ABSTRACT: Brain metastases of breast and other cancers remain resistant to chemotherapeutic regimens that are effective systemically, in part due to the blood-brain barrier. We report that TPI-287, a new microtubule-stabilizing agent, displays in vitro cytotoxic activity similar to taxanes and epothilones. Unlike the taxanes, TPI-287 is permeable through the blood-brain barrier. Brain-to-plasma ratios of TPI-287 after a single injection typically exceeded one and were as high as 63.8 in the rat and 14.1 in the mouse. A brain-tropic derivative of the MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cell line, 231-BR, was used to test whether TPI-287 may be efficacious at preventing or treating brain metastases. TPI-287 had growth inhibitory effects comparable with paclitaxel when 231-BR tumor cells were injected into the mammary fat pad. Brain metastatic colonization was determined by intracardiac injection of 231-BR cells, with treatment beginning on day 3 to 4 postinjection, culminating in a histologic count of brain metastases in brains necropsied days 25 to 28 postinjection. In this assay, paclitaxel, ixabepilone, and nab paclitaxel did not have significant inhibitory activity. TPI-287 was ineffective in the same assay using a 6 mg/kg every week schedule; however an 18 mg/kg dose delivered on days 3, 7, and 11 significantly reduced the outgrowth of brain metastases (55% reduction, P = 0.028) and reduced proliferation in brain metastases (16% reduction, P = 0.008). When TPI-287 treatment was delayed until days 18, 22, and 26 postinjection, efficacy was reduced (17% reduction, not significant). These data suggest that TPI-287 may have efficacy when administered early in the course of the disease. Mol Cancer Ther; 11(9); 1959-67. ©2012 AACR.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2012; 11(9):1959-67. · 5.23 Impact Factor