[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated expression of heat shock protein gp96 in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients is positively correlated with the progress of HBV-induced diseases, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of virus-induced gp96 expression and its impact on HBV infection. In this study, up-regulation of gp96 by HBV replication was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Among HBV components, HBV x protein (HBx) was found to increase gp96 promoter activity and enhance gp96 expression by using a luciferase reporter system, and western blot analysis. Further, we found that HBx-mediated regulation of gp96 expression requires a NF-κB cis-regulatory element on the gp96 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that HBx promotes the binding of NF-κB to the gp96 promoter. Significantly, both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that gp96 enhances HBV production in HBV-transfected cells and a mouse model based on hydrodynamic transfection. Moreover, up-regulated gp96 expression was observed in HBV-infected patients, and gp96 levels were correlated with serum viral loads. Thus, our work demonstrates a positive feedback regulatory pathway involving gp96 and HBV, which may contribute to persistent HBV infection. Our data also indicate that modulation of gp96 function may represent a novel strategy for the intervention of HBV infection.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65588. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein gp96 is an adjuvant that can elicit T cell responses against cancer and infectious diseases, via antigen presentation, in both rodent models and clinical trials. Its uptake and internalization into antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a critical step in gp96-mediated immune responses. This study examined strategies to improve the cell internalization and T cell activation of gp96. It was found that recombinant fusion with the cell-penetrating peptide TAT (trans-activator of transcription) slightly decreased the aggregation level of gp96 and significantly increased its internalization into macrophages. Furthermore, immunization with the TAT-gp96 fusion dramatically enhanced gp96-mediated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell responses and its antiviral efficiency in HBV transgenic mice compared to rgp96. In addition, the inclusion of TAT significantly improved the antitumor T cell immune response to a gp96 vaccine in the B16 melanoma model. These results provide evidence that the efficient transduction of gp96 into APCs can significantly enhance the outcome of gp96-based immunotherapy, and therefore provide a basis for more efficient approaches to improving the immunoregulatory and adjuvant functions of this unique T cell adjuvant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the most abundant liver-specific microRNA, microRNA-122 (miR-122) is involved in various physiological processes in hepatic function as well as in liver pathology. There is now compelling evidence that miR-122, as a regulator of gene networks and pathways in hepatocytes, plays a central role in diverse aspects of hepatic function and in the progress of liver diseases. This liver-enriched transcription factors-regulated miRNA promotes differentiation of hepatocytes and regulates lipid metabolism. With regard to liver diseases, miR-122 was shown to stimulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through a unique and unusual interaction with two binding sites in the 5'-UTR of HCV genome to mediate the stability of the viral RNA, whereas inhibit the expression and replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) by a miR-122-cylin G1/p53-HBV enhancer regulatory pathway. In addition, miR-122 acts as a suppressor of cell proliferation and malignant transformation of hepatocytes with remarkable tumor inhibition activity. Notably, a clinical trial targeting miR-122 with the anti-miR-122 oligonucleotides miravirsen, the first miRNA targeted drug, has been initiated for treatment of HCV infection. With further understanding of the comprehensive roles of miR-122 in hepatic functions and the mechanisms involved in miR-122 down-regulation in chronic hepatitis or hepatocellular carcinoma, miR-122 appears to be a promising candidate for effective therapeutic approaches against tumor and infectious diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-shock protein gp96 associates with antigenic peptides derived from tumor and virus. Exogenous gp96-peptide complexes are taken up by antigen-presenting cells through interaction with its receptor CD91 on the cell surface, and cross-present antigenic peptides to MHC class I molecules by a peptide relay line in the endoplasmic reticulum for specific T-cell activation. Meanwhile, gp96 has been shown to initiate innate immune responses through interaction with toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4. Recent studies have shown a gp96-mediated immune balance between CTL and Tregs. With the further understanding of counteracting immunosuppressive mechanisms in gp96-induced cellular immune responses, and establishment of high level production of recombinant gp96 by the yeast, gp96 appears to be a promising candidate for designing effective therapeutic vaccines against tumor and infectious diseases.
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 03/2012; 28(3):261-6.