[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung and cardiovascular monitoring applications of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) require localization of relevant functional structures or organs of interest within the reconstructed images. We describe an algorithm for automatic detection of heart and lung regions in a time series of EIT images. Using EIT reconstruction based on anatomical models, candidate regions are identified in the frequency domain and image-based classification techniques applied. The algorithm was validated on a set of simultaneously recorded EIT and CT data in pigs. In all cases, identified regions in EIT images corresponded to those manually segmented in the matched CT image. Results demonstrate the ability of EIT technology to reconstruct relevant impedance changes at their anatomical locations, provided that information about the thoracic boundary shape (and electrode positions) are used for reconstruction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, noninvasive and radiation free medical imaging modality for monitoring ventilation distribution in the lung. Although such information could be invaluable in preventing ventilator-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients, clinical application of EIT is hindered by difficulties in interpreting the resulting images. One source of this difficulty is the frequent use of simple shapes which do not correspond to the anatomy to reconstruct EIT images. The mismatch between the true body shape and the one used for reconstruction is known to introduce errors, which to date have not been properly characterized. In the present study we, therefore, seek to 1) characterize and quantify the errors resulting from a reconstruction shape mismatch for a number of popular EIT reconstruction algorithms and 2) develop recommendations on the tolerated amount of mismatch for each algorithm. Using real and simulated data, we analyze the performance of four EIT reconstruction algorithms under different degrees of shape mismatch. Results suggest that while slight shape mismatch is well tolerated by all algorithms, using a circular shape severely degrades their performance.
IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 05/2012; 31(9):1754-60.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breathing moves volumes of electrically insulating air into and out of the lungs, producing conductivity changes which can be seen by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It has thus been apparent, since the early days of EIT research, that imaging of ventilation could become a key clinical application of EIT. In this paper, we review the current state and future prospects for lung EIT, by a synthesis of the presentations of the authors at the 'special lung sessions' of the annual biomedical EIT conferences in 2009-2011. We argue that lung EIT research has arrived at an important transition. It is now clear that valid and reproducible physiological information is available from EIT lung images. We must now ask the question: How can these data be used to help improve patient outcomes? To answer this question, we develop a classification of possible clinical scenarios in which EIT could play an important role, and we identify clinical and experimental research programmes and engineering developments required to turn EIT into a clinically useful tool for lung monitoring.