Steven J Kindel

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States

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Publications (3)2.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Although cardiac transplantation is life-saving, morbidities from immunosuppression are significant. EoE is a complication of calcineurin inhibitors following liver transplant causing feeding intolerance, weight loss, vomiting, and dysphagia. There are limited reports of EoE following heart transplantation. We performed a retrospective single-center review of pediatric cardiac transplant patients from 2000 to 2010. A case-control analysis of patients with and without EoE was performed evaluating heart transplantation outcomes such as rates of rejection, CAV, PTLD, and graft loss. Eighty-six transplants were performed in 84 patients; 34 (40%) underwent diagnostic endoscopy, and 10 (12%) had EoE. Median time to diagnosis of EoE was 3.7 yr (IQR: 2.0-5.2). There were no differences in demographics or use of induction medications between patients with or without EoE. Patients with EoE had fewer episodes of treated rejection (1.0 vs. 2.5; p = 0.04). Four of 10 (40%) EoE patients had PTLD compared with only 2/24 (8%) of those without EoE (p = 0.048; OR 7.33 [95% CI: 1.1-50.2]). There were no differences in CAV or graft loss between groups. EoE should be considered as a cause of GI symptoms in children after cardiac transplantation and may be associated with fewer rejection episodes and increased rates of PTLD, thus representing a marker of over-immunosuppression.
    Pediatric Transplantation 06/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Steven J Kindel, Elfriede Pahl
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    ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation is an accepted therapy for end-stage heart disease in children and adults. Over the past 25 years, the perioperative and 1-year mortality has steadily improved, leading to an increased focus on midterm and late-term complications. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of late graft loss in children. The prevalence of disease increases steadily after transplantation from 5% at 2 years to 35% by 10 years according to multiple database analyses. Allograft vasculopathy is the end point of a complex interaction of stimuli including chronic rejection, endothelial dysfunction, infection, and traditional cardiac risk factors. While an increased understanding of risks associated to CAV has led to more aggressive surveillance approaches, the rates of CAV remain high and outcomes after diagnosis of CAV are very poor with up to 50% of children suffering graft loss or death within 2 years of diagnosis. In an attempt to combat the development and progression of CAV, multiple medical and interventional strategies have been utilized. Pharmacologic approaches have focused on the use of various immunosuppressants and adjuvant medications to combat inflammation and immune mediated graft injury. While randomized controlled trials are rare in pediatric heart transplant cohorts, sufficient adult data have been developed in both controlled and observational trials to provide a framework for the prevention and management of patients with CAV. However, none of these interventions have been shown to be effective in significantly prolonging graft survival and retransplantation remains the only reliable therapy for severe CAV.
    Congenital Heart Disease 05/2012; 7(4):324-35. · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Steven J. Kindel, Elfriede Pahl
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy in children accounts for greater than 50% of the cases of end-stage cardiac disease leading to heart transplantation in children. While early survival is excellent, late survival is limited with an average graft half-life of approximately 15years in children. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a not uncommon complication of transplantation and is the leading cause of late graft loss and retransplantation in pediatric populations. Studies of the United Network of Organ Sharing database and the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study group report rates of coronary vasculopathy that increase from 5% at 2years to 35% at 10years. Coronary artery vasculopathy is a complex process caused by both immune mediated endothelial dysfunction and vascular changes as well as typical cardiovascular risk factors. Unfortunately, despite vigilant surveillance protocols, new onset graft dysfunction and sudden cardiac death can be the presenting symptoms of new disease. In recent years multiple medical and adjuvant therapies have been studied in relation to potential management to minimize this disease process. Further research and collaborative multi-center trials will be the most effective means of developing strategies for the prevention and treatment of coronary vasculopathy in pediatric heart transplant patients.
    Progress in Pediatric Cardiology - PROG PEDIATR CARDIOL. 01/2011; 32(1):37-42.

Publication Stats

2 Citations
2.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Northwestern University
      • Division of Cardiology (Dept. of Medicine)
      Evanston, IL, United States