ABSTRACT: The carbonic anhydrases enzymes (CAs, EC 220.127.116.11) are zinc containing metalloproteins, which efficiently catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and release proton. These enzymes are essentially important for biological system and play several important physiological and patho-physiological functions. There are 16 different alpha-carbonic anhydrase isoforms studied, differing widely in their cellular localization and biophysical properties. The catalytic domains of all CAs possess a conserved tertiary structure fold, with predominately β-strands. We performed an extensive analysis of all 16 mammalian CAs for its structure and function in order to establish a structure-function relationship. CAs have been a potential therapeutic target for many diseases. Sulfonamides are considered as a strong and specific inhibitor of CA, and are being used as diuretics, anti-glaucoma, anti-epileptic, anti-ulcer agents. Currently CA inhibitors are widely used as a drug for the treatment of neurological disorders, anti-glaucoma drugs, anti-cancer, or anti-obesity agents. Here we tried to emphasize how CAs can be used for drug discovery, design and screening. Furthermore, we discussed the role of CA in carbon capture, carbon sensor and metabolon. We hope this review provide many useful information on structure, function, mechanism, and applications of CAs in various discipline.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 04/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor