[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresolimumab is an antibody capable of neutralizing all human isoforms of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and has demonstrated anticancer activity in investigational studies. Inhibition of TGFβ by fresolimumab can potentially result in the development of cutaneous lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous neoplasms associated with fresolimumab. Skin biopsies (n = 24) were collected and analyzed from patients (n = 5) with treatment-emergent, cutaneous lesions arising during a phase 1 study of multiple doses of fresolimumab in patients (n = 29) with melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Blinded, independent histological review and measurements of Ki-67, p53, and HPV integration were performed. Based on central review, four patients developed lesions with histological characteristics of keratoacanthomas, and of these patients, a single case of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was also found. Expression of Ki-67, no evidence of p53 overexpression, and only focal positivity for human papillomavirus RNA by in situ hybridization in 4/18 cases were consistent with these findings. Following completion of fresolimumab, lesions spontaneously resolved. Therefore, benign, reversible keratoacanthomas were the most common cutaneous neoplasms observed, a finding of importance for adverse event monitoring, patient care, and optimization of therapies targeting TGFβ.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 01/2015; · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have led to clinical benefit in patients with melanoma. The development of a blood-based assay to detect and quantify BRAF levels in these patients has diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive capabilities that could guide treatment decisions. Blood BRAFV600E detection and quantification was performed on samples from 128 patients with Stage II (19), III (67), and IV (42) melanoma. Tissue BRAF analysis was performed in all patients with Stage IV disease and in selected patients with Stage II and III disease. Clinical outcomes were correlated to initial BRAF levels as well as BRAF level dynamics. Serial analysis was performed on 17 Stage IV melanoma patients treated with BRAFi and compared to tumor measurements by RECIST. The assay was highly sensitive (96%) and specific (95%) in the Stage IV setting, using a blood level of 4.8 pg as "positive". BRAF levels typically decreased following BRAFi. A subset of these patients (5) had an increase in BRAF V600E values 42-112 days prior to clinical or radiographic disease progression (PD). From 86 patients with resected, stage II or III melanoma, 39 had evidence of disease relapse (45.3 %). Furthermore, BRAF mutation in the blood after surgical resection in these patients was not associated with a difference in relapse risk, though tissue BRAF status was only available for a subset of patients. In summary we have developed a highly sensitive and specific, blood-based assay to detect BRAFV600 mutation in patients with melanoma.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical and early clinical studies have demonstrated that initial therapy with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition is more effective in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma than single-agent BRAF inhibitors. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of dabrafenib and trametinib in patients who had received prior BRAF inhibitor treatment.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2014; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Ipilimumab (Ipi) is approved by the FDA for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Little is known about ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH), an important treatment complication. Objective: To (i) examine the prevalence of IH, (ii) characterize the clinical course and treatment outcomes in IH, (iii) identify risk factors for the development of IH, and (iv) determine optimal strategies for the management of IH. Design: Retrospective review Setting: Tertiary referral center Subjects: 154 adult patients with metastatic melanoma evaluated at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and treated with Ipi between March 2008 and December 2013. Intervention(s): Treatment with Ipi Main Outcome Measure(s): Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pituitary hormone assessment, patient survival. Results: IH was diagnosed in 17 patients (11%). Male gender (p = 0.02) and older age (p = 0.005), but not the cumulative dose of Ipi, were risk factors for IH. All patients with IH had anterior hypopituitarism (none had diabetes insipidus). Hypopituitarism was persistent in most individuals (76%). Diffuse pituitary enlargement was observed exclusively in all cases of IH and, upon retrospective review of MRI's, this finding preceded the clinical diagnosis of hypophysitis in 8 patients. Pituitary enlargement resolved rapidly (within 40 days in 7/7 patients). Median survival in patients with IH was 19.4 vs 8.8 months (p = 0.05) in the remainder of the cohort. Conclusions: Male gender and older age are risk factors for IH. Pituitary enlargement is sensitive and specific for IH in the appropriate setting, can precede the clinical diagnosis, and resolves rapidly. Anterior pituitary function recovery is uncommon. The incidence of hypophysitis may positively predict survival in melanoma patients treated with Ipi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.
In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed.
Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients) and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4-44.4 weeks).
GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90353. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells that downmodulates effector functions and limits the generation of immune memory. PD-1 blockade can mediate tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients with melanoma, but it is not known whether this is associated with extended survival or maintenance of response after treatment is discontinued.
Patients with advanced melanoma (N = 107) enrolled between 2008 and 2012 received intravenous nivolumab in an outpatient setting every 2 weeks for up to 96 weeks and were observed for overall survival, long-term safety, and response duration after treatment discontinuation.
Median overall survival in nivolumab-treated patients (62% with two to five prior systemic therapies) was 16.8 months, and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62% and 43%, respectively. Among 33 patients with objective tumor regressions (31%), the Kaplan-Meier estimated median response duration was 2 years. Seventeen patients discontinued therapy for reasons other than disease progression, and 12 (71%) of 17 maintained responses off-therapy for at least 16 weeks (range, 16 to 56+ weeks). Objective response and toxicity rates were similar to those reported previously; in an extended analysis of all 306 patients treated on this trial (including those with other cancer types), exposure-adjusted toxicity rates were not cumulative.
Overall survival following nivolumab treatment in patients with advanced treatment-refractory melanoma compares favorably with that in literature studies of similar patient populations. Responses were durable and persisted after drug discontinuation. Long-term safety was acceptable. Ongoing randomized clinical trials will further assess the impact of nivolumab therapy on overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of BRAF-mutant melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib, which target RAF and the downstream MAP-ERK kinase (MEK)1 and MEK2 kinases, respectively, improves progression-free survival and response rates compared with dabrafenib monotherapy. Mechanisms of clinical resistance to combined RAF/MEK inhibition are unknown. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) on pretreatment and drug-resistant tumors from five patients with acquired resistance to dabrafenib/trametinib. In three of these patients, we identified additional mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations in the resistant tumor that were not detected in the pretreatment tumor, including a novel activating mutation in MEK2 (MEK2(Q60P)). MEK2(Q60P) conferred resistance to combined RAF/MEK inhibition in vitro, but remained sensitive to inhibition of the downstream kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The continued MAPK signaling-based resistance identified in these patients suggests that alternative dosing of current agents, more potent RAF/MEK inhibitors, and/or inhibition of the downstream kinase ERK may be needed for durable control of BRAF-mutant melanoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been significant advances with regard to BRAF-targeted therapies against metastatic melanoma. However, the majority of patients receiving BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) manifest disease progression within a year. We have recently shown that melanoma patients treated with BRAFi exhibit an increase in melanoma-associated antigens and in CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in response to therapy. To characterize such a T-cell infiltrate, we analyzed the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of rearranged T-cell receptor (TCR) β chain-coding genes in tumor biopsies obtained before the initiation of BRAFi and 10-14 d later. We observed an increase in the clonality of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 7 of 8 patients receiving BRAFi, with a statistically significant 21% aggregate increase in clonality. Over 80% of individual T-cell clones detected after initiation of BRAFi treatment were new clones. Interestingly, the comparison of tumor infiltrates with clinical responses revealed that patients who had a high proportion of pre-existing dominant clones after the administration of BRAFi responded better to therapy than patients who had a low proportion of such pre-existing dominant clones following BRAFi. These data suggest that although the inhibition of BRAF in melanoma patients results in tumor infiltration by new lymphocytes, the response to treatment appears to be related to the presence of a pre-existing population of tumor-infiltrating T-cell clones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old man presented with metastatic melanoma to the groin and pelvis 11 years after excision of a superficial spreading melanoma on the right leg. A diagnostic test was performed, and management decisions were made.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/2013; 369(2):173-183. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAmplifications and mutations in the KIT proto-oncogene in subsets of melanomas provide therapeutic opportunities. PATIENTS AND METHODS
We conducted a multicenter phase II trial of imatinib in metastatic mucosal, acral, or chronically sun-damaged (CSD) melanoma with KIT amplifications and/or mutations. Patients received imatinib 400 mg once per day or 400 mg twice per day if there was no initial response. Dose reductions were permitted for treatment-related toxicities. Additional oncogene mutation screening was performed by mass spectroscopy.ResultsTwenty-five patients were enrolled (24 evaluable). Eight patients (33%) had tumors with KIT mutations, 11 (46%) with KIT amplifications, and five (21%) with both. Median follow-up was 10.6 months (range, 3.7 to 27.1 months). Best overall response rate (BORR) was 29% (21% excluding nonconfirmed responses) with a two-stage 95% CI of 13% to 51%. BORR was significantly greater than the hypothesized null of 5% and statistically significantly different by mutation status (7 of 13 or 54% KIT mutated v 0% KIT amplified only). There were no statistical differences in rates of progression or survival by mutation status or by melanoma site. The overall disease control rate was 50% but varied significantly by KIT mutation status (77% mutated v 18% amplified). Four patients harbored pretreatment NRAS mutations, and one patient acquired increased KIT amplification after treatment. CONCLUSION
Melanomas that arise on mucosal, acral, or CSD skin should be assessed for KIT mutations. Imatinib can be effective when tumors harbor KIT mutations, but not if KIT is amplified only. NRAS mutations and KIT copy number gain may be mechanisms of therapeutic resistance to imatinib.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab is not defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in this melanoma subset, we performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab. The clinical characteristics, treatments, toxicities, radiographic assessment of disease burden by central radiology review at each site, and mutational profiles of the patients' tumors were recorded. Available peripheral blood samples were used to assess humoral immunity against a panel of cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. By the immune-related response criteria of the 30 patients who underwent radiographic assessment after ipilimumab at approximately week 12, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 6 immune-related stable disease, and 22 immune-related progressive disease. By the modified World Health Organization criteria, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 5 immune-related stable disease, and 23 immune-related progressive disease. Immune-related adverse events (as graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0) consisted of six patients with rash (four grade 1, two grade 2), three patients with diarrhea (one grade 1, two grade 3), one patient with grade 1 thyroiditis, one patient with grade 3 hepatitis, and 1 patient with grade 2 hypophysitis. The median overall survival from the time of the first dose of ipilimumab was 6.4 months (range: 1.8-26.7 months). Several patients demonstrated serologic responses to cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. Durable responses to ipilimumab were observed, but the overall response rate was low. Additional investigation is necessary to clarify the role of ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo assess pharmacodynamic effects and intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, leading to an understanding of the mechanism of action of vemurafenib and ultimately to optimization of metastatic melanoma therapy. METHODS
In the phase II clinical study NP22657 (BRIM-2), patients received oral doses of vemurafenib (960 mg twice per day). Serial biopsies were collected to study changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, cell-cycle progression, and factors causing intrinsic or acquired resistance by immunohistochemistry, DNA sequencing, or somatic mutation profiling.ResultsVemurafenib inhibited MAPK signaling and cell-cycle progression. An association between the decrease in extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and objective response was observed in paired biopsies (n = 22; P = .013). Low expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog showed a modest association with lower response. Baseline mutations in MEK1(P124) coexisting with BRAF(V600) were noted in seven of 92 samples; their presence did not preclude objective tumor responses. Acquired resistance to vemurafenib associated with reactivation of MAPK signaling as observed by elevated ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels in progressive lesions and the appearance of secondary NRAS(Q61) mutations or MEK1(Q56P) or MEK1(E203K) mutations. These two activating MEK1 mutations had not previously been observed in vivo in biopsies of progressive melanoma tumors. CONCLUSION
Vemurafenib inhibits tumor proliferation and oncogenic BRAF signaling through the MAPK pathway. Acquired resistance results primarily from MAPK reactivation driven by the appearance of secondary mutations in NRAS and MEK1 in subsets of patients. The data suggest that inhibition downstream of BRAF should help to overcome acquired resistance.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects BRAF inhibition on the tumor microenvironment in patients with metastatic melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-five biopsies were collected from 16 patients with metastatic melanoma pretreatment (day 0) and at 10-14 days after initiation of treatment with either BRAF inhibitor alone (vemurafenib) or BRAF + MEK inhibition (dabrafenib + trametinib), and were also taken at time of progression. Biopsies were analyzed for melanoma antigens, T cell markers, and immunomodulatory cytokines. RESULTS: Treatment with either BRAF inhibitor alone or BRAF + MEK inhibitor was associated with an increased expression of melanoma antigens and an increase in CD8+ T cell infiltrate. This was also associated with a decrease in immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-6 & IL-8) and an increase in markers of T cell cytotoxicity. Interestingly, expression of exhaustion markers TIM-3 and PD1 and the immunosuppressive ligand PDL1 were increased on treatment. A decrease in melanoma antigen expression and CD8 T cell infiltrate was noted at time of progression on BRAF inhibitor alone, and was reversed with combined BRAF and MEK inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this data suggests that treatment with BRAF inhibition enhances melanoma antigen expression and facilitates T cell cytotoxicity and a more favorable tumor microenvironment, providing support for potential synergy of BRAF-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Interestingly, markers of T cell exhaustion and the immunosuppressive ligand PDL1 are also increased with BRAF inhibition, further implying that immune checkpoint blockade may be critical in augmenting responses to BRAF-targeted therapy in patients with melanoma.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2013; · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Salivary duct carcinomas (SDC) are a rare and aggressive subtype of salivary gland cancers for which cytotoxic chemotherapy has limited efficacy. We investigated whether genotyping analysis could detect novel tumor-specific mutations that would help direct SDC patient treatment using targeted agents. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We genotyped twenty-seven SDC archival specimens from patients followed at Massachusetts General Hospital and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 2000 and 2011. These included the tumors of 8 patients who were tested prospectively. Targeted mutational analysis of 13 clinically-relevant cancer genes was performed using SNaPshot multiplexed genotyping. FISH was performed to detect HER2 gene amplification. Patient medical records and tumor histopathological features were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Mutually exclusive genetic aberrations were detected in 15 of 27 (56%) tumors, including 2 (7%) mutations in BRAF, 5 (19%) mutations in PIK3CA, and 8 (30%) cases of HER2 gene amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first time that BRAF and PIK3CA mutations have been reported in this tumor type. Prospective clinical testing of 8 SDC patients identified actionable genetic alterations in 6 tumors and influenced therapeutic decisions for all 6 patients. CONCLUSIONS: SNaPshot molecular profiling identified novel genetic changes in SDCs, expanded the therapeutic options for patients with this rare tumor, and is changing SDC management at our institution. These findings highlight the importance of using broad based genetic profiling to expedite the identification of effective targeted therapies for patients with rare malignancies.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; · 8.19 Impact Factor