[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.
In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed.
Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients) and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4-44.4 weeks).
GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90353. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bardoxolone methyl, a novel synthetic triterpenoid and antioxidant inflammation modulator, potently induces Nrf2 and inhibits NF-κB and Janus-activated kinase/STAT signaling. This first-in-human phase I clinical trial aimed to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and appropriate dose for phase II studies; characterize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters; and assess antitumor activity.
Bardoxolone methyl was administered orally once daily for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. An accelerated titration design was employed until a grade 2-related adverse event occurred. A standard 3 + 3 dose escalation was then employed until the MTD was reached. Single dose and steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of the drug were characterized. Assessment of Nrf2 activation was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by measuring NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) mRNA levels. Immunohistochemical assessment of markers of inflammation, cell cycle, and apoptosis was carried out on tumor biopsies.
The DLTs were grade 3 reversible liver transaminase elevations. The MTD was established as 900 mg/d. A complete tumor response occurred in a mantle cell lymphoma patient, and a partial response was observed in an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patient. NQO1 mRNA levels increased in PBMCs, and NF-κB and cyclin D1 levels decreased in tumor biopsies. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also increased.
Bardoxolone methyl was well tolerated with an MTD of 900 mg/d. The increase in eGFR suggests that bardoxolone methyl might be beneficial in chronic kidney disease. Objective tumor responses and pharmacodynamic effects were observed, supporting continued development of other synthetic triterpenoids in cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2012; 18(12):3396-406. · 7.84 Impact Factor