[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) several studies support the usage of assisted spontaneous breathing modes. Only limited data, however, focus on the application in systemic sepsis and developing lung injury. The present study examines the effects of immediate initiation of pressure support ventilation (PSV) in a model of sepsis-induced ARDS.Methods18 anesthetized pigs received a two-staged continuous lipopolysaccharide infusion to induce lung injury. The animals were randomly assigned to PSV or volume controlled (VCV) lung protective ventilation (tidal volume each 6 ml kg-1, n¿=¿2x9) over six hours. Gas exchange parameters, hemodynamics, systemic inflammation, and ventilation distribution by multiple inert gas elimination and electrical impedance tomography were assessed. The post mortem analysis included histopathological scoring, wet to dry ratio, and alveolar protein content.ResultsWithin six hours both groups developed a mild to moderate ARDS with comparable systemic inflammatory response and without signs of improving gas exchange parameters during PSV. The PSV group showed signs of more homogenous ventilation distribution by electrical impedance tomography, but only slightly less hyperinflated lung compartments by multiple inert gas elimination. Post mortem and histopathological assessment yielded no significant intergroup differences.Conclusions
In a porcine model of sepsis-induced mild ARDS immediate PSV was not superior to VCV. This contrasts with several experimental studies from non-septic mild to moderate ARDS. The present study therefore assumes that not only severity, but also etiology of lung injury considerably influences the response to early initiation of PSV.
Respiratory Research 09/2014; 15(1):101. DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0101-6 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Purpose of the Study: Detection of cyclical recruitment of atelectasis after induction of lavage (LAV) or oleic acid injury (OAI) in mechanically ventilated pigs. Primary hypothesis is that oxygen oscillations within the respiratory cycle can be detected by SpO2 recordings (direct hint). SpO2 oscillations reflect shunt oscillations that can only be explained by cyclical recruitment of atelectasis. Secondary hypothesis is that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) depicts specific regional changes of lung aeration and of pulmonary mechanical properties (indirect hint). Materials and Methods: Three groups (each n = 7) of mechanically ventilated pigs were investigated applying above mentioned methods before and repeatedly after induction of lung injury: (1) sham treated animals (SHAM), (2) LAV, and (3) OAI. Results: Early oxygen oscillations occurred in the LAV group (mean calculated amplitude: 73.8 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillation of 11.2% in mean). In the OAI group oxygen oscillations occurred hours after induction of lung injury (mean calculated amplitude: 57.1 mmHg reflecting shunt oscillations of 8.4% in mean). The SHAM group had no relevant oxygen oscillations (<30 mmHg, shunt oscillations < 1.5%). Synchronously to oxygen oscillations, EIT depicted (1) a decrease of ventilation in dorsal areas, (2) an increase in ventral areas, (3) a decrease of especially dependent expiratory impedance, 3) an increase in late inspiratory flow especially in the dependant areas, (4) an increase in the speed of peak expiratory flow (PEF), and (5) a decrease of dorsal late expiratory flow. Conclusions: SpO2 and EIT recordings detect events that are interpreted as cyclical recruitment of atelectasis.
Experimental Lung Research 08/2014; 40(9). DOI:10.3109/01902148.2014.944719 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent method determines regional gas flow of the lung by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The aim of this study is to show the applicability of this method in a porcine model of mechanical ventilation in healthy and diseased lungs. Our primary hypothesis is that global gas flow measured by EIT can be correlated with spirometry. Our secondary hypothesis is that regional analysis of respiratory gas flow delivers physiologically meaningful results.
In two sets of experiments n = 7 healthy pigs and n = 6 pigs before and after induction of lavage lung injury were investigated. EIT of the lung and spirometry were registered synchronously during ongoing mechanical ventilation. In-vivo aeration of the lung was analysed in four regions-of-interest (ROI) by EIT: 1) global, 2) ventral (non-dependent), 3) middle and 4) dorsal (dependent) ROI. Respiratory gas flow was calculated by the first derivative of the regional aeration curve. Four phases of the respiratory cycle were discriminated. They delivered peak and late inspiratory and expiratory gas flow (PIF, LIF, PEF, LEF) characterizing early or late inspiration or expiration.
Linear regression analysis of EIT and spirometry in healthy pigs revealed a very good correlation measuring peak flow and a good correlation detecting late flow. PIFEIT = 0.702 . PIFspiro + 117.4, r2 = 0.809; PEFEIT = 0.690 . PEFspiro-124.2, r2 = 0.760; LIFEIT = 0.909 . LIFspiro + 27.32, r2 = 0.572 and LEFEIT = 0.858 . LEFspiro-10.94, r2 = 0.647. EIT derived absolute gas flow was generally smaller than data from spirometry. Regional gas flow was distributed heterogeneously during different phases of the respiratory cycle. But, the regional distribution of gas flow stayed stable during different ventilator settings. Moderate lung injury changed the regional pattern of gas flow.
We conclude that the presented method is able to determine global respiratory gas flow of the lung in different phases of the respiratory cycle. Additionally, it delivers meaningful insight into regional pulmonary characteristics, i.e. the regional ability of the lung to take up and to release air.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 04/2014; 14(1):73. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-14-73 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a bedside technology to monitor ventilation by detecting lung sound vibrations. It is currently unknown whether VRI is able to accurately monitor the local distribution of ventilation within the lungs. We therefore compared VRI to electrical impedance tomography (EIT), an established technique used for the assessment of regional ventilation.
Simultaneous EIT and VRI measurements were performed in the healthy and injured lungs (ALI; induced by saline lavage) at different PEEP levels (0, 5, 10, 15 mbar) in nine piglets. Vibration energy amplitude (VEA) by VRI, and amplitudes of relative impedance changes (rel.ΔZ) by EIT, were evaluated in seven regions of interest (ROIs). To assess the distribution of tidal volume (VT) by VRI and EIT, absolute values were normalized to the VT obtained by simultaneous spirometry measurements. Redistribution of ventilation by ALI and PEEP was detected by VRI and EIT. The linear correlation between pooled VT by VEA and rel.ΔZ was R(2) = 0.96. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -1.07±24.71 ml and limits of agreement of -49.05 to +47.36 ml. Within the different ROIs, correlations of VT-distribution by EIT and VRI ranged between R(2) values of 0.29 and 0.96. ALI and PEEP did not alter the agreement of VT between VRI and EIT.
Measurements of regional ventilation distribution by VRI are comparable to those obtained by EIT.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86638. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086638 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In chronic renal failure, intermittent hemodialysis decreases cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); however, in critically ill patients with acute renal failure, the effect of continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) on CBFV and cerebrovascular autoregulation (AR) is unknown. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate the potential effect of CVVHD on CBFV and AR in patients with acute renal failure. METHODS: This cohort study investigated 20 patients with acute renal failure who required CVVHD. In these patients, the CBFV and index of AR (Mx) were measured using transcranial Doppler before and during CVVHD. RESULTS: The median Mx values at baseline were 0.33 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.55], and during CVVHD, they were 0.20 [0.07-0.40]. The differences in Mx (CVVHD - baseline) was (median [IQR]) -0.015 [-0.19-0.05], 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.16 to 0.05. The Mx was > 0.3 in 11/20 patients at baseline measurement. Six of these patients recovered to Mx < 0.3 during CVVHD. The CBFV was (median [IQR]) 47 [36-59] cm·sec(-1) at baseline and 49 [36-66] cm·sec(-1) during CVVHD. The difference of CBFV was 0.0 [-4 - 2.7], 95% CI -2.5 to 4.2. CONCLUSION: Compared with patients with intermittent hemodialysis, CVVHD did not influence CBFV and AR in critically ill patients with acute renal failure, possibly due to lower extracorporeal blood flow, slower change of plasma osmolarity, and a lower fluid extraction rate. In a subgroup of patients with sepsis, the AR was impaired at baseline in more than half of the patients, and this was reversed during CVVHD. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01376531.
Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 03/2013; 60(6). DOI:10.1007/s12630-013-9912-z · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion. Administration of crystalloid or colloid infusions would decrease oxygen oscillations if our hypothesis was right. Therefore, n = 14 mechanically ventilated healthy pigs were investigated in 2 groups: crystalloid (fluid) versus no-fluid administration. Additional volume interventions (colloid infusion, blood withdrawal) were carried out in each pig. Intra-aortal PaO(2) oscillations were recorded using fluorescence quenching technique. Phase shift of oxygen oscillations during altered inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ventilation ratio and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) served as control methods to exclude that recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for oxygen oscillations. In hypovolemia relevant oxygen oscillations could be recorded. Fluid and volume state changed PaO(2) oscillations according to our hypothesis. Fluid administration led to a mean decline of 105.3 mmHg of the PaO(2) oscillations amplitude (P < 0.001). The difference of the amplitudes between colloid administration and blood withdrawal was 62.4 mmHg in pigs not having received fluids (P = 0.0059). Fluid and volume state also changed the oscillation phase during altered I:E ratio. EIT excluded changes of regional ventilation (i.e., recruitment of atelectasis) to be responsible for these oscillations. In healthy pigs, cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion can explain the size of respiratory-dependent PaO(2) oscillations.
Experimental Lung Research 01/2013; 39(2). DOI:10.3109/01902148.2012.758192 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung and cardiovascular monitoring applications of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) require localization of relevant functional structures or organs of interest within the reconstructed images. We describe an algorithm for automatic detection of heart and lung regions in a time series of EIT images. Using EIT reconstruction based on anatomical models, candidate regions are identified in the frequency domain and image-based classification techniques applied. The algorithm was validated on a set of simultaneously recorded EIT and CT data in pigs. In all cases, identified regions in EIT images corresponded to those manually segmented in the matched CT image. Results demonstrate the ability of EIT technology to reconstruct relevant impedance changes at their anatomical locations, provided that information about the thoracic boundary shape (and electrode positions) are used for reconstruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is considered useful for monitoring regional ventilation and aeration in intensive-care patients during mechanical ventilation. Changes in their body fluid state modify the electrical properties of lung tissue and may interfere with the EIT measurements of lung aeration. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of crystalloid and colloid infusion and blood withdrawal on bioimpedance determined by EIT in a chest cross-section. Fourteen anaesthetized mechanically ventilated pigs were subjected to interventions affecting the volume state (crystalloid and colloid infusion, blood withdrawal). Six animals received additional crystalloid fluids (fluid group) whereas eight did not (no-fluid group). Global and regional relative impedance changes (RIC, dimensionless unit) were determined by backprojection at end-expiration. Regional ventilation distribution was analyzed by calculating the tidal RIC in the same regions. Colloid infusion led to a significant fall in the global end-expiratory RIC (mean differences: fluid: -91.2, p < 0.001, no-fluid: -38.9, p < 0.001), which was partially reversed after blood withdrawal (mean differences, fluid: +45.1, p = 0.047 and no-fluid: +26.2, p = 0.009). The RIC was significantly lower in the animals with additional crystalloids (mean group difference: 45.5, p < 0.001). Global and regional tidal volumes were not significantly affected by the fluid and volume states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, noninvasive and radiation free medical imaging modality for monitoring ventilation distribution in the lung. Although such information could be invaluable in preventing ventilator-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated patients, clinical application of EIT is hindered by difficulties in interpreting the resulting images. One source of this difficulty is the frequent use of simple shapes which do not correspond to the anatomy to reconstruct EIT images. The mismatch between the true body shape and the one used for reconstruction is known to introduce errors, which to date have not been properly characterized. In the present study we, therefore, seek to 1) characterize and quantify the errors resulting from a reconstruction shape mismatch for a number of popular EIT reconstruction algorithms and 2) develop recommendations on the tolerated amount of mismatch for each algorithm. Using real and simulated data, we analyze the performance of four EIT reconstruction algorithms under different degrees of shape mismatch. Results suggest that while slight shape mismatch is well tolerated by all algorithms, using a circular shape severely degrades their performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breathing moves volumes of electrically insulating air into and out of the lungs, producing conductivity changes which can be seen by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It has thus been apparent, since the early days of EIT research, that imaging of ventilation could become a key clinical application of EIT. In this paper, we review the current state and future prospects for lung EIT, by a synthesis of the presentations of the authors at the 'special lung sessions' of the annual biomedical EIT conferences in 2009-2011. We argue that lung EIT research has arrived at an important transition. It is now clear that valid and reproducible physiological information is available from EIT lung images. We must now ask the question: How can these data be used to help improve patient outcomes? To answer this question, we develop a classification of possible clinical scenarios in which EIT could play an important role, and we identify clinical and experimental research programmes and engineering developments required to turn EIT into a clinically useful tool for lung monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological concept of acute lung injury (ALI) in combination with ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) is still unclear. We characterized the histopathological features of intravenous injection of oleic acid (OAI) and lung lavage (LAV) combined with VALI.
Pigs were randomized to the control, LAV or OAI group and ventilated by pressure-controlled ventilation. MEASUREMENTS INCLUDED: haemodynamics, spirometry, blood gas analysis, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D), total protein content in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung pathological description and scoring.
Five hours after lung injury induction, gas exchange was significantly impaired in both the OAI and the LAV groups. Compared to controls, we found an increase in W/D and histopathological total injury scores in both the LAV and OAI groups and an increase in BALF total protein content in the OAI group. In contrast to the LAV group, the OAI group showed septal necrosis and alveolar oedema. Both groups exhibited dorsal and caudal atelectasis and interstitial oedema. In addition, the OAI group demonstrated a propensity to dorsal necrosis and congestion whereas the LAV group tended to develop ventral overdistension and barotrauma.
This study presents a comparison of porcine OAI and LAV models combined with VALI, providing information for study design in research on ALI.
European Surgical Research 10/2010; 45(3-4):121-33. DOI:10.1159/000318599 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: General anesthesia and mechanical ventilation affect gas exchange, ventilation and pulmonary perfusion and there is an increasing body of evidence that mechanical ventilation itself promotes lung injury. Lung protective mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome by means of reduced tidal volumes and limited plateau pressures has been shown to result in reduction of systemic inflammatory mediators, increased ventilator-free days and reduction in mortality. Experimental studies suggest that mechanical ventilation of uninjured lungs may also induce lung damage; however, the clinical relevance remains unknown. Human prospective studies comparing mechanical ventilation strategies during general anesthesia have shown inconsistent results with respect to inflammatory mediators. There is a lack of clinical evidence that lung protective ventilation strategies as used in patients with lung injury may improve clinical outcome of patients with uninjured lungs. The question of which ventilatory strategy will best protect normal human lungs remains unanswered.
Der Anaesthesist 07/2010; 59(7):595-606. · 0.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Die mechanische Beatmung ist eine etablierte Methode in der Behandlung der respiratorischen Insuffizienz und ermöglicht die
Sicherstellung der Ventilation und Oxygenierung während einer Allgemeinanästhesie. Allgemeinanästhesie und mechanische Beatmung
führen zu relevanten Veränderungen der Ventilation, der pulmonalen Perfusion und des Gasaustausches. Verfahrensbedingt sind
mit der mechanischen Beatmung Risiken verbunden. Ein Risiko in der Behandlung von Patienten stellt der beatmungsassoziierte
Lungenschaden dar. Bei Patienten mit akutem Lungenversagen konnten durch die Anwendung einer lungenprotektiven Beatmungsstrategie
(Tidalvolumenreduktion und Limitierung des Beatmungsplateaudrucks) die Aktivität von Inflammationsmediatoren, die Beatmungsdauer
und der Endpunkt Mortalität positiv beeinflusst werden. Es existieren experimentelle Hinweise, dass die mechanische Beatmung
von gesunden Lungen gleichfalls Lungenschäden induziert; die klinische Relevanz dieser experimentellen Ergebnisse ist derzeit
unklar. Klinische Studien, die eine konventionelle Beatmung mit einer protektiven Beatmung während Allgemeinanästhesie auf
den Endpunkt pulmonale Inflammation verglichen haben, erbrachten inkonsistente Ergebnisse. Es existieren keine klinischen
Daten, die zeigen, dass die Translation des protektiven Beatmungskonzepts von Patienten mit akutem Lungenversagen auf die
Beatmung lungengesunder Patienten zu einem Vorteil hinsichtlich der Morbidität und Mortalität führt. Die Frage nach der optimalen
protektiven mechanischen Beatmung bei lungengesunden Patienten bleibt damit unbeantwortet.
General anesthesia and mechanical ventilation affect gas exchange, ventilation and pulmonary perfusion and there is an increasing
body of evidence that mechanical ventilation itself promotes lung injury. Lung protective mechanical ventilation in patients
suffering from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome by means of reduced tidal volumes and limited plateau
pressures has been shown to result in reduction of systemic inflammatory mediators, increased ventilator-free days and reduction
in mortality. Experimental studies suggest that mechanical ventilation of uninjured lungs may also induce lung damage; however,
the clinical relevance remains unknown. Human prospective studies comparing mechanical ventilation strategies during general
anesthesia have shown inconsistent results with respect to inflammatory mediators. There is a lack of clinical evidence that
lung protective ventilation strategies as used in patients with lung injury may improve clinical outcome of patients with
uninjured lungs. The question of which ventilatory strategy will best protect normal human lungs remains unanswered.
SchlüsselwörterBeatmungsassoziierter Lungenschaden-Mechanische Beatmung-Allgemeinanästhesie-Lungenprotektive Beatmung
KeywordsVentilator-associated lung injury-Mechanical ventilation-General anesthesia-Lung protective mechanical ventilation
Der Anaesthesist 07/2010; 59(7):595-606. DOI:10.1007/s00101-010-1743-5 · 0.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High arterial partial oxygen pressure (Pao(2)) oscillations within the respiratory cycle were described recently in experimental acute lung injury. This phenomenon has been related to cyclic recruitment of atelectasis and varying pulmonary shunt fractions. Noninvasive detection of Spo(2) (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry) as an indicator of cyclic collapse of atelectasis, instead of recording Pao(2) oscillations, could be of clinical interest in critical care. Spo(2) oscillations were recorded continuously in three different cases of lung damage to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach. To deduce Pao(2) from Spo(2), a mathematical model of the hemoglobin dissociation curve including left and right shifts was derived from the literature and adapted to the dynamic changes of oxygenation. Calculated Pao(2) amplitudes (derived from Spo(2) measurements) were compared to simultaneously measured fast changes of Pao(2), using a current standard method (fluorescence quenching of ruthenium). Peripheral hemoglobin saturation was capable to capture changes of Spo(2) within each respiratory cycle. For the first time, Spo(2) oscillations due to cyclic recruitment of atelectasis within a respiratory cycle were determined by photoplethysmography, a technology that can be readily applied noninvasively in clinical routine. A mathematic model to calculate the respective Pao(2) changes was developed and its applicability tested.
Experimental Lung Research 06/2010; 36(5):270-6. DOI:10.3109/01902140903575971 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review outlines the basic principle, in addition to validated and upcoming clinical use of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). EIT generates functional tomograms of the thorax for detection of changes in regional lung aeration. These images allow an intraindividual comparison of changes in regional lung function. Specifically, EIT aims to optimize ventilation therapy in patients with acute lung failure.
PubMed: National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.
Studies with the key words "electrical impedance tomography" since 1983.
Qualitative and quantitative results of the studies.
We summarize basic principles of the technique and subsequent analyzing methods, and give an overview of clinical and scientific questions that can be addressed by EIT.
Potential applications in the future as well as limitations of EIT technology are described. In summary, EIT is a promising functional tomography technology on the verge of its clinical application.
Critical care medicine 01/2010; 37(2):713-24. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181958d2f · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multiple inert gas elimination technique was developed to measure shunt and the ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung (V(A)'/Q') distributions. Micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS), instead of gas chromatography, has been introduced for inert gas measurement and shunt determination in a rabbit lung model. However, agreement with a frequently used and accepted method for quantifying deficits in arterial oxygenation has not been established. We compared MMIMS-derived shunt (M-S) as a fraction of total cardiac output (CO) with Riley shunt (R-S) derived from the R-S formula in a porcine lung injury model.
To allow a broad variance of atelectasis and therefore shunt fraction, 8 sham animals did not receive lavage, and 8 animals were treated by lung lavages with 30 mL/kg warmed lactated Ringer's solution as follows: 2 animals were lavaged once, 5 animals twice, and 1 animal 3 times. Variables were recorded at baseline and twice after induction of lung injury (T1 and T2). Retention data of sulfur hexafluoride, krypton, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone were analyzed by MMIMS, and M-S was derived using a known algorithm for the multiple inert gas elimination technique. Standard formulas were used for the calculation of R-S.
Forty-four pairs of M-S and R-S were recorded. M-S ranged from 0.1% to 35.4% and R-S from 3.7% to 62.1%. M-S showed a correlation with R-S described by linear regression: M-S = -4.26 + 0.59 x R-S (r(2) = 0.83). M-S was on average lower than R-S (mean = -15.0% CO, sd = 6.5% CO, and median = -15.1), with lower and upper limits of agreement of -28.0% and -2.0%, respectively. The lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals were -17.0 and -13.1 (P < 0.001, Student's t-test).
Shunt derived from MMIMS inert gas retention data correlated well with R-S during breathing of oxygen. Shunt as derived by MMIMS was generally less than R-S.
Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2009; 109(6):1831-5. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181bbc401 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are syndromes of acute diffuse damage to the pulmonary parenchyma by a variety of local or systemic insults. Increased alveolar capillary membrane permeability was recognized as the common end organ injury and a central feature in all forms of ALI/ARDS. Although great strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS and in intensive care medicine, the treatment approach to ARDS is still relying on ventilatory and cardiovascular support based on the recognition of the clinical picture. In the course of evaluating novel treatment approaches to ARDS, 3 models of ALI induced in different species, i.e. the surfactant washout lavage model, the oleic acid intravenous injection model and the endotoxin injection model, were widely used. This review gives an overview of the pathological characteristics of these models from studies in pigs, dogs or sheep. We believe that a good morphological description of these models, both spatially and temporally, will help us gain a better understanding of the real pathophysiological picture and apply these models more accurately and liberally in evaluating novel treatment approaches to ARDS.
European Surgical Research 02/2008; 40(4):305-16. DOI:10.1159/000121471 · 1.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to check the effect of varying blood volume in the chest and gravity on the distribution of ventilation and aeration in the lungs. The change in intrathoracic blood volume was elicited by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -50 cmH2O. The variation of gravity in terms of hypogravity (approximately 0g) and hypergravity (approximately 2g) was induced by changes in vertical acceleration achieved during parabolic flights. Local ventilation magnitude and end-expiratory lung volume were determined in eight human subjects in the ventral and dorsal lung regions within a transverse cross-section of the lower chest by electrical impedance tomography. The subjects were studied in a 20 degrees head-down tilted supine body position during tidal breathing and full forced expirations. During tidal breathing, a significant effect of gravity on local magnitude of ventilation and end-expiratory lung volume was detected in the dorsal lung regions both with and without LBNP. In the ventral regions, this gravity dependency was only observed during LBNP. During forced expiration, LBNP had almost no effect on local ventilation and end-expiratory lung volume in either lung region. Gravity significantly influenced the end-expiratory lung volumes in dorsal lung regions. The results indicate that exposure to LBNP exerts a less appreciable effect on regional lung ventilation than the acute changes in gravity.