Christoph Böttcher

Freie Universität Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (124)454.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of novel functionalised dumbbell-shaped bifullerenes in which two [5.0] pentakis-adducts of C60 are covalently connected by cyclic bismalonates were synthesised. These dimeric compounds, carrying various combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic addends, self-assemble in aqueous solution towards supramolecular architectures of different structural complexity as observed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The detailed analysis of the image data revealed an unprecedented hierarchical aggregation behaviour. Whereas completely hydrophilic substituted bifullerenes formed profoundly monodisperse populations of small oligomeric elementary micelles consisting of only three or four bifullerene molecules in a supposedly bent conformation, their amphiphilic equivalents underwent a hierarchical two-step assembly process towards larger spherical and even rod-like structures. The data suggest that the hierarchical assembly process is driven by hydrophobic interactions of preformed tetrameric elementary micelles.
    Chemistry 05/2014; 20(20):5961-6. · 5.93 Impact Factor
  • Hans V Berlepsch, Kai Ludwig, Christoph Böttcher
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    ABSTRACT: The aggregation behaviour of the cationic pinacyanol chloride in aqueous solution is investigated using absorption and linear dichroism spectroscopies, optical microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The investigations are focused on solutions in a concentration range from 50 μM up to 1 mM. At a concentration of 0.7 mM H-aggregates are detected that are characterized by a broad absorption band centred at ∼511 nm. The aggregates possess a tubular architecture with a single-layer wall thickness of ∼2.5 nm and an outer diameter of ∼6.5 nm. Linear dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the molecules are packed with their long axis parallel to the tube axis. These H-aggregates are not stable, but transform into J-aggregates on the time scale of weeks. The kinetics of J-aggregation depends on the dye concentration and the route of sample preparation, but can also be enhanced by shear stress. J-aggregates possess a split absorption spectrum composed of two longitudinally polarized J-bands and one H-band that is polarized perpendicular to the aggregate axis. The J-aggregates are ∼9 nm wide and several micrometer long fibrils consisting of stacked pairs of ribbons with a dumbbell-shaped density cross-section. Upon aging these ribbons laterally stack face-to-face to form tape-like aggregates.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 04/2014; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of antiviral agents is one of the major challenges in medical science. So far, small monovalent molecular drugs that inhibit the late steps in the viral replication cycle, i.e., virus budding, have not worked well which emphasizes the need for alternative approaches. Polyvalently presented viral receptors, however, show potential as good inhibitors of virus-cell binding, which is the first step in the viral infection cycle. By gradually increasing the size of ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles, up to virus-like dimensions, we are now able to quantify the polyvalent enhancement of virus-cell binding inhibition and to identify varying mechanisms of virus inhibition with different efficacies: by employing a new binding assay we found that surface area-normalized polysulfated gold nanoparticles of diameters equal to and larger than the virus diameter (>50 nm) more efficiently inhibit the binding of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to cells than smaller particles. On a per particle basis, larger sized gold nanoparticles were surprisingly shown to inhibit the viral infection up to two orders of magnitude more efficiently than smaller particles, which suggests different mechanisms of virus inhibition. Based on complementary electron microscopic data, we noticed that larger gold nanoparticles act as efficient cross-linkers between virions, whereas smaller gold nanoparticles decorate the surface of individual virus particles. Our systematic study accentuates the need for the design of biodegradable, virus-sized inhibitors capitalizing on polyvalent binding.
    Nanoscale 01/2014; · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have synthesized a targeted imaging agent for rheumatoid arthritis based on polysulfated gold nanorods. The CTAB layer on gold nanorods was first replaced with PEG-thiol and then with dendritic polyglycerolsulfate at elevated temperature, which resulted in significantly reduced cytotoxicity compared to polyanionic gold nanorods functionalized by non-covalent approaches. In addition to classical characterization methods, we have established a facile UV-VIS based BaCl2 agglomeration assay to confirm a quantitative removal of unbound ligand. With the help of a competitive surface plasmon resonance-based L-selectin binding assay and a leukocyte adhesion-based flow cell assay, we have demonstrated the high inflammation targeting potential of the synthesized gold nanorods in vitro. In combination with the surface plasmon resonance band of AuNRs at 780 nm, these findings permitted the imaging of inflammation in an in vivo mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis with high contrast using multispectral optoacoustic tomography. The study offers a robust method for otherwise difficult to obtain covalently functionalized polyanionic gold nanorods, which are suitable for biological applications as well as a low-cost, actively targeted, and high contrast imaging agent for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paves the way for further research in other inflammation associated pathologies, in particular, when photothermal therapy can be applied.
    Theranostics 01/2014; 4(6):629-41. · 7.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into fibrous structures has been the subject of numerous studies over past decades due to various current and promising technical applications. Although very different in their head group chemistry many natural as well as synthetic amphiphilic compounds derived from carbohydrates, carbocyanine dyes, or amino acids tend to form fibrous structures by molecular self-assembly in water predominantly twisted ribbons or tubes. Often a transition between these assembly structures is observed, which is a phenomenon already theoretically approached by Wolfgang Helfrich and still focus point in current research. With the development of suitable sample preparation and electron optical imaging techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) in combination with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction techniques has become a particular popular direct characterization technique for supramolecular assemblies in general. Here we review the recent progress in deriving precise structural information from cryo-TEM data of particularly fibrous structures preferably in three dimensions.
    Advances in colloid and interface science 01/2014; · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An amphiphilic linear ternary block copolymer was synthesised in three consecutive steps via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerisation. Oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether acrylate was engaged as a hydrophilic building block, while benzyl acrylate and 3-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl propyl acrylate served as hydrophobic building blocks. The resulting “triphilic” copolymer consists thus of a hydrophilic (A) and two mutually incompatible “soft” hydrophobic blocks, namely, a lipophilic (B) and a silicone-based (C) block, with all blocks having glass transition temperatures well below 0 °C. The triphilic copolymer self-assembles into spherical multicompartment micellar aggregates in aqueous solution, where the two hydrophobic blocks undergo local phase separation into various ultrastructures as evidenced by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Thus, a silicone-based polymer block can replace the hitherto typically employed fluorocarbon-based hydrophobic blocks in triphilic block copolymers for inducing multicompartmentalisation.
    Colloid and Polymer Science 11/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the synthesis, structure, and catalytic activity of human serum albumin (HSA) nanotubes (NTs) including gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a layered wall component. The NTs were fabricated as an alternating layer-by-layer assembly of AuNP and HSA admixture (a negatively charged part) and poly-L-arginine (PLA, a positively charged part) into a track-etched polycarbonate membrane (400 nm pore diameter), with subsequent dissolution of the tem-plate. SEM images showed the formation of uniform hollow cylinders of (PLA/AuNP-HSA)3 with a 426 ± 12 nm outer diameter and 65 ± 7 nm wall thickness. TEM and EDX measurements revealed high loading of AuNPs in the tubular wall. HSAs bind strongly onto the individual AuNP (K = 1.25 × 109 M-1), generating a core-shell AuNP-HSA conju-gate, which is the requirement of the robust NT formation. Calcination of the (PLA/AuNP-HSA)3 NTs at 500 °C under air yielded red solid NTs composed of thermally fused AuNPs. From the mass decrease by heat treatment, we calcu-lated the weight of the organic components (PLA and HSA) and thereby constructed a six-layer model of the tube. The (PLA/AuNP-HSA)3 NTs serves as a heterogeneous catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydrate. Furthermore, implantation of the stiff (PLA/AuNP-HSA)3 NTs vertically onto glass plate produced uni-formly cylindrical tube arrays.
    Langmuir 10/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Covalent core-shell structured protein clusters of hemoglobin (Hb) and human serum albumin (HSA) (HbX-HSAm) (m = 2, 3) with novel physiological properties were generated by linkage of Hb surface lysins to HSA cysteine-34 via an α-succinimidyl-ε-maleimide cross-linker (X: 1 or 2). The isoelectric points of HbX-HSAm (pI = 5.0-5.2) were markedly lower than that of Hb and almost identical to that of HSA. AFM and TEM measurements revealed a triangular Hb1-HSA3 cluster in aqueous medium. The complete 3D structure of Hb1-HSA3 based on TEM data was reconstructed, revealing two possible conformer variants. All HbX-HSAm clusters showed a moderately higher O2 affinity than the native Hb. Furthermore, the exterior HSA units possess a remarkable ability to bind lumiflavin (LF). The addition of NADH to an aqueous solution of the met-Hb2-(HSA-LF)3 cluster reduced the inactive ferric Hb center to the functional ferrous Hb. This O2-carrying hemoprotein cluster with strongly negative surface net charge, high O2 affinity, and NADH-dependent reductase unit can support a new generation of molecular architecture for red blood cell substitutes.
    Biomacromolecules 05/2013; · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Hans von Berlepsch, Christoph Boettcher
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    ABSTRACT: The aggregation behavior of cationic 5,5´,6,6´-tetrachloro-1,1´,3,3´-tetraethylbenzimidacarbocyanine with chloride (TTBC-Cl) or iodide counterions (TTBC-I) in aqueous solution is investigated by absorption, linear dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TTBC-Cl is found to form J-aggregates with a classical Davydov-split absorption band (type I spectrum) even under different preparation conditions. These aggregates remain stable for months. Unlike chloride salt, the iodide salt TTBC-I forms two different types of J-aggregates depending on the pH of the aqueous solution. The TTBC-I aggregates prepared in pure water (pH=6) are characterized by a single red-shifted absorption band (type III spectrum), whereas those prepared in alkaline solution at pH=13 show a typical Davydov-split (type I) absorption band. Despite differences in counterions, preparation method, stability and spectroscopic behavior cryo-TEM reveals an identical tubular architecture for all these J-aggregates. Among the new structure models discussed here is a cylindrical brickwork layer of dye molecules for single-banded J-aggregates (type III). For Davydov-split aggregates (type I) a molecular herringbone-like pattern is proposed instead. Moreover, absorption spectra have revealed an additional single red-shifted absorption band (type II spectrum) that is assigned to a surface aggregate and is induced by a specific interaction of the dye cation with the negatively charged cuvette wall. AFM measurements of analogous preparations on negatively charged mica surfaces have supported this interpretation and revealed the formation of monolayered sheet structures.
    Langmuir 03/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new class of non-ionic dendronized multiamphiphilic polymers is prepared from a biodegradable (AB)(n) -type diblock polymer synthesized from 2-azido-1,3-propanediol (azido glycerol) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-600 diethylester using Novozym-435 (Candida antarctica lipase) as a biocatalyst, following a well-established biocatalytic route. These polymers are functionalized with dendritic polyglycerols (G1 and G2) and octadecyl chains in different functionalization levels via click chemistry to generate dendronized multiamphiphilic polymers. Surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering studies reveal that all of the multiamphiphilic polymers spontaneously self-assemble in aqueous solution. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy further proves the formation of multiamphiphiles towards monodisperse spherical micelles of about 7-9 nm in diameter. The evidence from UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy suggests the effective solubilization of hydrophobic guests like pyrene and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid within the hydrophobic core of the micelles. These results demonstrate the potential of these dendronized multiamphiphilic polymers for the development of prospective drug delivery systems for the solubilization of poorly water soluble drugs.
    Small 12/2012; · 7.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structural characterization of a first family of dendronized polycationic perylenetetracarboxylic acid diimides (PDIs) 7, 8, and 10 is reported. They were obtained by amide coupling reactions of pyridinium salt head groups with terminal carboxylic groups of Newkome-dendron-type functionalized PDIs. Resulting pyridinium-terminated PDIs 7, 8, and 10 are highly water-soluble, independent of the pH value. This is due to 6, 18, and 9 permanent positive charges, respectively. PDIs 7 containing the smaller first-generation dendrons exhibit a pronounced aggregation behavior in water. This was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, by pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE, DOSY) NMR measurements, and by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The counterparts containing the bulkier second-generation dendrons hamper aggregation, and as a consequence intermolecular π–π stacking interactions between the perylene cores is suppressed.
    Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 11/2012; 2012(31). · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conductive tubes: Self-assembled nanotubes of a bacteriochlorophyll derivative are reminiscent of natural chlorosomal light-harvesting assemblies. After deposition on a substrate that consists of a non-conductive silicon oxide surface (see picture, brown) and contacting the chlorin nanowires to a conductive polymer (yellow), they show exceptional charge-transport properties.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 05/2012; 51(26):6378-82. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A water-soluble molecular transporter with a dendritic core–shell nanostructure has been prepared by a tandem coordination, ring-opening, hyperbranched polymerization process. Consisting of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyglycerol shell grafted from hydrophobic dendritic polyethylene core, the transporter has a molecular weight of 951 kg/mol and a hydrodynamic diameter of 17.5 ± 0.9 nm, as determined by static and dynamic light scattering, respectively. Based on evidence from fluorescence spectroscopy, light scattering, and electron microscopy, the core–shell copolymer transports the hydrophobic guests pyrene and Nile red by a unimolecular transport mechanism. Furthermore, it was shown that the core–shell copolymer effectively transports the hydrophobic dye Nile red into living cells under extremely high and biologically relevant dilution conditions, which is in sharp contrast to a small molecule amphiphile. These results suggest potential applicability of such core–shell molecular transporters in the administration of poorly water-soluble drugs.
    ACS Macro Letters. 04/2012; 1(5):564–567.
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    ABSTRACT: Polyplexes of short DNA-fragments (300 b.p., 100 nm) with tailor-made amine-based polycations of different architectures (linear and hyperbranched) were investigated in buffer solution as a function of the mixing ratio with DNA. The resulting dispersed polyplexes were characterized using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS, SAXS) as well as cryo-TEM with respect to their mesoscopic structure and their colloidal stability. The linear polyimines form rather compact structures that have a high tendency for precipitation. In contrast, the hyperbranched polycation with enzymatic-labile pentaethylenehexamine arms (PEHA) yields polyplexes colloidally stable for months. Here the polycation coating of DNA results in a homogeneous dispersion based on a fractal network with low structural organization at low polycation amount. With increasing polycation, bundles of tens of aligned DNA rods appear that are interconnected in a fractal network with a typical correlation distance on the order of 100 nm, the average length of the DNA used. With higher organization comes a decrease in stability. The 3D network built by these beams can still exhibit some stability as long as the material concentration is large enough, but the structure collapses upon dilution. SAXS shows that the complexation does not affect the local DNA structure. Interestingly, the structural findings on the DNA polyplexes apparently correlate with the transfection efficiency of corresponding siRNA complexes. In general, these finding not only show systematic trends for the colloid stability, but may allow for rational approaches to design effective transfection carriers.
    Biomacromolecules 11/2011; 12(12):4272-82. · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Teruyuki Komatsu, Takaaki Sato, Christoph Boettcher
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    ABSTRACT: A nanocylindrical wall structure was obtained by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of poly-L-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). SEM and SFM measurements of a lyophilized powder of (PLA/HSA)(3) nanotubes yielded images of round, chimney-like architectures with approximately 100 nm wall thickness. Cryo-TEM images of the hydrated sample revealed that the tube walls are composed of densely packed HSA molecules. Moreover, when small-angle X-ray scattering was used to characterize the individual PLA and HSA components in aqueous solutions, maximum diameters of approximately 28 nm and 8 nm were obtained, respectively. These values indicate the minimum thickness of wall layers consisting of PLA and HSA. It can also be concluded from SEM as well as from cryo-TEM images that the protein cylinders are considerably swollen in the presence of water. Furthermore, HSA retains esterase activity if assembled in nanotubes, as indicated by measurements of para-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis under semi-physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 22 °C). The enzyme activity parameters (Michaelis constant, K(m), and catalytic constant, k(cat)) were comparable to those of free HSA.
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal 11/2011; 7(1):201-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of amyloid aggregates is responsible for a wide range of diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Although the amyloid-forming proteins have different structures and sequences, all undergo a conformational change to form amyloid aggregates that have a characteristic cross-β-structure. The mechanistic details of this process are poorly understood, but different strategies for the development of inhibitors of amyloid formation have been proposed. In most cases, chemically diverse compounds bind to an elongated form of the protein in a β-strand conformation and thereby exert their therapeutic effect. However, this approach could favor the formation of prefibrillar oligomeric species, which are thought to be toxic. Herein, we report an alternative approach in which a helical coiled-coil-based inhibitor peptide has been designed to engage a coiled-coil-based amyloid-forming model peptide in a stable coiled-coil arrangement, thereby preventing rearrangement into a β-sheet conformation and the subsequent formation of amyloid-like fibrils. Moreover, we show that the helix-forming peptide is able to disassemble mature amyloid-like fibrils.
    Chemistry 09/2011; 17(38):10651-61. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV or CD26) is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein. As an exopeptidase it regulates the activity of a series of biologically important peptides. Through its interaction with specific proteins and peptides, DPPIV is also involved in a wide range of biologically relevant processes such as cell adhesion, T cell activation and apoptosis. In this paper, we review our recent studies on the interactions of DPPIV with adenosine deaminase (ADA) and the transcription transactivator of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 Tat) as revealed by three-dimensional structure reconstructed by single particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (EM) and crystal structures of the human DPPIV-bovine ADA complex as well as the crystal structures of DPPIV in complex with HIV-1 Tat-derived nonapeptides. These results contribute importantly to the clarification of the molecular mechanisms of this multifunctional protein. The biological relevance of these interactions is discussed.
    European journal of cell biology 08/2011; 91(4):265-73. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amphiphilic 3,3´-bis(2-sulfoethyl) and 3,3´-bis(2-sulfopropyl) substituted 5,5´,6,6´-tetrachlorobenzimidacarbocyanine dyes (C8S2 and C8S3) self-aggregate in aqueous solution to form mixed J-aggregates. The individual dyes form planar (C8S2) or tubular (C8S3) aggregates, while the mixed solution forms tubular aggregates that are morphologically identical to those obtained from the pure C8S3. The optical spectra however differ significantly indicating a different structure on the molecular length scale. The structure and morphology is independent of the mixing ratio if the content of C8S2 is above 10%. The structure of the mixed C8S3/C8S2 aggregates is investigated in detail by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) in combination with a 3D-image reconstruction technique, which yields a structure with a spatial resolution of ∼2 nm. A comparison with the 3D structure of the tubular aggregates of C8S3 could not resolve any differences. Any structural difference that could describe the spectroscopic difference of the two types of tubular aggregates must be below this resolution limit.Graphical abstractTwo amphiphilic carbocyanine dye molecules that have very similar molecular structure and form J-aggregates of different morphology are mixed in an aqueous solution. The aggregates of the mixture are of the same morphology as the aggregates of one of the dyes but exhibit a different absorption spectrum. The details of the morphology are analysed by using 3D-reconstruction techniques of cryo-TEM images and are discussed in the context of their optical behaviour.Highlights► Two sulfonate-substituted amphiphilic cyanines form mixed J-aggregates in water. ► Absorption spectrum is not a superposition of pure component spectra. ► Cryo-TEM reveals 13 nm thin bilayered nanotubes with helical ultrastructure. ► The spatial structure of aggregates is determined by 3D-reconstruction techniques.
    Chemical Physics 06/2011; 385:27-34. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low molecular weight heteroditopic monomer 1 forms supramolecular polymers in polar solution as shown, for example, by infrared laser-based dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), electron microscopy (TEM, cryo-TEM), and viscosity measurements. Self-assembly of 1 is based on two orthogonal binding interactions, the formation of a Fe(II)-terpyridine 1:2 metal-ligand complex and the dimerization of a self-complementary guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole carboxylate zwitterion. Both binding interactions have a sufficient stability in polar (DMSO) and even aqueous solutions to ensure formation of linear polymers of considerable length (up to 100 nm). The supramolecular polymerization follows a ring-chain mechanism causing a significant increase in the viscosity of the solutions at millimolar concentrations and above. The linear polymers then further aggregate in solution into larger globular aggregates with a densely packed core and a loose shell. Both binding interactions can be furthermore switched on and off either by adding a competing ligand to remove the metal ion and subsequent readdition of Fe(II) or by reversible protonation and deprotonation of the zwitterion upon addition of acid or base. The self-assembly of 1 can therefore be switched back and forth between four different states, the monomer, a metal-complexed dimer or an ion paired dimer, and finally the polymer.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 06/2011; 133(23):8961-71. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amphiphilic linear ternary block copolymers (ABC) were synthesized in three consecutive steps by the reversible addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method. Using oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether acrylate, benzyl acrylate, and 1H,1H-perfluorobutyl acrylate monomers, the triblock copolymers consist of a hydrophilic (A), a lipophilic (B), and a fluorophilic (C) block. The block sequence of the triphilic copolymers was varied systematically to provide all possible variations: ABC, ACB, and BAC. All blocks have glass transition temperatures below 0 °C. Self-assembly into spherical micellar aggregates was observed in aqueous solution, where hydrophobic cores undergo local phase separation into various ultrastructures as shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Selective solubilization of substantial quantities of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon low molar mass compounds by the lipophilic and fluorophilic block, respectively, is demonstrated.
    Macromolecules. 03/2011;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
454.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • • Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      • • Division of Organic Chemistry
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2011
    • Chuo University
      • Department of Applied Chemistry
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2004–2010
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      • Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2009
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Institute of Chemistry
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • Humboldt University of Berlin
      • • Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences I
      • • Department of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • National Sun Yat-sen University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan