[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) and downstream signaling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms protects the heart from failure and hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.
β3-AR and its downstream signaling pathways are recognized as novel modulators of heart function. Unlike β1- and β2-ARs, β3-ARs are stimulated at high catecholamine concentrations and induce negative inotropic effects, serving as a "brake" to protect the heart from catecholamine overstimulation.
C57BL/6J and neuronal NOS (nNOS) knockout mice were assigned to receive transverse aortic constriction (TAC), BRL37344 (β3 agonist, BRL 0.1 mg/kg/h), or both.
Three weeks of BRL treatment in wild-type mice attenuated left ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction, and partially reduced cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. This effect was associated with increased nitric oxide production and superoxide suppression. TAC decreased endothelial NOS (eNOS) dimerization, indicating eNOS uncoupling, which was not reversed by BRL treatment. However, nNOS protein expression was up-regulated 2-fold by BRL, and the suppressive effect of BRL on superoxide generation was abrogated by acute nNOS inhibition. Furthermore, BRL cardioprotective effects were actually detrimental in nNOS(-/-) mice.
These results are the first to show in vivo cardioprotective effects of β3-AR-specific agonism in pressure overload hypertrophy and heart failure, and support nNOS as the primary downstream NOS isoform in maintaining NO and reactive oxygen species balance in the failing heart.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2012; 59(22):1979-87. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) have worse clinical outcomes compared to patients with HF without diabetes after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients with HF and diabetes represent a growing population at high risk for cardiovascular events and are increasingly treated with CRT. Although patients with diabetes and HF appear to benefit from CRT, their clinical outcomes are worse than those of patients without diabetes after CRT. The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors that explain the differential hazard in patients with diabetes. We studied 442 patients (169 with diabetes) with systolic HF referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital CRT clinic from 2003 to 2010 to identify predictors of outcomes after CRT in patients with HF and diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to have ischemic causes of HF than those without diabetes, but there was no difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction or HF classification at implantation. Patients with diabetes had poorer event-free survival (death or HF hospitalization) compared to those without diabetes (log-rank p = 0.04). The presence of diabetes was the most important independent predictor of differential outcomes in the entire population (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.51). Patients with diabetes receiving insulin therapy had poorer survival, whereas those not receiving insulin therapy had similar survival to patients without diabetes. Patients with peri-implantation glycosylated hemoglobin >7% had worse outcomes, whereas patients with glycosylated hemoglobin ≤7% had improved survival (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.86) equivalent to that of patients without diabetes. In conclusion, although the presence of diabetes, independent of other variables, increases the hazard of worse outcomes after CRT, there is additional risk conferred by insulin use and suboptimal peri-implantation glycemic control.
The American journal of cardiology 05/2012; 110(5):683-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of the beta-adrenergic system is important in the pathological response to sustained cardiac stress, forming the rationale for the use of beta-blockers in heart failure. The beta3-adrenoreceptor (AR) is thought to couple to the inhibitory G-protein, G(i), with downstream signaling through nitric oxide, although its role in the heart remains controversial. In this study, we tested whether lack of beta3-AR influences the myocardial response to pressure-overload. Baseline echocardiography in mice lacking beta3-AR (beta3(-/-)) compared to wild type (WT) showed mild LV hypertrophy at 8 weeks that worsened as they aged. beta3(-/-) mice had much greater mortality after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) than WT controls. By 3 weeks of TAC, systolic function was worse. After 9 weeks of TAC, beta3(-/-) mice also had greater LV dilation, myocyte hypertrophy and enhanced fibrosis. NOS activity declined in beta3(-/-)TAC hearts after 9 weeks, and total and NOS-dependent superoxide rose, indicating heightened oxidative stress and NOS uncoupling. The level of eNOS phosphorylation in beta3(-/-)TAC hearts was diminished, and nNOS and iNOS expression levels were increased. GTP cyclohydrolase-1 expression was reduced, although total BH4 levels were not depleted. 3 weeks of BH4 treatment rescued beta3(-/-) mice from worsened remodeling after TAC, and lowered NOS-dependent superoxide. Thus, lack of beta3-AR signaling exacerbates cardiac pressure-overload induced remodeling and enhances NOS uncoupling and consequent oxidant stress, all of which can be rescued with exogenous BH4. These data suggest a cardioprotective role for the beta3-AR in modulating oxidative stress and adverse remodeling in the failing heart.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2009; 47(5):576-85. · 5.15 Impact Factor