bimanual movements. Sixteen bipolar-EMG electrodes were placed on both upper limbs at the level of proximal and distal areas. We extracted the waveform length from the EMG data, in order to investigate muscle activity level at the paralyzed muscles during all movements. Our results indicated that different positions during multi-joint movements of the upper limb facilitated the contraction of the affected muscles (forearm extensors) involuntarily during the movement in which this activation was not expected (e.g. abduction of the upper arm) in more than 64% of the patients. Here, we show that severe affected chronic stroke patients can induce a higher activation of the paretic muscles of the forearm by changing the upper limb posture. This might be an important hint to design multi-joint coordinated movements involving proximal and distal musculature for stroke motor rehabilitation.
    Conference proceedings of 6th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering. 2013., San Diego; 11/2013
  • Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2013; 124(10):57-58. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Locked-in syndrome (LIS) as a result of brainstem lesions or progressive neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a severe medical condition in which a person is fully conscious but unable to move or talk. LIS can transition into complete locked-in syndrome (CLIS) in which residual abilities to communicate through muscle twitches are entirely lost. It is unknown how CLIS affects circadian rhythm and sleep/wake patterns. Here we report a 39-year-old ALS patient who transitioned from LIS to CLIS while brain activity was continuously recorded using electrocorticography (ECoG) over one month. While we found no circadian rhythm in heart rate and body temperature, transition into CLIS was associated with increased fragmentation of slow wave sleep (SWS) across the day. Total time in SWS did not change. SWS fragmentation might reflect progressive circadian system impairment and should be considered as a factor further limiting communication capabilities in these patients. Soekadar SR; Born J; Birbaumer N; Bensch M; Halder S; Murguialday AR; Gharabaghi A; Nijboer F; Schölkopf B; Martens S. Fragmentation of slow wave sleep after onset of complete locked-in state. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):951-953.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2013; 9(9):951-3. · 2.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

25k Citations
2,046.57 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Tübingen
      • Department of Empirical Inference
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1977–2014
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2012–2013
    • Tecnalia
      San Sebastián, Basque Country, Spain
    • Boca Raton Regional Hospital
      Boca Raton, Florida, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Fondazione Ospedale San Camillo, Venezia
      Venetia, Veneto, Italy
    • Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2009–2013
    • Aalborg University
      • Department of Health Science and Technology
      Aalborg, Region North Jutland, Denmark
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Universität Stuttgart
      • Institute for Natural Language Processing
      Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institute of Psychology
      Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Division of Psychology I
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
      • Department of Environmental Health Sciences
      Freiburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • University of Roehampton
      • Clinical and Health Psychology Research Centre (CHP)
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1980–2013
    • Universität Ulm
      • • Division of Neurophysiology
      • • Clinic of Neurology
      • • Institute of Applied Physiology
      • • Institute of Clinical and Biological Psychology
      Ulm, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2006–2012
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Psychology
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
      Maryland, United States
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Nephrology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 1992–2012
    • University of Padova
      • • Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialisation
      • • Department of General Psychology
      Padova, Veneto, Italy
  • 2009–2011
    • Ospedale di San Raffaele Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2005–2011
    • University of the Balearic Islands
      • Department of Psychology
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • Graz University of Technology
      • • Institute for Knowledge Discovery
      • • Institut für Medizintechnik
      Graz, Styria, Austria
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2001–2010
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Fachrichtung Psychologie
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Department of Neonatology and Intensive Care
      • • Department of Intensive Care Medicine
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • University College London
      • Institute of Neurology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      • Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies ITAB
      Chieti, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Salzburg
      • Fachbereich Psychologie
      Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
  • 1988–2007
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Psychology
      State College, PA, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2002–2006
    • Università degli Studi di Trento
      Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 2000–2004
    • Central Institute of Mental Health
      • Klinik für Abhängiges Verhalten und Suchtmedizin
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999–2000
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie der HHU, Rheinische Kliniken Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1995–2000
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Psychology
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 1998
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1997
    • Universität Konstanz
      • Department of Psychology
      Constance, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1992–1996
    • University of Münster
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Institute of Experimental Pathology
      Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1993–1994
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 1992–1993
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1983
    • University of South Florida
      Tampa, Florida, United States