[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. FINDINGS: Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75%) had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17%) of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection.
Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%), 0 (0% - 12%), 0 (0% - 1.2%) and 0 (0% - 10%) for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively.
The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued.
BMC Veterinary Research 05/2012; 8:59. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) infection in sheep is present in several European countries, including Norway. The current Norwegian surveillance and control programme for MVV infection uses three serological tests: an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and two commercially available indirect ELISAs (Institut Pourquier, P-ELISA and HYPHEN BioMed, H-ELISA). From 18 flocks with suspected or confirmed MVV infection, sera from naturally infected sheep were obtained, and sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the three tests were estimated in absence of a perfect reference test using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. The AGID had higher Sp (95% posterior credibility interval (PCI) [98.4; 99.9]) than either ELISA (95% PCI: P-ELISA, [95.1; 99.0]; H-ELISA, [91.4; 96.6]), but much lower Se (95% PCI: AGID, [41.4; 59.8]; P-ELISA, [92.7; 100.0]; H-ELISA, [90.9; 99.4]). Currently the P-ELISA is used for screening and positive samples are subsequently confirmed by a setup using all three tests in a serial reading. The Se and Sp of the serial interpretations with and without the H-ELISA were estimated. The results suggested that the H-ELISA could be dropped as a confirmatory test as the Se of the three test serial reading was reduced significantly without adding a significant improvement of the Sp compared to the serial reading of the P-ELISA and AGID alone. However, the perceived cost of false positives versus false negatives will influence this decision. Estimates of the predictive values for the tests and combinations suggested that the P-ELISA is a good choice of screening, but confirmatory tests are needed to achieve acceptable levels of positive predictive values.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Norwegian surveillance and control programme for paratuberculosis revealed 8 seroreactors in a single dairy cattle herd that had no clinical signs of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) infection. Paratuberculosis had been a clinical problem in goats several years previously in this herd. All 45 cattle were culled and a thorough investigation of the infection status was conducted by the use of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) immunoassay, measurement of antibodies, and pathological and bacteriological examination. In the IFN-gamma immunoassay, 9 animals gave positive results, and 13 were weakly positive, while 19 animals were negative. In the serological test, 10 animals showed positive reactions, and 5 were doubtful, while 30 animals gave negative reactions. There appeared to be a weak trend toward younger animals having raised IFN-gamma and older animals having raised serological tests. Histopathological lesions compatible with paratuberculosis were diagnosed in 4 animals aged between 4 and 9 years. Three of these animals had positive serological reaction and one animal gave also positive results in the IFN-gamma immunoassay. Infection was confirmed by isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from 2 of these 4 animals. One single bacterial isolate examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) had the same profile, B-C1, as a strain that had been isolated from a goat at the same farm several years previously. Despite many animals being positive in one or both of the immunological tests, indicative of a heavily infected herd, none of the animals showed clinical signs and only one cow was shown to be shedding bacteria. A cross-reaction with other mycobacteria might have caused some of the immunoreactions in these animals. It is also possible that the Norwegian red cattle breed is resistant to clinical infection with M. a. paratuberculosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14: k: z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/ 1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case-control study was made of Norwegian dairy herds with high and low herd levels of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. A high proportion of the herds had a considerable number of seropositive cows, and environmental and management factors were examined for possible associations with the high serological levels of antibodies. The most important appeared to be: geographical location, red deer (Cervus elaphus) gaining access to the pastures for cattle, the observation of wild birds in the feed storage, and herds sharing common pasture with other herds of cattle. However, diagnostic tests showed that none of the animals in the case herds was infected with M a paratuberculosis.
The Veterinary record 05/2004; 154(17):522-6. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum samples from 4339 wild cervids collected in Norway were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the direct agglutination test. The association between seroprevalence and species, sex, age, and geographic region was investigated. Positive titers (> or =1:40) were found in 33.9% of 760 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); 12.6% of 2142 moose (Alces alces); 7.7% of 571 red deer (Cervus elaphus); and 1.0% of 866 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The seroprevalences were significantly different between the species. There was a significant increase in prevalence with age in roe deer, moose, and red deer, except from yearling to adult in red deer. A significant age-sex interaction was found in moose, and the effect of age was most distinct for females. No association between seropositive animals and sex was found for roe deer and red deer. There were significant differences in prevalence between geographic regions in roe deer and male moose. A widespread exposure to T. gondii in Norwegian cervids is documented, and meat from Norwegian cervids, particularly roe deer, should be regarded a potential source of infection for humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Affinity between protein-G and immunoglobulins from red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) was tested in a competition binding assay. Sera from red deer, reindeer, and moose inhibited the assay less than sera from cattle (less affinity), whereas sera from roe deer showed a slightly higher affinity to protein-G than did sera from cattle. The conclusion was made that protein-G could be used instead of anti-species antibodies for these cervid species, where the aim of the screening was to look for exposure or lack of exposure to mycobacteria in the tested populations. Serologic screening of 1,373 free-ranging cervids for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was conducted. All sera were tested by a protein-G-based antigen-absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seropositive moose (10/537; 1.9%), red deer (14/371; 3.8%), roe deer (6/49; 12.2%), and semidomesticated reindeer (11/325; 3.4%) were found, whereas wild reindeer (n = 91) were seronegative. In addition, the red deer sera were tested with a commercial ELISA, by which two animals tested positive and nine were suspicious of having M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies. Tissue samples and feces from 10 moose originating from a population with a clustering of seropositive animals were investigated by histology and bacteriology with negative results. Paratuberculosis has never been diagnosed in free-ranging or farmed cervid species in Norway. Thus, further studies are indicated to prove that the present findings reflect an infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Journal of wildlife diseases 02/2004; 40(1):32-41. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serologic survey revealed that Norwegian populations of free-ranging reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) have been exposed to alpha-herpesviruses and pestiviruses. A total of 3,796 serum samples collected during the period 1993-2000 were tested in a neutralization test for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) or cervid herpesvirus 2 (CerHV-2), and 3,897 samples were tested by a neutralization test and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Antibodies against alpha-herpesvirus were found in 28.5% of reindeer, 3.0% of roe deer, and 0.5% of red deer, while all moose samples were negative. In reindeer, the prevalence of seropositive animals increased with age and was higher in males than females. Antibodies against BVDV were detected in 12.3% of roe deer, 4.2% of reindeer, 2.0% of moose and 1.1% of red deer. The results indicate that both alpha-herpesvirus and pestivirus are endemic in reindeer and pestivirus is endemic in roe deer in Norway. The viruses may be specific cervid strains. Seropositive red deer and moose may have become exposed as a result of contact with other ruminant species.
Journal of wildlife diseases 11/2003; 39(4):779-86. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum samples have been negative for BHV-1 antibodies. This paper describes the use of Monte Carlo simulation models for the analysis and interpretation of the results of the surveillance and provides support for the contention that the Norwegian cattle population is not infected by BHV-1.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 08/2001; 50(1-2):109-25. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monte Carlo simulation models were used to evaluate the feasibility and potential results of a proposed national survey of the prevalence of bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) in dairy herds in Norway. The expected herd prevalence was assumed to be 0.2% in the simulations. The low sensitivity of the ELISA test, the assumed low herd prevalence, the typical low within-herd prevalence of PTB and the small herd sizes all present problems in detection of the disease. Simulations with 500, 1000, 2500 and 6000 herds tested were done. Our results suggest that a national survey would not be feasible at present, due to the low probability of detecting infected herds and because of the high number of false-positive reactions that would be expected to occur.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2000; 44(3-4):141-51. · 2.39 Impact Factor