[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, national guidelines recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or combination antimicrobial therapy for outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with risk factors for drug-resistant S. pneumoniae (DRSP). The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of these risk factors and antibiotic prescribing practices in cases of outpatient CAP treated in the acute care setting.
This was a retrospective cohort study of adult outpatients treated for CAP in the emergency department (ED) or urgent care center of an urban, academic medical center from May 1, 2009, through October 31, 2009, and comparison of antibiotic therapy in cases with and without DRSP risk factors.
Of 175 patients, 90 (51%) had at least one DRSP risk factor, most commonly asthma (n = 28, 16%), alcohol abuse (n = 24, 14%), diabetes mellitus (n = 18, 10%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 16, 9%), age > 65 years (n = 16, 9%), and use of antibiotics within 3 months (15, 9%). Antibiotic prescriptions were similar among cases with and without DRSP risk factors: a macrolide (62% vs. 59%, respectively, p = 0.65), doxycycline (27% vs. 28%, p = 0.82), or a respiratory fluoroquinolone (9% vs. 9%, p = 0.90). Concordance with national guideline treatment recommendations was significantly lower in cases with DRSP risk factors (9% vs. 87%, p < 0.0001).
DRSP risk factors were present in approximately half of outpatient CAP cases treated in the acute care setting; however, guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy was infrequent. Strict adherence to current guidelines would substantially increase use of fluoroquinolones or combination therapy. Whether the potential risks associated with these broad-spectrum regimens are justified by improved clinical outcomes requires further study.
Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2012; 19(6):703-6. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lean principles have been used at Denver Health Medical Center since 2005 to streamline nonclinical processes. Despite allocation of significant resources, particularly the expense of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), to prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the incidence of postoperative VTE was significantly worse than national benchmarks. VTE risk factors were not consistently assessed, and the prescribing of prophylaxis varied widely. Lean was employed to standardize and implement risk assessment and evidence-based VTE prophylaxis for the institution.
In a rapid improvement event, a multidisciplinary group formulated an evidence-based risk assessment tool and clinical practice guideline for VTE prophylaxis, with plans for hospitalwide implementation and monitoring.
The effects were immediate and improved steadily with feedback to clinicians. Within six months, compliance with the standard approached 100%. One year after implementation, the use of LMWH decreased more than 60% below baseline, and the use of sequential compression devices decreased by nearly 30%. With increased use of unfractionated heparin, the cost savings on VTE prophylaxis exceeded $15,000 per month, for a total of $425,000 since implementation. Moreover, the incidence of VTE decreased markedly during the same period. By reducing VTE rates, a total cost savings of $6.2 million was estimated for the past 28 months.
Applying Lean to the clinical management of VTE prophylaxis improved compliance with standards and saved the hospital a significant amount of money. This was achieved without compromising clinical outcomes. This experience could be replicated at other institutions.
Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources 03/2011; 37(3):99-109.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptomycin has been available for over 60 years, yet optimal dosing in hemodialysis (HD) patients is not well defined. We report the successful treatment of enterococcal bacteremia in an HD patient with intravenous (IV) penicillin G and IV streptomycin at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg after HD sessions.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2011; 17(5):698-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor