[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The principal nutrient artery to the femur demonstrates an increase in nitric oxide mediated vasodilation in rats after treadmill exercise training. The present study sought to determine whether exercise training improves hindlimb bone and marrow blood flow distribution at rest and during exercise.
Six-eight month old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exercise trained (ET) with treadmill walking at 15 m/min up a 15° incline for 60 min/d over a 10-12 wk period. Sedentary (SED) control animals were acclimated to treadmill exercise for 5 min/d during the week preceding the blood flow measurements. Blood flow to nine distinct regions of the femur, tibia, and fibula were determined at rest and during low-intensity exercise (15 m/min walking, 0° incline) using the reference sample microsphere method.
The results demonstrate an augmentation of exercise hyperemia above that observed in SED rats during exercise in only one region of bone, the femoral diaphysis of ET rats. However, while exercise hyperemia occurred in 3 of the 9 hindlimb bone regions measured in SED rats, exercise hyperemia occurred in 7 of 9 regions in ET rats.
These data indicate an increase in generalized hindlimb bone and marrow blood flow during physical activity following a period of exercise training. Elevations in regional bone and marrow blood flow after training may augment medullary pressure and bone interstitial fluid flow, thus benefiting bone integrity.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 03/2014; 46(11). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000342 · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise-induced vascular endothelial adaptations in the kidney are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the abundance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC SOD), in kidney and lung, and other SOD isoforms and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), in kidney. We also determined whether VWR influences susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley (SD) and Fisher 344 (F344) rats, VWR or sedentary (SED) for 12 weeks, were subjected to AKI (uninephrectomy (UNX) and 35 min of left kidney ischemia/24 hour reperfusion, IR). We measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), and analyzed renal structural injury. Running was comparable between strains and VWR reduced body weight. In SD rats, VWR reduced eNOS and EC SOD, but increased Mn SOD in kidney. Similar changes were seen after 6 weeks VWR in SD's. In F344 rats, VWR increased eNOS, all SOD isoforms, and TAC in kidney. Both strains increased eNOS and EC SOD in lung with VWR. Compared to UNX alone, UNX-IR injury markedly reduced renal function for both strains, however, in the SD, VWR exacerbated falls in GFR and RPF due to UNX-IR, whereas in the F344, GFR was unaffected by VWR. Some indices of renal structural injury due to UNX-IR tended to be worse in SD vs. F344. Our study demonstrates that genetic background influences the effect of exercise on kidney eNOS and EC SOD, which in turn influence the susceptibility to AKI.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2012; 591(5). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2012.244327 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging kidneys exhibit slowly developing injury and women are usually protected compared with men, in association with maintained renal nitric oxide.
Our purpose was to test 2 hypotheses: (1) that aging intact Fischer-344 (F344) female rats exhibit less glomerular damage than similarly aged males, and (2) that loss of female ovarian hormones would lead to greater structural injury and dysregulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in aging F344 rat kidneys.
We compared renal injury in F344 rats in intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized with estrogen replaced young (6 month) and old (24 month) female rats with young and old intact male rats and measured renal protein abundance of NOS isoforms and oxidative stress.
There was no difference in age-dependent glomerular damage between young or old intact male and female F344 rats, and neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement affected renal injury; however, tubulointerstitial injury was greater in old males than in old females. These data suggest that ovarian hormones do not influence these aspects of kidney aging in F344 rats and that the greater tubulointerstitial injury is caused by male sex. Old males had greater kidney cortex NOS3 abundance than females, and NOS1 abundance (alpha and beta isoforms) was increased in old males compared with both young males and old females. NOS abundance was preserved with age in intact females, ovariectomy did not reduce NOS1 or NOS3 protein abundance, and estrogen replacement did not uniformly elevate NOS proteins, suggesting that estrogens are not primary regulators of renal NOS abundance in this strain. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent superoxide production and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were increased in aging male rat kidneys compared with females, which could compromise renal nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability.
The kidney damage expressed in aging F344 rats is fairly mild and is not related to loss of renal cortex NOS3 or NOS1 alpha.
Gender Medicine 07/2012; 9(4):219-31. DOI:10.1016/j.genm.2012.06.003 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency contributes to chronic kidney disease progression. Nebivolol, a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist, may enhance endogenous NO. Here, we investigated whether Nebivolol attenuates hypertension and renal injury after 5/6 ablation/infarction (A/I). Efficacy was compared to the AT1 receptor antagonist Olmesartan.
Kidney disease and hypertension were induced by right kidney ablation and ~2/3 infarction of the left kidney. Rats were treated orally with vehicle (placebo), Nebivolol (5mg/kg b.i.d.), or Olmesartan (2.5mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks after A/I.
With placebo, glomerular sclerosis and tubulointersititial fibrosis developed with increased blood pressure and proteinuria, and a fall in NO(x) excretion. Olmesartan prevented these changes, but Nebivolol had no effect on these measures but lowered heart rate. Neither treatment reduced systemic oxidative stress (urinary hydrogen peroxide and TBARS). Compared to controls, renal cortex abundance of nNOSα decreased and nNOSβ increased in rats after 5/6 A/I, with no changes in eNOS. Neither treatment restored nNOSα; however, both reduced nNOSβ. Activity of DDAH was decreased by 5/6 A/I but restored by both treatments despite no increase in DDAH protein abundance. Kidney cortex abundance of manganese SOD fell after 5/6 A/I and was restored by treatment with Olmesartan but not Nebivolol. Extracellular and copper/zinc SOD abundances were not changed.
In conclusion, Nebivolol showed no benefit after 6 weeks in rapidly progressing, ANG II-dependent 5/6 A/I model of chronic kidney disease. This contrasts to the protection seen with 6 month treatment of Nebivolol in the slowly progressing 5/6 ablation model.
Life sciences 06/2012; 91(1-2):54-63. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2012.06.005 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril to aged rats attenuated muscle strength decline and mitigated apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscle. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the muscle-protective effects of enalapril. We also sought to discern the effects of enalapril mediated by nitric oxide (NO) from those independent of this signaling molecule. Eighty-seven male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive enalapril (n = 23), the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester (L: -NAME; n = 22), enalapril + L: -NAME (n = 19), or placebo (n = 23) from 24 to 27 months of age. Experiments were performed on the tibialis anterior muscle. Total NOS activity and the expression of neuronal, endothelial, and inducible NOS isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS) were determined to investigate the effects of enalapril on NO signaling. Transcript levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were assessed to explore actions of enalapril on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Protein expression of energy-sensing and insulin signaling mediators, including protein kinase B (Akt-1), phosphorylated Akt-1 (pAkt-1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase subunit alpha (AMPKα), phosphorylated AMPKα (pAMPKα), and the glucose transporter GLUT-4, was also determined. Finally, the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was quantified in subsarcolemmal (SSM) and intermyofibrillar (IFM) mitochondria. Enalapril increased total NOS activity, which was prevented by L: -NAME co-administration. eNOS protein content was enhanced by enalapril, but not by enalapril + L: -NAME. Gene expression of iNOS was down-regulated by enalapril either alone or in combination with L: -NAME. In contrast, protein levels of nNOS were unaltered by treatments. The mRNA abundance of TNF-α was reduced by enalapril relative to placebo, with no differences among any other group. PCG-1α gene expression was unaffected by enalapril and lowered by enalapril + L: -NAME. No differences in protein expression of Akt-1, pAkt-1, AMPKα, pAMPKα, or GLUT-4 were detected among groups. However, mTOR protein levels were increased by enalapril compared with placebo. Finally, all treatment groups displayed reduced SSM, but not IFM H(2)O(2) production relative to placebo. Our data indicate that enalapril induces a number of metabolic adaptations in aged skeletal muscle. These effects result from the concerted modulation of NO and angiotensin II signaling, rather than from a dichotomous action of enalapril on the two pathways. Muscle protection by enalapril administered late in life appears to be primarily mediated by mitigation of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling.
Age 05/2012; 35(4). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9428-4 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-technical summary In older people, the function of the kidney deteriorates, and one possible way to slow this process down is through exercise. Exercise increases the abundance of important enzymes that are needed for optimal vessel health and kidney function, for instance the nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. It also reduces oxidative stress, a type of cellular injury caused by highly reactive molecules. When we compared young and old sedentary rats to young and old exercise-trained (12 weeks treadmill) rats, we found that exercise was not effective in reversing the age-related kidney changes. In old rats, renal function declined as did the abundance of the protective SOD enzymes, and oxidative stress increased; interestingly, exercise did not influence these changes. Our results suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of exercise do not necessarily extend to the kidney.
Abstract The ageing kidney exhibits slowly developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with nitric oxide (NO) deficiency and increased oxidative stress. The impact of exercise on the ageing kidney is not well understood. Here, we determined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise can influence age-dependent CKD in old (22–24 months) Fisher 344 (F344) male rats by comparing sedentary (SED) and exercise (EX) trained rats; young (3 months) rats were also studied. In addition to renal structure and function, we assessed protein levels of various isoforms of the NO synthases (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes as well as markers of oxidative stress, in kidney cortex and medulla. Renal function as determined by plasma creatinine, proteinuria, and glomerular structural injury worsened with age and was unaffected by exercise. Ageing also increased the protein abundance of neuronal NOSβ and p22phox while decreasing extracellular (EC) and copper/zinc (CuZn) SOD, in kidney cortex and medulla. H2O2 content and nitrotyrosine abundance also increased in the kidney with age. None of these age-related changes were altered with exercise. However, exercise did increase renal cortical endothelial (e)NOS and EC SOD in young rats. Data indicate that exercise-induced increases in eNOS and EC SOD seen in young rats are lost with age. We conclude that chronic exercise is ineffective in reversing age-dependent CKD in the male F344 rat.
The Journal of Physiology 12/2011; 589(Pt 24):6129-38. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.214569 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced renal L-arginine (L-Arg) synthesis/transport, induction of arginases and increased endogenous NOS inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) will inhibit NO production. This study investigated pathways of L-Arg synthesis/uptake/utilization, ADMA degradation and oxidant/antioxidants in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Rats were given low- (LD) or high-dose (HD) PAN and followed for 11 weeks for proteinuria. BP was measured and blood and tissues were harvested and analyzed for abundance of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and lyase (ASL), arginase, cationic amino acid transporter (CAT1) and dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in kidney, cortex, aorta and liver. Arginase and DDAH activity, plasma L-Arg and ADMA, renal pathology and creatinine clearances were also measured.
PAN caused dose-dependent kidney damage and hypertension and creatinine clearance fell in HD-PAN. Renal ASS fell in HD-PAN, renal cortex and aortic ASL and membrane CAT1 fell in both PAN groups. There was no activation of renal arginase, but aortic arginase increased in LD-PAN. Renal DDAH activity fell moderately in LD-PAN and markedly in HD-PAN where hepatic DDAH activity also fell. Plasma L-Arg was unchanged while ADMA rose moderately and dose-dependently with PAN. There were several indices of oxidative stress which was most prominent in HD-PAN.
Reduction in renal ASS/ASL and loss of renal cortex CAT1 compromises renal L-Arg synthesis and release. Loss of aortic CAT1 impairs L-Arg uptake. Increased plasma ADMA was associated with progressive loss of renal DDAH activity. However, loss of renal clearance and falls in hepatic DDAH activity in HD-PAN did not have additive effects on plasma ADMA.
American Journal of Nephrology 12/2011; 35(1):40-8. DOI:10.1159/000334740 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and hypertension. The β-blocker, nebivolol (N), also enhances NO production, and we studied whether N attenuates CKD and hypertension caused by chronic NO synthase inhibition (CNOSI).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats on 6 weeks of CNOSI (L-NAME, 150 mg/L drinking water) received placebo (P), N (10 mg/kg/day), olmesartan (O, 2.5 mg/kg/day) or N + O. Blood pressure (BP) and urine protein and NOx (metabolites of NO) were monitored throughout. We measured glomerular sclerosis (GS), creatinine clearance (C(Cr)) and components of the NO and oxidant pathways in the renal cortex.
BP increased >50 mmHg in P by weeks 4-6, but no change occurred in N, O or N + O. P rats developed proteinuria and GS and C(Cr) was ∼30% of normal. In N, O and N + O, all values remained normal. In renal cortex of P, p22phox and nitrotyrosine abundance as well as H(2)O(2) levels were higher and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC SOD) was lower versus normal kidneys. N, O and N + O normalized p22phox, H(2)O(2) and EC SOD and increased Mn SOD above normal. The cortical neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) β abundance increased in P and this was prevented by N, O and N + O.
We suggest that the major benefit from both N and O is reduction in oxidative stress in the renal cortex, which may potentiate residual local NO. There was no additive benefit of N + O since each drug effectively prevented injury, but a combination may be beneficial where protection is incomplete with each drug. The increased nNOSβ protein seen early in the course of the CKD may contribute to the evolving GS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-dependent renal damage is influenced by genetic background and the Fisher344xBrown Norway (F344xBN) rat is resistant to glomerular injury. In vulnerable strains, a fall in renal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to age-dependent renal damage. Here, we investigated renal NOS in young (3 months) and old (30 months) male F344xBN to test the hypothesis that renal NOS is maintained in "protected" strains. We also examined if 6 months of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) provides further benefit in these "protected" old rats. Aging increased tubulointerstitial injury but glomerular sclerosis was minimal and NOS and superoxide dismutase abundance increased. There was no change in the NOS inhibitor, ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or its regulatory enzymes. RAS blockade with ARB protected against tubulointerstitial injury and increased nNOSα, but ACEI, which also increased nNOSα, had no protective effect on the tubulointerstitium. We conclude that the glomerular sclerosis-resistant aged male F344xBN rat maintains renal NOS, thus reinforcing our hypothesis that progressive glomerular injury is related to renal NOS deficiency. The tubulointerstitial injury seen with aging is reversed with 6 months of ARB but not ACEI and is not associated with renal NOS.
Mechanisms of ageing and development 11/2010; 132(1-2):1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2010.10.004 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rat develops spontaneous glomerulosclerosis that is ameliorated by inhibition of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1). Since kidney damage is associated with nitric oxide (NO) deficiency, we investigated how AT-1 antagonism influenced nitric oxide synthase (NOS), as well as NOS substrate [L-arginine (L-Arg)] and inhibitor [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)]. L-Arg is synthesized by renal argininosuccinate synthase/argininosuccinate lyase (ASS/ASL) and then either consumed within the kidney by arginase II or NOS or released into the circulation. L-Arg is then taken up from plasma into cells where it can be utilized by NOS and other pathways. The competitive inhibitor of NOS, ADMA, is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH).
Male FHH rats were put on a 40% casein diet for 13 weeks, and some received AT-1 antagonist which reduced blood pressure and kidney weight and prevented glomerulosclerosis and hyperfiltration. The AT-1 antagonist reduced the expression of DDAH2, increased DDAH1 and increased total DDAH activity in the kidney cortex, although there was no change in plasma or kidney cortex ADMA levels. The AT-1 antagonist caused no change in the expression of renal ASS/ASL, but reduced renal and aortic arginase expression and renal arginase activity, which could explain the increased plasma L-Arg. In separate studies, 1 week of AT-1 blockade in young FHH rats had no effect on any of these parameters.
Thus, the net result of AT-1 antagonist was an improved L-Arg to ADMA ratio due to the prevention of renal and vascular arginase activation which favours increased NO production. Since 1 week of AT-1 blockade in the absence of kidney damage was without effect on arginases, this suggests that the reduction in arginase activity is secondary to the prevention of structural damage rather than a direct immediate effect of AT-1 antagonism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, is increased in hypertension and chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about the effects of hypertension per se on ADMA metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ANG II-induced hypertension, in the absence of renal injury, is associated with increased oxidative stress and plasma and renal cortex ADMA levels in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ANG II at 200 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) sc (by minipump) for 1 or 3 wk or at 400 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) for 6 wk. Mean arterial pressure was increased after 3 and 6 wk of ANG II; however, renal injury (proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis) was only evident after 6 wk of treatment. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration and renal cortex p22(phox) protein abundance were increased early (1 and 3 wk), but urinary excretion of isoprostane and H(2)O(2) was only increased after 6 wk of ANG II. An increased in plasma ADMA after 6 wk of ANG II was associated with increased lung protein arginine methyltransferase-1 abundance and decreased renal cortex dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity. No changes in renal cortex ADMA were observed. ANG II hypertension in the absence of renal injury is not associated with increased ADMA; however, when the severity and duration of the treatment were increased, plasma ADMA increased. These data suggest that elevated blood pressure alone, for up to 3 wk, in the absence of renal injury does not play an important role in the regulation of ADMA. However, the presence of renal injury and sustained hypertension for 6 wk increases ADMA levels and contributes to nitric oxide deficiency and cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases with advancing age; however, the age at which CVD risk increases significantly is delayed by more than a decade in women compared with men. This cardioprotection, which women experience until menopause, is presumably due to the presence of ovarian hormones, in particular, estrogen. The purpose of this study was to determine how age and ovarian hormones affect flow-induced vasodilation in the coronary resistance vasculature. Coronary arterioles were isolated from young (6 mo), middle-aged (14 mo), and old (24 mo) intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized + estrogen replaced (OVE) female Fischer-344 rats to assess flow-induced vasodilation. Advancing age impaired flow-induced dilation of coronary arterioles (young: 50 +/- 4 vs. old: 34 +/- 6; % relaxation). Ovariectomy reduced flow-induced dilation in arterioles from young females, and estrogen replacement restored vasodilation to flow. In aged females, flow-induced vasodilation of arterioles was unaltered by OVX; however, estrogen replacement improved flow-induced dilation by approximately 160%. The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to flow-induced dilation, assessed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), declined with age. l-NAME did not alter flow-induced vasodilation in arterioles from OVX rats, regardless of age. In contrast, l-NAME reduced flow-induced vasodilation of arterioles from estrogen-replaced rats at all ages. These findings indicate that the age-induced decline of flow-induced, NO-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles of female rats is related, in part, to a loss of ovarian estrogen, and estrogen supplementation can improve flow-induced dilation, even at an advanced age.