S P Wilczynski

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (86)413.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rare cases of Merkel cell carcinoma have been encountered in lymph nodes with unknown extranodal primary, which exhibit similar morphologic and immunophenotypic features to those in primary cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas. However, it is uncertain whether the nodal Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary tumor of the lymph node or represents a metastasis from an occult or regressed extranodal lesion. To establish an accurate diagnosis of the nodal Merkel cell carcinoma can be challenging because of significant morphologic mimics, including lymphoblastic lymphoma and metastatic small cell carcinoma. Moreover, there is no consensus for a diagnostic term, and many different terms have been used, which can be confusing and may not fully reflect the nature of nodal Merkel cell carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the detailed clinicopathologic features of 22 nodal Merkel cell carcinomas, with comparison to 763 primary cutaneous cases retrieved from the literature. Overall, the nodal and cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas shared similar clinical presentations, morphologic spectrum, and immunophenotype; both were mostly seen in elderly male with a typical neuroendocrine morphology. Most of cases expressed CK20, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A; and PAX5 and TdT were also positive in majority of cases. However, nodal Merkel cell carcinomas had a significantly lower association with Merkel cell polyomavirus than cutaneous cases (31% vs 76%, P=0.001). Therefore, these two entities may arise from overlapping but not identical biological pathways. We also recommend the use of the diagnostic term 'Merkel cell carcinoma of lymph node' to replace many other names used.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 10 January 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.250.
    Modern Pathology 01/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis portends a poor prognosis and cannot be reliably predicted. Early determination of the metastatic potential of RCC may help guide proper treatment. We analyzed microRNA (miRNA) expression in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) for the purpose of developing a miRNA expression signature to determine the risk of metastasis and prognosis. We used the microarray technology to profile miRNA expression of 78 benign kidney and ccRCC samples. Using 28 localized and metastatic ccRCC specimens as the training cohort and the univariate logistic regression and risk score methods, we developed a miRNA signature model in which the expression levels of miR-10b, miR-139-5p, miR-130b and miR-199b-5p were used to determine the status of ccRCC metastasis. We validated the signature in an independent 40-sample testing cohort of different stages of primary ccRCCs using the microarray data. Within the testing cohort patients who had at least 5 years follow-up if no metastasis developed, the signature showed a high sensitivity and specificity. The risk status was proven to be associated with the cancer-specific survival. Using the most stably expressed miRNA among benign and tumorous kidney tissue as the internal reference for normalization, we successfully converted his signature to be a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay, which showed the same high sensitivity and specificity. The 4-miRNA is associated with ccRCC metastasis and prognosis. The signature is ready for and will benefit from further large clinical cohort validation and has the potential for clinical application.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e35661. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of performing a fresh-tissue, in vitro radiation resistance assay (IVRRA) in a cooperative group setting and to assess the association of IVRRA results with clinical outcomes. Women with Stages IIB-IVA carcinoma of the uterine cervix without obvious para-aortic lymphadenopathy on imaging were eligible. Primary tumor biopsies were shipped to a central testing facility where agar-based cell suspensions were exposed to 300 cGy of RT ± cisplatin and cultured for 5 days. ³H-thymidine incorporation was used to determine percent cell inhibition (PCI) of test specimen compared to that of the untreated control. Tumors were considered to exhibit extreme radiation resistance (ERR), intermediate radiation resistance (IRR) or low radiation resistance (LRR) based on a standard data set from 39 previously studied specimens. Standardized doses of external beam radiation and intracavitary brachytherapy, when feasible, in addition to platinum-based chemotherapy were mandated. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint. Clinical response and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. Clinical investigators were blinded to assay data and vice versa. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, but analysis was limited to 17 patients whose specimens were adequate for IVRRA. The median follow-up time among patients still alive at last contact was 40 months (range: 0-56 months). There was no association between IVRRA and response. In the Cox model, IRR/ERR tumors showed worse PFS [HR = 11.2 (95% CI 1.3-96, p = 0.03)] and worse OS [HR=11.7 (95% CI 1.4-99.6, p = 0.03)] compared to LRR tumors when IVRRA was performed with RT alone, but there were no associations between IVRRA and PFS or OS when cisplatin was added to the IVRRA. IVRRA (RT alone) results correlated with PFS and OS in this prospective trial, but follow-up trials are indicated to address feasibility and to confirm results in an expanded cohort. If confirmed, IVRRA could potentially direct molecular identification of novel targeted therapeutic approaches which might counteract radiation resistance.
    Gynecologic Oncology 12/2010; 119(3):417-21. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    S Tommasi, A Besaratinia, S P Wilczynski, G P Pfeifer
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of RASSF1A leads to several mitotic abnormalities, including cytokinesis failure and tetraploidization. Uncontrolled proliferation of tetraploid cells is known to trigger genomic instability and tumor development and is normally prevented through activation of a p53-dependent tetraploidy checkpoint. RASSF1A is the most commonly silenced and p53 is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancer. However, their mutual contribution to tumorigenesis has never been investigated in animal models. Here, we explore whether concomitant loss of RASSF1A and p53 will result in increased levels of aneuploidy, genomic instability and tumorigenesis. We have intercrossed Rassf1a-knockout mice with mice lacking the p53 gene and generated a combination of single- and compound-mutant animals. Rassf1a(-/-) p53(-/-) mice were viable and fertile and developed normally. However, these mice were remarkably tumor prone and succumbed to malignancies significantly faster than single-mutant littermates, with a median survival time of 136 days (versus 158 days in p53(-/-) mice, P=0.0207, and >600 days in Rassf1a(-/-) animals, P<0.0001). Rassf1a-null mice with one functional p53 allele displayed a more moderate, yet tumor-prone phenotype, characterized by increased tumor multiplicity as compared with single knockouts. On cell-cycle profiling and cytogenetic analysis, cells derived from Rassf1a(-/-) p53(-/-) mice exhibited several mitotic defects associated with high levels of tetraploidy/aneuploidy. Conversely, cells with a proficient p53 allele could better cope with the mitotic failures imposed by Rassf1a loss. Altogether, we provide the first experimental evidence for a pivotal role of Rassf1a as an early 'gatekeeper' gene, whose loss of function deteriorates cellular fitness by enhancing tetraploidization. Concomitant loss of p53, which causes unrestrained propagation of tetraploids into aneuploid cells, further undermines genomic stability and accelerates tumorigenesis.
    Oncogene 10/2010; 30(6):690-700. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized phase 3 trials have demonstrated the utility of a regimen of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in recurrent ovarian cancer, and have provided provocative data suggesting a substantially lower risk of carboplatin-associated hypersensitivity if PDL is delivered in combination with the platinum agent. To further examine both of these clinically-relevant issues, the survival outcome (with longer follow-up) and hypersensitivity reaction profile of a previously reported phase 3 trial that compared single agent carboplatin (AUC 5) to carboplatin (AUC 5) plus PLD (30 mg/m(2)) delivered on an every 4-week schedule in recurrent ovarian cancer (SWOG 0200) were re-analyzed. In the limited number of patients (n=61) entered into this phase 3 study before closure by the SWOG Data Safety and Monitoring Committee due to insufficient accrual, there was an initially reported improvement in outcome associated with the combination regimen. With longer follow-up and additional events there is still a statistically-significant improved progression-free survival (median: 12 versus 8 months, p=0.02), but the previously observed impact of the two-drug regimen on overall survival is no longer apparent (median: 31 versus 18 months; p=0.2). While no hypersensitivity reactions were reported in the carboplatin plus PLD arm (0/31), 9 of 30 patients (30%) of women randomized to single agent carboplatin experienced an allergic episode (p=0.0008), with 5 being >grade 2 in severity. Despite a favorable impact of carboplatin and PLD on progression-free survival in this trial, the effect on overall survival is not statistically significant. For currently unknown reasons, administering PLD with carboplatin appears to substantially reduce the incidence of platinum-associated hypersensitivity reactions.
    Gynecologic Oncology 03/2010; 116(3):323-5. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of high-risk HPV-16 in patients with HNSCC, assess the impact of HPV status on treatment response and survival in this select cohort treated with combined modality therapy and to identify the differences in HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression in HPV-positive and -negative tumors. Patients had resectable, untreated stage III, IV HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hyopharynx or larynx, and stage II cancer of the base of tongue, hypopharynx and larynx. HPV status was determined by conventional PCR in fresh frozen biopsy samples and by Taqman PCR assay on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on HPV status. HPV-16 was detected in 14 of 24 evaluable cases. There were no significant differences in response rates after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (86% vs. 90%) in HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients, respectively. There was a trend toward better progression-free (HR=0.15, 95% CI=0.002-12.54; p=0.06) and overall survival (HR=0.14, 95% CI=0.001-14.12; p=0.10) for HPV-positive patients. In a subset of 13 fresh frozen samples, RT-PCR revealed a significant increase in VEGF mRNA levels in HPV-positive tumors (p<0.01). No difference was seen for HIF-1alpha expression. HPV presence portended a better prognosis in patients with oropharyngeal SCC treated with a multimodality treatment in a prospective clinical trial. The level of VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in HPV-16-positive tumors possibly through an HIF-1 independent manner.
    Anticancer research 06/2009; 29(5):1467-74. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A SWOG/GOG phase 3 trial exploring the impact of 12-monthly cycles of paclitaxel given to patients with advanced ovarian cancer who achieved a complete response to primary chemotherapy was discontinued by the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee when a prospectively defined interim analysis revealed a highly statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS). At study closure, it was too early to assess the impact on overall survival. Patients (n=296) received either 3 or 12 monthly cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2) over 3 h). Of the 146 patients on the 3-cycle arm, 9 (6%) received >3 cycles. Median (12 versus 3 cycles; intention-to-treat analysis) updated PFS (all pts) 22 versus 14 months, p=0.006; overall survival (all pts) 53 versus 48 months, p=0.34. Twelve cycles of single agent maintenance paclitaxel significantly improves PFS. Explanations for the lack of a favorable influence on overall survival include: (a) treatment at relapse equalized outcome; (b) the sample size was insufficient to reveal a difference; (c) "crossover" of patients from 3 cycles to longer treatment masked a potential difference. An ongoing phase 3 trial will hopefully provide a definitive answer to the question of the impact of this maintenance strategy on overall survival.
    Gynecologic Oncology 06/2009; 114(2):195-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While primary cisplatin-based intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been shown to favorably impact survival in small-volume residual advanced ovarian cancer, there is a need to develop strategies that improve the effectiveness of this approach. A multi-center phase 2 trial was conducted that added intravenous pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (day 8; 30-40 mg/m(2)) to a regimen of intraperitoneal cisplatin (day 2; 75 mg/m(2)) and intravenous (day 1; 135 mg/m(2)) plus intraperitoneal (day 8; 60 mg/m(2)) paclitaxel. Treatment was initially delivered on an every 3-week schedule, but was modified to an every 4-week program due to excessive toxicity. Patients were to receive 6 cycles of this regimen. Of 68 patients entering this trial, 63 patients were eligible and evaluable, of whom 39 (62%) completed 6 cycles. Overall, 32 (51%) experienced at least 1 grade 4 or worse toxicity (most commonly hematologic) including 5 treatment-related deaths. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 25 months (2-year PFS: 52%) and median overall survival 51 months, an outcome similar to previous reports of cisplatin-based intraperitoneal chemotherapy in comparable patient populations. Seventeen patients (27% of all eligible patients) were without evidence of disease recurrence >4 years following entry into the trial. Both the overall trial outcome, and specifically the excessively severe systemic toxicity of this regimen would prevent its future development in this exact form. The provocative PFS in a subset of individuals should encourage the development of alternative strategies designed to optimize the delivery of regional therapy in ovarian cancer management.
    Gynecologic Oncology 05/2009; 114(2):206-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro testing of the activity of chemotherapeutic agents has been suggested as 1 method to optimally select drugs for patients with ovarian cancer. There are limited prospectively obtained data examining the clinical utility of this approach. We sought to obtain a preliminary assessment of this strategy in a trial that examined the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy in women with advanced ovarian cancer. Women with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian carcinoma that presented with large-volume disease were treated with neoadjuvant intravenous paclitaxel and carboplatin for three 21-day cycles followed by cytoreductive surgery. If optimally debulked, patients received intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel for six 28-day cycles. Tumor cloning assay results (Oncotech) were correlated with progression-free survival. Sixty-two patients (58 eligible) were registered from March 2001 to February 2006. Thirty-six eligible patients had interval debulking and 26 received postcytoreduction chemotherapy. Twenty-two patients had tumor cloning assay results available. The clinical features of this population were similar to those of the larger group of women who entered this study. There was no difference in progression-free survival between patients whose cancers were defined as 'resistant' or 'nonresistant' to either platinum or paclitaxel. While the small patient numbers in this trial do not permit definitive conclusions, these data fail to provide support for the argument that prospectively obtained in vitro data regarding platinum or paclitaxel resistance will be highly predictive of clinical outcome in advanced ovarian cancer.
    Oncology 01/2009; 77(6):395-9. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy prolongs survival in optimally reduced ovarian cancer patients. For patients in whom optimal debulking cannot be achieved, one could incorporate IP therapy post-operatively if the cancer was optimally debulked following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), percent of patients optimally debulked and toxicity in patients treated with this strategy. Women with adenocarcinoma by biopsy or cytology with stage III/IV (pleural effusions only) epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma that presented with bulky disease were treated with neoadjuvant intravenous (IV) paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 6 q 21 daysx3 cycles followed by surgery (if >/=50% decrease in CA125). If optimally debulked they received IV paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 and IP carboplatin AUC 5 (day 1) and IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 (day 8) q 28 daysx6 cycles. Sixty-two patients were registered. Four were ineligible. Fifty-six were evaluated for neoadjuvant chemotherapy toxicities. One patient died of pneumonia. Five patients had grade 4 toxicity, including neutropenia (3), anemia, leukopenia, anorexia, fatigue, muscle weakness, respiratory infection, and cardiac ischemia. Thirty-six patients had debulking surgery. Two had grade 4 hemorrhage. Twenty-six patients received post-cytoreduction chemotherapy. Four had grade 4 neutropenia. At a median follow-up of 21 months, median PFS is 21 months and median OS is 32 months for all 58 patients. PFS and OS for the 26 patients who received IV/IP chemotherapy is 29 and 34 months respectively. These results compare favorably with other studies of sub-optimally debulked patients.
    Gynecologic Oncology 01/2009; 112(3):444-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously localized a cervical cancer tumor suppressor gene to a 300 kb interval of 11q13. Analysis of candidate genes revealed loss of expression of cystatin E/M, a lysosomal cysteine protease inhibitor, in 6 cervical cancer cell lines and 9 of 11 primary cervical tumors. Examination of the three exons in four cervical cancer cell lines, 19 primary tumors, and 21 normal controls revealed homozygous deletion of exon 1 sequences in one tumor. Point mutations were observed in six other tumors. Two tumors contained mutations at the consensus binding sites for cathepsin L, a lysosomal protease overexpressed in cervical cancer. Introduction of these two point mutations using site directed mutagenesis resulted in reduced binding of mutated cystatin E/M to cathepsin L. Although mutations were not observed in any cell lines, four cell lines and 12 of 18 tumors contained promoter hypermethylation. Reexpression of cystatin E/M was observed after 5'aza 2-deoxycytidiene and/or Trichostatin A treatment of cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, confirming promoter hypermethylation. Ectopic expression of cystatin E/M in these two cell lines resulted in growth suppression. There was also suppression of soft agar colony formation by HeLa cells expressing the cystatin E/M gene. Reexpression of cystatin E/M resulted in decreased intracellular and extracellular expression of cathepsin L. Overexpression of cathepsin L resulted in increased cell growth which was inhibited by the reintroduction of cystatin E/M. We conclude, therefore, that cystatin E/M is a cervical cancer suppressor gene and that the gene is inactivated by somatic mutations and promoter hypermethylation.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/2008; 47(9):740-54. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because debate continues over the role of combination, platinum-based chemotherapy for platinum-sensitive (PS), recurrent ovarian cancer (OC), we compared overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), confirmed complete response rate and time to treatment failure in this population. Patients with recurrent stage III or IV OC, a progression-free and platinum-free interval of 6-24 months after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and up to 12 courses of a non-platinum containing consolidation treatment were eligible. Patients were randomized to i.v. pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) (30 mg/m2) plus i.v. carboplatin (AUC=5 mg/mL min) once every 4 weeks (PLD arm) or i.v. carboplatin alone (AUC=5 mg/mL min) once every 4 weeks. The PLD arm enrolled 31 patients and the carboplatin alone arm 30 for a total of 61 patients out of 900 planned. Response rates were 67% for the PLD arm and 32% for the carboplatin only arm (Fisher's exact p=0.02). The estimated median PFS was 12 and 8 months for PLD versus carboplatin alone. The estimated median OS on the PLD arm was 26 months and 18 months on the carboplatin only arm (p=0.02). Twenty-six percent of the patients on the PLD arm reported grade 4 toxicities, all hematological in nature. This study was closed early because of slow patient accrual. The response rate, median PFS and OS results are intriguing. These data suggest that there may be an advantage to the PLD plus carboplatin combination treatment in patients with PS, recurrent OC. The regimen should be further tested.
    Gynecologic Oncology 02/2008; 108(1):90-4. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ASCO Annual Conference, Tucson, AZ; 10/2007
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    ABSTRACT: Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer continues to be a difficult therapeutic problem. Clearly, molecularly targeted agents should be evaluated in this patient population. Patients were eligible for this phase II study with stage III or IV ovarian cancer, whose tumor expressed Kit (CD117) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and with relapse of measurable disease within 6 months of completing frontline, platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Patients were treated daily with 400 mg of imatinib mesylate orally. It was assumed that the agent would be of no further interest if the population response rate was less than 10%. A two-stage design was used for patient accrual. A total of 34 patients were registered to the study. Of these, 15 were found to be ineligible or not evaluable (8 because their tumor samples were negative for both DC117 and PDGFR). Of 19 evaluable patients, 2 (11%) tested positively for c-Kit and 17 (89%) tested positively for PDGFR. There were no objective responders. Thirteen patients (68%) had increasing disease or symptomatic deterioration, and six (32%) went off protocol during the first month due to adverse events. Median progression-free survival was 2 months (95% CI 1-3 months) and median overall survival was 10 months (95% CI 6-18 months). Eleven percent of patients experienced grade 4 hematologic/metabolic toxicity and 37% experienced grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity. We conclude that imatinib mesylate as a single agent does not appear to have useful clinical activity in c-Kit and/or PDGFR positive, recurrent ovarian cancer in heavily pretreated patients with ovarian cancer.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2007; 17(4):784-8. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A vaccine that effectively protects immunocompromised patients against invasive aspergillosis is a novel approach to a universally fatal disease. Here we present a rationale for selection and in vivo testing of potential protein vaccine candidates, based on the modification of an immunodominant fungal allergen for which we demonstrate immunoprotective properties. Pulmonary exposure to viable Aspergillus fumigatus conidia as well as vaccination with crude hyphal extracts protects corticosteroid-immunosuppressed mice against invasive aspergillosis (J. I. Ito and J. M. Lyons, J. Infect. Dis. 186:869-871, 2002). Sera from the latter animals contain antibodies with numerous and diverse antigen specificities, whereas sera from conidium-exposed mice contain antibodies predominantly against allergen Asp f 3 (and some against Asp f 1), as identified by mass spectrometry. Subcutaneous immunization with recombinant Asp f 3 (rAsp f 3) but not with Asp f 1 was protective. The lungs of Asp f 3-vaccinated survivors were free of hyphae and showed only a patchy low-density infiltrate of mononuclear cells. In contrast, the nonimmunized animals died with invasive hyphal elements and a compact peribronchial infiltrate of predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Three truncated versions of rAsp f 3, spanning amino acid residues 15 to 168 [rAsp f 3(15-168)], 1 to 142, and 15 to 142 and lacking the known bipartite sequence required for IgE binding, were also shown to be protective. Remarkably, vaccination with either rAsp f 3(1-142) or rAsp f 3(15-168) drastically diminished the production of antigen-specific antibodies compared to vaccination with the full-length rAsp f 3(1-168) or the double-truncated rAsp f 3(15-142) version. Our findings point to a possible mechanism in which Asp f 3 vaccination induces a cellular immune response that upon infection results in the activation of lymphocytes that in turn enhances and/or restores the function of corticosteroid-suppressed macrophages to clear fungal elements in the lungs.
    Infection and Immunity 10/2006; 74(9):5075-84. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    Qin Huang, Sharon P Wilczynski, Karen L Chang, Lawrence M Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a composite lymphoma with recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma components manifesting as a single, perforated small intestinal tumor in a 56-year-old man with a history of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and recent relapse in the bone marrow. The resected mass had 2 morphologically and immunophenotypically distinct components; 1 showed a pleomorphic cellular infiltrate with fibrosis and contained numerous, large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells and variants. The tumor cells were CD30+ and focally positive for CD15 but CD20-, CD79a-, and PAX-5-. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was strongly positive in the large pleomorphic tumor cells. The adjacent component displayed sheets of relatively uniform, large lymphoid cells with typical morphologic features of diffuse large cell lymphoma. The tumor cells showed uniform expression of tested B-cell antigens, absence of CD30 or CD15, and complete absence of EBV-encoded RNA. Separate molecular studies with immunoglobulin heavy and k light chain gene rearrangements clearly demonstrated an identical rearrangement pattern, indicating derivation from the same clone, which was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. Such distinctly different morphology, immunophenotype, and EBV status in different components within a clonally related single tumor mass is striking.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 09/2006; 126(2):222-9. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous radioimmunotherapy (RIT) clinical trials at this institution with (90)Y-labeled cT84.66 anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) evaluated the antibody conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The aim of this phase I therapy trial was to evaluate cT84.66 conjugated to the macrocyclic chelate (90)Y-DOTA and labeled with (90)Y in a comparable patient population. Patients with metastatic CEA-producing cancers were entered in this trial. If antibody targeting to tumor was observed after the administration of (111)In-DTPA cT84.66, the patient then received the therapy infusion of (90)Y-DOTA-cT84.66 1 week later. Serial nuclear scans, blood and urine collections, and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to assess antibody biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, toxicities, and antitumor effects. Thirteen (13) patients were treated in this study. Dose-limiting hematologic toxicity was experienced at initial starting activity levels of 12 and 8 mCi/m(2). Subsequent patients received systemic Ca-DTPA at 125 mg/m(2) every 12 hours for 3 days post-therapy to allow for a dose escalation to 16 mCi/m(2), where hematologic toxicity was observed with an associated maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 13.4 mCi/m(2). Tumor doses ranged from 4.4 to 569 cGy/mCi, which translated to 97-12,500 cGy after a single infusion of (90)Y-DOTA-cT84.66. Human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) response developed in 8 of 13 patients and prevented additional therapy in 4 patients. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using (90)Y-DOTA-cT84.66 for antibody-guided radiation therapy. Immunogenicity of the DOTA-conjugated cT84.66 antibody was not appreciably greater than that observed with (90)Y-DTPA-cT84.66 in previous trials. Dose-limiting hematopoietic toxicity with (90)Y-DOTA-cT84.66 decreased with Ca-DTPA infusions post-therapy and appears to be comparable to previously published results for (90)Y-DTPA-cT84.66. The highest antibody uptake and tumor doses were to small nodal lesions, which supports the predictions from preclinical and clinical data that RIT may be best applied in the minimal tumor burden setting.
    Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 05/2006; 21(2):88-100. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to evaluate tamoxifen-associated changes in the vagina and uterus in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Between June 1994 and December 1998, 45 patients enrolled in a prospective study before commencing tamoxifen therapy. Patients with endometrial thickness >5 mm or neoplasia were excluded. Transvaginal ultrasonography, vaginal maturation indexes (VMI), and endometrial biopsy were performed at baseline and repeated at 6 months (n= 42), 1 year (n= 39), 2 years (n= 32), 3 years (n= 26), 4 years (n= 19), and 5 years (n= 15). For the 39 patients followed for 1 year, VMI (% parabasal/intermediate/superficial) was 21/71/8 at baseline compared with 1/90/9 at 1 year (P value = 0.0008/0.001/0.78). At baseline, mean endometrial thickness and uterine volume were 2.6 mm and 64 cm(3), respectively, compared with 5.8 mm and 84 cm(3) at 1 year (P= 0.0002, 0.002). At baseline, 80% of patients had atrophic endometrium and 9% proliferative endometrium compared with 61% and 26% at 1 year, respectively (P= 0.04). No cases of endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma were detected. Findings observed at 6 months persisted through 5 years of follow-up. Tamoxifen exerts a weak estrogenic effect on the vagina and uterus in highly prescreened postmenopausal women without preexisting endometrial pathology.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 02/2006; 16(2):814-20. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the improvement in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer associated with platinum-taxane chemotherapy, strategies are needed to prevent the greater than 70% recurrence rate. The Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) initiated a phase III intergroup trial of alpha-interferon (IFNalpha-26, Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) in weekly doses of 50 x 10(6) IU (for 6 doses) versus observation only in patients with no pathological evidence of residual disease at second-look surgery in 1988. Patient accrual was extremely slow and the trial was permanently closed in 1999 by the SWOG Data and Safety Monitoring Committee with 74 registered patients. Of these patients, 70 were evaluable for progression-free and overall survival. There was no significant difference between the two study arms in relation to median progression-free survival (P = 0.56). The median survival duration associated with intraperitoneal alpha-interferon had not been reached versus 87 months on the observation arm. In general, intraperitoneal alpha-interferon was well tolerated. There were no treatment-related deaths or grade 4 adverse events. Although no efficacy conclusions can be drawn from this prematurely closed trial, it should be noted that 57% of the patients on the observation arm recurred and all died, whereas 63% recurred and only 43% died on the intraperitoneal alpha-interferon arm. Although this was a negative study, there should continue to be interest in the use of biological therapy to improve survival of patients in complete remission following primary chemotherapy.
    Gynecologic Oncology 02/2006; 100(1):133-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the response rate and progression free and overall survival of patients with advanced endometrial cancer treated with paclitaxel, carboplatin and amifostine. To evaluate the toxicity of amifostine when used in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Forty-seven eligible patients (median age: 66; range 45-82) with bidimensionally measurable advanced, recurrent, or refractory endometrial cancer were treated with carboplatin (AUC = 6), paclitaxel (175 mg/M2) and amifostine (740 mg/M2) every 4 weeks for 6 cycles or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. There were 4 CRs (8%) (2 confirmed, 2 unconfirmed) and 15 PRs (32%) (9 confirmed, 6 unconfirmed) for a total response rate of 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26% to 56%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7 months (95% CI, 6-9 months) and a 6-month PFS rate of 64% (95% CI, 50% to 78%). The median overall survival was 14 months (95% CI, 12 to 17 months). Toxicity was tolerable. While 79% of patients developed Grade 3/4 neutropenia (30% Grade 3, 49% Grade 4), there were no episodes of Grade 4 febrile neutropenia and one episode of infection with grades 3-4 neutropenia. The combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin with amifostine was well reasonably tolerated in this cohort. The regimen demonstrated significant activity in endometrial cancer, comparable to other multi-agent chemotherapy programs in terms of response rate and survival, and with a favorable toxicity profile.
    Gynecologic Oncology 04/2005; 96(3):610-5. · 3.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
413.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of New Mexico
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Medicine
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Virginia Mason Medical Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Beckman Research Institute
      Duarte, California, United States
  • 1993–2008
    • City of Hope National Medical Center
      • • Division of Anatomic Pathology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Duarte, California, United States
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center (VICC)
      Nashville, MI, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
  • 2003
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • Gateway-Vanderbilt Cancer Treatment Center
      Clarksville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1988–2001
    • University of California, Irvine
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      • • Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      • • Center for Culture and Health
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1991
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • Division of Hematology-Oncology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States