James L Carey

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (40)103.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a vexing condition for patients, parents, and physicians because of the frequent slow healing and nonhealing that leads to prolonged treatment. Several features on plain radiographs have been identified as predictors of healing, but the reliability of their measurement has not been established. To determine the inter- and intrarater reliability of several radiographic features used in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of OCD femoral condyle lesions. Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Pretreatment anteroposterior, lateral, and notch radiographs of 45 knees containing OCD lesions of the medial or lateral femoral condyle were reviewed in blinded fashion by 7 orthopaedic physician raters from different institutions over a secure web portal at 2 time points over a month apart. Classification variables included lesion location, growth plate maturity, parent bone radiodensity, progeny bone fragmentation, progeny bone displacement, progeny bone contour, lesion boundary, and radiodensity of the lesion center and rim. Condylar width and lesion size were measured on all views. Interrater reliability was assessed using free-marginal kappa and intraclass correlations. Intrarater reliability was assessed using the Cohen kappa, linear-weighted kappa, and intraclass correlations based on measurement type. Raters had excellent reliability for differentiating medial and lateral lesions and growth plate maturity and for measuring condylar width and lesion size. In the subset of knees with visible bone in the lesion, the fragmentation, displacement, boundary, central radiodensity, and contour (concave/nonconcave) of the lesion bone were classified with moderate to substantial reliability. The radiodensity of the lesion rim and surrounding epiphyseal bone were classified with poor to fair reliability. Many diagnostic features of femoral condyle OCD lesions can be reliably classified on plain radiographs, supporting their future testing in multifactorial classification systems and multicenter research to develop prognostic algorithms. Other radiographic features should be excluded, however, because of poor reliability. © 2015 The Author(s).
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2015; · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failure occurs in up to 10% of cases. Technical errors are considered the most common cause of graft failure despite the absence of validated studies. Limited data are available regarding the agreement among orthopaedic surgeons regarding the causes of primary ACL reconstruction failure and accuracy of graft tunnel placement. Experienced knee surgeons have a high level of interobserver reliability in the agreement about the causes of primary ACL reconstruction failure, anatomic graft characteristics, and tunnel placement. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Twenty cases of revision ACL reconstruction were randomly selected from the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) database. Each case included the patient's history, standardized radiographs, and a concise 30-second arthroscopic video taken at the time of revision demonstrating the graft remnant and location of the tunnel apertures. All 20 cases were reviewed by 10 MARS surgeons not involved with the primary surgery. Each surgeon completed a 2-part questionnaire dealing with each surgeon's training and practice, as well as the placement of the femoral and tibial tunnels, condition of the primary graft, and the surgeon's opinion as to the causes of graft failure. Interrater agreement was determined for each question with the kappa coefficient and the prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). The 10 reviewers have been in practice an average of 14 years and have performed at least 25 ACL reconstructions per year, and 9 were fellowship trained in sports medicine. There was wide variability in agreement among knee experts as to the specific causes of ACL graft failure. When participants were specifically asked about technical error as the cause for failure, interobserver agreement was only slight (PABAK = 0.26). There was fair overall agreement on ideal femoral tunnel placement (PABAK = 0.55) but only slight agreement on whether a femoral tunnel was too anterior (PABAK = 0.24) and fair agreement on whether it was too vertical (PABAK = 0.46). There was poor overall agreement for ideal tibial tunnel placement (PABAK = 0.17). This study suggests that more objective criteria are needed to accurately determine the causes of primary ACL graft failure as well as the ideal femoral and tibial tunnel placement in patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s).
    The American journal of sports medicine. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several aetiological theories have been proposed for the development of osteochondritis dissecans. Cartilage toxicity after fluoroquinolone use has been well documented in vitro. We present a case report of a 10-year-old child who underwent a prolonged 18-month course of ciprofloxacin therapy for chronic urinary tract infections. This patient later developed an osteochondritis dissecans lesion of the medial femoral condyle. We hypothesise that the fluoroquinolone therapy disrupted normal endochondral ossification, resulting in development of osteochondritis dissecans. The aetiology of osteochondritis dissecans is still unclear, and this case describes an association between fluoroquinolone use and osteochondritis dissecans development.
    Case Reports 09/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Research has associated adhesive capsulitis with diabetes mellitus but suggests that glucose-mediated injury may begin before diabetes is diagnosed. The period preceding diabetes is often marked by metabolic syndrome. Methods We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome components (insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) and the development of adhesive capsulitis using a case-control study. We retrospectively reviewed 150 consecutive adhesive capsulitis patient charts to determine the prevalence of obesity and of medications used for treating metabolic syndrome elements and compared these with previously reported nationwide values. Results The prevalence of anti-hyperglycemia medications in the adhesive capsulitis cohort was 18.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-25.7%), twice the national rate of diagnosed diabetes of 7.6% (95% CI, 6.7%-8.5%). In the 20- to 39-year-old group, the prevalence of anti-hyperglycemic medications, 26.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-48.8%), was over 10 times the nationwide rate. The overall prevalence of hypertensive medication use in the adhesive capsulitis group, 33.1% (95% CI, 25.9%-41.2%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate, 21.6% (95% CI, 19.8%-23.4%). In the 40- to 64-year-old group, the prevalence of hypertensive medication use, 36.8% (95% CI, 28.6%-46.0%), was notably higher than the nationwide rate of 24.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-27.0%). The prevalence of anti-lipid medications and obesity was similar between the groups. Conclusions The relationship between adhesive capsulitis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. Our results confirm previous work associating hyperglycemia with adhesive capsulitis. We have also shown a possible association of hypertension, part of metabolic syndrome and a proinflammatory condition, with adhesive capsulitis, which has not been previously described.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothesis The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine whether the duration of symptoms influences the features seen in patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis is that an increasing duration of symptoms will correlate with more advanced findings of rotator cuff tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging, worse shoulder outcome scores, more pain, decreased range of motion, and less strength. Methods We enrolled 450 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a prospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment and factors predictive of success. The duration of patient symptoms was divided into 4 groups: 3 months or less, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and greater than 12 months. Data collected at patient entry into the study included (1) demographic data, (2) history and physical examination data, (3) radiographic imaging data, and (4) validated patient-reported measures of shoulder status. Statistical analysis included a univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson test to identify statistically significant differences in these features for different durations of symptoms. Results A longer duration of symptoms does not correlate with more severe rotator cuff disease. The duration of symptoms was not related to weakness, limited range of motion, tear size, fatty atrophy, or validated patient-reported outcome measures. Conclusions There is only a weak relationship between the duration of symptoms and features associated with rotator cuff disease.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2014; 96(10):793-800. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent randomized trial from the Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study Group was published in the New England Journal of Medicine and attempted to determine the efficacy of partial meniscectomy without osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to either arthroscopic partial meniscectomy or sham surgery. The authors concluded that the clinical outcomes after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy were no better than those after the sham surgical procedure. However, there are several important limitations of this trial that make it difficult to generalize to the 700,000 arthroscopic partial meniscectomies performed in the United States each year. In this small sample of 146 patients, patients with traumatic meniscal tears and locking symptoms—those most likely to benefit from a partial meniscectomy—were excluded. In addition, although patients with radiographic arthritis were excluded, most of the patients in the study had degenerative changes at the time of arthroscopy. Therefore it is difficult to determine whether the patients were symptomatic from their chondral degeneration or their degenerative meniscal tear. In our opinion this study does not change the role of surgery in current clinical practice. The primary indication for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy remains symptoms of well-localized joint line pain with acute onset and mechanical symptoms such as catching or locking that have failed comprehensive nonoperative management.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple systems for classifying osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee have been reported. These existing classification systems have some similar characteristics, such as stable lesion/intact articular cartilage and presence of a loose body. However, variations are found in the number of stages and specific lesion characteristics assessed. Currently, no system has been universally accepted. A future classification system should be developed that reconciles the discrepancies among the current systems and provides a clear, consistent, and reliable method for classifying OCD lesions of the knee during arthroscopy.
    Clinics in sports medicine 04/2014; 33(2):189-197. · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • James L Carey, Nathan L Grimm
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    ABSTRACT: The authors' preferred treatment algorithm for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is based on skeletal maturity, OCD lesion stability, and OCD lesion salvageability. For unstable yet salvageable OCD lesions, the senior author's preferred treatment is fixation with bone grafting. For unstable and unsalvageable OCD lesions, the senior author's preferred treatment is autologous chondrocyte implantation with bone grafting.
    Clinics in sports medicine 04/2014; 33(2):375-382. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the knee is commonly diagnosed and monitored with radiography. However, the reliability of radiographic classification systems for osteoarthritis and the correlation of these classifications with the actual degree of confirmed degeneration of the articular cartilage of the tibiofemoral joint have not been adequately studied.METHODS: As the Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) Group, we conducted a multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing revision surgery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We followed 632 patients who underwent radiographic evaluation of the knee (an anteroposterior weight-bearing radiograph, a posteroanterior weight-bearing radiograph made with the knee in 45° of flexion [Rosenberg radiograph], or both) and arthroscopic evaluation of the articular surfaces. Three blinded examiners independently graded radiographic findings according to six commonly used systems-the Kellgren-Lawrence, International Knee Documentation Committee, Fairbank, Brandt et al., Ahlbäck, and Jäger-Wirth classifications. Interobserver reliability was assessed with use of the intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between radiographic classification and arthroscopic findings of tibiofemoral chondral disease was assessed with use of the Spearman correlation coefficient.RESULTS: Overall, 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.65) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.56). Similarly, the 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher correlation with arthroscopic findings of chondral disease (Spearman rho = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.39) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (Spearman rho = 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.32). With respect to standards for the magnitude of the reliability coefficient and correlation coefficient (Spearman rho), the International Knee Documentation Committee classification demonstrated the best combination of good interobserver reliability and medium correlation with arthroscopic findings.CONCLUSIONS: The overall estimates with the six radiographic classification systems demonstrated moderate (anteroposterior radiographs) to good (45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs) interobserver reliability and medium correlation with arthroscopic findings. The International Knee Documentation Committee classification assessed with use of 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had the most favorable combination of reliability and correlation.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 01/2014; 96:1145-1151. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a specific nonoperative physical therapy program in treating atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears using a multicenter prospective cohort study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears who consented to enroll provided data via questionnaire on demographics, symptom characteristics, comorbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient-related outcome assessments (Short Form 12 score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, and Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. Patients began a physical therapy program developed from a systematic review of the literature and returned for evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks. At those visits, patients could choose 1 of 3 courses: (1) cured (no formal follow-up scheduled), (2) improved (continue therapy with scheduled reassessment in 6 weeks), or (3) no better (surgery offered). Patients were contacted by telephone at 1 and 2 years to determine whether they had undergone surgery since their last visit. A Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction was used to compare initial, 6-week, and 12-week outcome scores. RESULTS: The cohort consists of 452 patients. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly at 6 and 12 weeks. Patients elected to undergo surgery less than 25% of the time. Patients who decided to have surgery generally did so between 6 and 12 weeks, and few had surgery between 3 and 24 months. CONCLUSION: Nonoperative treatment using this physical therapy protocol is effective for treating atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears in approximately 75% of patients followed up for 2 years.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 03/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Stuart Duncan Kinsella, James L Carey
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    ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can be complicated by excessive resection, damage to articular cartilage, neurovascular injury, persistent drainage from portals, and infection; the procedure can be rendered more difficult, and the outcome less certain, if the surgeon fails to recognize concomitant injuries, malpositions the portals, or misidentifies the components of a meniscus tear. We review the problems that can occur as a result of errors made before, during, and after surgery.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 12/2012; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 10/2012; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although many etiological theories have been proposed for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), its etiology remains unclear. Histological analysis of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone tissues of OCD lesions can provide useful information about the cellular changes and progression of OCD. Previous research is predominantly comprised of retrospective clinical studies from which limited conclusions can be drawn. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purposes of this study were threefold: (1) Is osteonecrosis a consistent finding in OCD biopsy specimens? (2) Is normal articular cartilage a consistent finding in OCD biopsy specimens? (3) Do histological studies propose an etiology for OCD based on the tissue findings? METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases for studies that conducted histological analyses of OCD lesions of the knee and identified 1560 articles. Of these, 11 met our inclusion criteria: a study of OCD lesions about the knee, published in the English language, and performed a histological analysis of subchondral bone and articular cartilage. These 11 studies were assessed for an etiology proposed in the study based on the study findings. RESULTS: Seven of 11 studies reported subchondral bone necrosis. Four studies reported normal articular cartilage, two studies reported degenerated or irregular articular cartilage, and five studies found a combination of normal and degenerated or irregular articular cartilage. Five studies proposed trauma or repetitive stress and two studies proposed poor blood supply as possible etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited research on histological analysis of OCD lesions of the knee. Future studies with consistent methodology are necessary to draw major conclusions about the histology and progression of OCD lesions. Inconsistent histologic findings have resulted in a lack of consensus regarding the presence of osteonecrosis, whether the necrosis is primary or secondary, the association of cartilage degeneration, and the etiology of OCD. Such studies could use a standardized grading system to allow better comparison of findings.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2012; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The adverse effects of smoking on various health conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been well documented. Many orthopaedic conditions, such as fracture healing, wound repair, and bone mineral density, have been reported to be adversely affected by smoking. However, no known systematic reviews have investigated the effects of smoking on ligament and cartilage knee surgery. PURPOSE:We hypothesized that smoking would have a negative influence from both a basic science and clinical outcome perspective on these types of knee surgeries. STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review. METHODS:A systematic review of multiple medical databases was performed evaluating clinical and basic science studies to determine the effects of smoking on ligament and cartilage knee surgery. RESULTS:Fourteen studies were found for inclusion and analysis. Eight of these studies addressed the relationship between smoking and knee ligaments, and 6 investigated the relationship between smoking and articular cartilage. With the exception of 1, all of the basic science and clinical studies exploring the relationship between smoking and knee ligaments found a negative association of smoking, either molecularly, biomechanically, or clinically. One basic science and 3 clinical studies found a negative influence of smoking on articular cartilage of the knee. No studies were found that investigated the relationship of smoking and menisci. CONCLUSION:The current literature reveals a negative influence of smoking on the results of knee ligament surgery, both from a basic science and clinical perspective, implying that smoking cessation would benefit patients undergoing these procedures. The association between smoking and knee articular cartilage was less clear, although the literature still suggests an overall negative influence and highlights the need for further investigation.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 09/2012; · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Knee injury prevention programs have been developed to address the epidemic of knee injuries in young athletes. These programs include exercises that focus on balance, proprioception, and neuromuscular control. Some studies have suggested such specialized exercise programs may reduce the risk of knee injury. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of knee injury prevention programs and evaluated the risks of bias in these studies. METHODS: We performed a systematic search using MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), Cochrane (CENTRAL), and EMBASE (from 1974) in April 2011. The searches were limited to RCTs. Two reviewers independently assessed the internal validity of the included studies using the van Tulder critical appraisal tool for RCTs. Authors were contacted when internal validity was unclear in the methodology. Ten Level I studies (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. The average risk of bias score for these studies was 7 of 11 (range, 5-10). RESULTS: Two of the 10 studies reported a reduction in knee injuries. Of the three studies that provided ACL injuries as an outcome measure, none showed a reduction in overall ACL injury. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests most (eight of 10) well-designed RCTs show no difference of treatment benefit. Perhaps refinements of interventions may lead to a reduction in knee and ACL injuries in future trials. Limitations in the number and heterogeneity of currently published RCTs of injury prevention programs place restraints on quantifying intervention efficacy with a meta-analytic approach. Future research articles should more clearly describe the different elements of their methodology, consistent with the standards set forth by the CONSORT statement.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2012; 471(1). · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 07/2012; 94(14):1322-4. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patellofemoral instability affects activities of daily living and hinders athletic participation. Over the past 2 decades, more attention has been paid to medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for the treatment of recurrent patellar dislocations/subluxations. Numerous techniques have been reported; however, there is no consensus regarding optimal reconstruction. This study sought to report on the various techniques for MPFL reconstruction described in the literature and to assess the rate of complications associated with the procedure. Meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed in early October 2010 using keywords "medial patellofemoral ligament," "MPFL," "reconstruction," "complication(s)," and "failure(s)." Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Graft choice, surgical technique, outcome measures, and complications were recorded and organized in a database. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the data collected. Twenty-five articles were identified and reviewed. A total of 164 complications occurred in 629 knees (26.1%). These adverse events ranged from minor to major including patellar fracture, failures, clinical instability on postoperative examination, loss of knee flexion, wound complications, and pain. Twenty-six patients returned to the operating room for additional procedures. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction has a high rate of success for patients with patellofemoral instability; however, the complication rate of 26.1% associated with this procedure is not trivial. This study quantified complications and documented the variety of complications reported in outcomes-based literature.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2012; 40(8):1916-23. · 4.70 Impact Factor
  • James L Carey
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2012; 94(11):e80. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • James L Carey, Allen F Anderson, Kevin G Shea
    Orthopedics 05/2012; 35(5):413-4. · 1.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

438 Citations
103.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Orthopaedics
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States