[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocyte differentiation and the extent of subsequent fat accumulation are closely related to the occurrence and progression of diseases such as insulin resistance and obesity. Black soybean koji (BSK) is produced by the fermentation of black soybean with Aspergilllus awamori. Previous study indicated that BSK extract has antioxidative and multifunctional bioactivities, however, the role of BSK in the regulation of energy metabolism is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of glucose utilization on insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipogenesis-related protein expression in differentiated adipocytes with BSK treatment. Cytoxicity assay revealed that BSK did not adversely affect cell viability at levels up to 200 µg/mL. The potential for glucose utilization was increased by increased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), GLUT4 and protein kinase B (AKT) protein expression in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 cells in response to BSK treatment. Simultaneously, BSK inhibited lipid droplet accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect of adipogenesis was associated with downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g (PPARγ) level and upregulated Acrp30 protein expression. Our results suggest that BSK extract could improve glucose uptake by modulating GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression in a 3T3-L1 insulin-resistance cell model. In addition, BSK suppressed differentiation and lipid accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which may suggest its potential for food supplementation to prevent obesity and related metabolic abnormalities.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2014; 15(5):8280-92. · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.
Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.
This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 05/2012; 9(1):23. · 1.50 Impact Factor