[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On the basis of the similar fluorescence of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea derivatives, a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of EC and urea in alcoholic beverages. The chromatographic separation and derivatization conditions of EC and urea were optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation, linear range, and recovery were 4.8 μg/L, 1.0–4.2%, 10–500 μg/L, and 93.8–104.6%, respectively, for EC; the corresponding values were 0.003 mg/L, 1.2–4.8%, 0.01–100 mg/L, and 90.7–104.8%, respectively, for urea. The method showed satisfactory values for precision, recovery, and sensitivity for both analytes and is well-suited for routine analysis and kinetic studies of the formation of EC from urea alcoholysis in alcoholic beverages.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2014; 62(13):2797–2802. DOI:10.1021/jf405400y · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background: The aim of this study was to verify the validity of IL-21 local suppression in submandibular glands of preventing the development of Sjögren's syndrome in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and figure out the mechanism. Methods: IL-21 levels in submandibular glands were suppressed by ductal cannulation of IL-21 shRNA lentivirus. Then, saliva flow rates (SFR) and histopathologic changes of submandibular glands were measured to assess the severity of disease development. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the changes of T helper cells and related cytokines. Results: The reduction in SFRs in NOD mice was significantly alleviated from 9 to 17 weeks of age along with the suppression of IL-21 in submandibular glands. Lymphocytic infiltration was also milder than control NOD mice. Moreover, the lower level of IL-21 led to the down-regulation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Conclusions: Local suppression of IL-21 in submandibular glands could retard the development of Sjögren's syndrome in NOD mice. IL-21 might contribute to the development of B-cell disorder in Sjögren's syndrome via Tfh cells pathway.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 05/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2012.01175.x · 1.87 Impact Factor