[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and MMP-7 has been described as a useful biomarker for IPF. However, little is known regarding the significance of MMP-10 as a biomarker for IPF.
This observational cohort study included 57 patients with IPF. Serum MMPs were comprehensively measured in all patients, and the relationships between these markers and both disease severity and prognosis were evaluated. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) MMP-7 and -10 levels were measured in 19 patients to investigate the correlation between these markers and their corresponding serum values. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-10 was also performed in IPF lung tissue.
Serum MMP-7 and -10 levels correlated significantly with both the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (ρ = -0.31, p = 0.02 and ρ = -0.34, p < 0.01, respectively) and the percentage of predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (ρ = -0.32, p = 0.02 and ρ = -0.43, p < 0.01, respectively). BALF MMP-7 and -10 levels correlated with their corresponding serum concentrations. Only serum MMP-10 predicted clinical deterioration within 6 months and overall survival. In IPF lungs, the expression of MMP-10 was enhanced and localized to the alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and peripheral bronchiolar epithelial cells.
MMP-10 may be a novel biomarker reflecting both disease severity and prognosis in patients with IPF.
Respiratory Research 09/2016; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12931-015-0280-9 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Health status and mortality are important outcomes in patients with advanced pulmonary diseases receiving noninvasive ventilation (NIV). However, their relationship has not been thoroughly investigated.
The present study prospectively recruited 56 stable outpatients treated with NIV for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae. At baseline, health status was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, a generic questionnaire; the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), a respiratory-specific questionnaire; and two respiratory failure-specific questionnaires, the Maugeri Respiratory Failure questionnaire and the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) questionnaire. Arterial blood gas, pulmonary function, dyspnea and psychological status were also measured.
In cross-sectional comparisons of the four health status questionnaires, the SGRQ and SRI questionnaire had lower floor and ceiling effects. During the three-year follow-up, 16 patients (29%) died. Health status shown by the SGRQ and SRI was significantly predictive of mortality, independently of the physiological measures of low body mass index (BMI), hypercapnia, and low pulmonary function. Stepwise multivariate analyses indicated that the SRI summary score was the most significant predictor of mortality (p=0.0006) followed by BMI (p=0.012).
There was a significant relationship between health status and three-year mortality in patients with NIV, independently of under-nutrition, hypercapnia, and low pulmonary function. Health status measurement is important not only to comprehensively evaluate disease severity in relation to its close association with mortality, but also to elucidate factors that improve the survival of patients with advanced respiratory diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Clinical Respiratory Journal 11/2015; DOI:10.1111/crj.12415 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0141823. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141823 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man (case 1) and a 64-year-old woman (case 2) with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and snoring were admitted for polysomnography. Their awake PaCO2 indicated normocapnia. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), max transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) and ΔPtcCO2 (max PtcCO2 (during sleep)-baseline PtcCO2 (while awake)) were 11.4/h, 63 mm Hg and 18 mm Hg, respectively, in case 1 and 53.1/h, 59 mm Hg and 13 mm Hg, respectively, in case 2. Their sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was diagnosed as obstructive sleep apnoea with hypoventilation. We thought that variable expiratory positive airway pressure and pressure support ventilation (advanced-adaptive servo ventilation (ASV)) might be favourable for their SDB. Polysomnography after introducing advanced-ASV revealed that AHI, max PtcCO2 and ΔPtcCO2 were 0.2/h, 53 mm Hg and 5 mm Hg, respectively, in case 1 and 1.5/h, 56 mm Hg and 9 mm Hg, respectively, in case 2. Advanced-ASV for treating Cheyne-Stokes breathing may be helpful in SDB in patients with MSA.
Case Reports 11/2015; 2015:bcr2014206372. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2014-206372
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population.
Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old) by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS) score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.
Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01) and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01). The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01) Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01) and poor sleep quality (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.61, p<0.01; both knee and low back pain: OR = 2.17, p<0.01).
Knee and low back pains were independently associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Further, they additively increased the correlation with these sleep problems in the general population.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0140058. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0140058 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious adverse effect of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, traditional markers of kidney function, such as serum creatinine, are suboptimal, because they are not sensitive measures of proximal tubular injury. We aimed to determine whether the new urinary biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) could detect cisplatin-induced AKI in lung cancer patients in comparison with the conventional urinary proteins such as N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin.
We measured KIM-1, MCP-1, NGAL, NAG, and β2-microglobulin concentrations in urine samples from 11 lung cancer patients, which were collected the day before cisplatin administration and on days 3, 7, and 14. Subsequently, we evaluated these biomarkers by comparing their concentrations in 30 AKI positive (+) and 12 AKI negative (-) samples and performing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses.
The urinary levels normalized with urine creatinine of KIM-1 and MCP-1, but not NGAL, NAG, and β2-microglobulin in AKI (+) samples were significantly higher than those in AKI (-) samples. In addition, ROC curve analyses revealed that KIM-1 and MCP-1, but not NGAL, could detect AKI with high accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.858, 0.850, and 0.608, respectively). The combination of KIM-1 and MCP-1 outperformed either biomarker alone (AUC = 0.871).
Urinary KIM-1 and MCP-1, either alone or in combination, may represent biomarkers of cisplatin-induced AKI in lung cancer patients.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 09/2015; 76(5). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2880-y · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in patients with interstitial lung disease. However, BMD has not been evaluated in steroid-naïve patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We aimed to measure vertebral BMD and investigate its relationship with clinical features in steroid-naïve patients with IPF.
We recruited 55 consecutive male patients with steroid-naïve IPF; 55 male smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease, matched by age, body mass index, and pack-years of smoking (control smokers); and 27 healthy young adults. Thoracic vertebral BMD was measured by computed tomography (CT). We further investigated the relationship of BMD with clinical features and quantitative CT indices of lung density in patients with IPF.
The thoracic vertebral BMD of patients with IPF was significantly lower than that of control smokers (139.9 ± 28.5 mg/mL vs 160.9 ± 39.5 mg/mL, p < 0.01). Fifteen patients (27.2%) had BMD more than 2.5 SD below the mean BMD of young adults. In patients with IPF, emphysema volume (EV) and its ratio to total lung volume (EV%) had a significantly negative correlation with BMD (r = -0.28, p = 0.04 and r = -0.39, p < 0.01, respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, EV% was an independent explanatory variable for thoracic vertebral BMD.
A substantial percentage of steroid-naïve IPF patients had decreased BMD, and a significant association was observed between the extent of emphysema and BMD in IPF.
Respiratory medicine 09/2015; 109(9):1181-7. DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2015.06.014 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis has been proposed as a means of objectively assessing fibrotic interstitial pneumonia (IP) including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated whether percentages of high-attenuation areas (HAA%) and cystic areas (CA%) quantified from CT images were useful as indices of fibrotic IP.
CT images of 74 patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IPF, 36; non-specific interstitial pneumonia, 9; unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 29) were analyzed via in-house computer software, which automatically calculated HAA%, CA%, mean lung density (MLD), standard deviation of lung density (SD-LD), kurtosis, and skewness from CT attenuation histograms. These indices were compared in each instance with physiologic measures, visual fibrosis score, clinical diagnosis, radiologic CT pattern, and prognosis.
HAA% correlated significantly with physiologic measures and visual fibrosis score to a moderate extent (%forced vital capacity, rs = −0.59; % carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, rs = −0.43; fibrosis score, rs = 0.23). Densitometric parameters (MLD, SD-LD, kurtosis, and skewness) correlated significantly with physiologic measures and fibrosis score (|rs| = 0.28-0.59). CA% showed no association with pulmonary functions but differed significantly between IPF and other interstitial pneumonias (IPs) (1.50 ± 2.41 % vs. 0.41 ± 0.80 %; P < 0.01) and between the definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern and other patterns (1.48 ± 2.38 % vs. 0.55 ± 1.19 %; P < 0.01). On univariate analysis, HAA%, MLD, SD-LD, kurtosis, skewness, fibrosis score, and definite UIP pattern all correlated with survival, with kurtosis alone identified as a significant predictor of mortality on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.44-0.96; P = 0.03).
CA% and HAA% are novel quantitative CT indices with differing properties in fibrotic IP evaluations. HAA% largely reflects physiologic impairments, whereas CA% corresponds with diagnosis and HRCT pattern. Of the CT indices examined, kurtosis constituted the strongest predictor of mortality.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 07/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12890-015-0069-0 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) encoded by SERPINA1 is an acute-phase inflammation marker, and AAT deficiency (AATD) is known as one of the common genetic disorders in European populations. However, no genetic determinants to AAT levels apart from the SERPINA gene clusters have been identified to date. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of serum AAT levels followed by a two-staged replication study recruiting a total of 9,359 Japanese community-dwelling population. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes, namely, rs671 in ALDH2, rs1169288 in HNF1A and rs1260326 in GCKR, significantly associate with AAT levels (P≤1.5 × 10(-12)). Previous reports have shown the functional relevance of ALDH2 and HNF1A to AAT. We observe a significant interaction of rs671 and alcohol consumption on AAT levels. We confirm the association between AAT and rs2896268 in SERPINA1, which is independent of known causative variants of AATD. These findings would support various AAT functions including metabolic processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although sedation is often required for agitated patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV), reports on its practical use have been few. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sedation for agitated patients undergoing NIV in clinical practice in a single hospital.
We retrospectively reviewed sedated patients who received NIV due to acute respiratory failure from May 2007 to May 2012. Sedation level was controlled according to the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS). Clinical background, sedatives, failure rate of sedation, and complications were evaluated by 1) sedative methods (intermittent only, switched to continuous, or initially continuous) and 2) code status (do-not-intubate [DNI] or non-DNI).
Of 3506 patients who received NIV, 120 (3.4 %) consecutive patients were analyzed. Sedation was performed only intermittently in 72 (60 %) patients, was switched to continuously in 37 (31 %) and was applied only continuously in 11 (9 %). Underlying diseases in 48 % were acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury/severe pneumonia or acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. In non-DNI patients (n = 39), no patient required intubation due to agitation with continuous sedation, and in DNI patients (n = 81), 96 % of patients could continue NIV treatment. PaCO2 level changes (6.7 ± 15.1 mmHg vs. -2.0 ± 7.7 mmHg, P = 0.028) and mortality in DNI patients (81 % vs. 57 %, P = 0.020) were significantly greater in the continuous use group than in the intermittent use group.
According to RASS scores, sedation during NIV in proficient hospitals may be favorably used to potentially avoid NIV failure in agitated patients, even in those having diseases with poor evidence of the usefulness of NIV. However, with continuous use, we must be aware of an increased hypercapnic state and the possibility of increased mortality. Larger controlled studies are needed to better clarify the role of sedation in improving NIV outcomes in intolerant patients.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 07/2015; 15(1):71. DOI:10.1186/s12890-015-0072-5 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and liver fat accumulation have been frequently investigated because both morbidities are common. Visceral fat was reported to be closely related to OSA and liver fat accumulation. Recently, sex differences in the association between OSA and mortality have gained much attention.
To investigate the associations among OSA, liver fat accumulation as determined by computed tomography, and visceral fat area and their sex differences.
Studied were 188 males and 62 females who consecutively underwent polysomnography and computed tomography.
Although the apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with liver fat accumulation in the total males, none of the OSA-related factors was independently associated with liver fat accumulation in either the total male or female participants in the multivariate analyses. When performing subanalyses using a specific definition for Japanese of obesity or visceral obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 or visceral fat area ≥100 cm2), in only males without visceral obesity, percent sleep time with oxygen saturation <90%, in addition to BMI, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride values, was independently correlated with liver fat accumulation (R2 = 15.1%, P<0.001). In males, percent sleep time of oxygen saturation <90% was also a determining factor for alanine aminotransferase values regardless of visceral fat area. In contrast, OSA was not associated with liver fat accumulation or alanine aminotransferase values in females whether or not visceral obesity was absent.
Sex differences in the visceral fat-dependent impact of OSA on liver fat accumulation existed. Although the mechanisms are not known and ethnic differences may exist in addition to the specific criteria of visceral obesity in Japan, the treatment of male patients with OSA might be favorable from the viewpoint of preventing liver fat accumulation and liver dysfunction even in patients without obvious visceral fat accumulation.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129513. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129513 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway remodelling in bronchial asthma (BA) and COPD has been quantitatively assessed by analysing the airway wall area and the luminal area on cross-sectional CT images. To date, there have been no reports on assessment of the longitudinal structure of the airway lumen.
Quantitative airway analysis using CT was performed on three groups consisting of 29 patients with BA, 58 patients with COPD and 59 healthy controls. To assess the longitudinal shape irregularity of the airway lumen, new quantitative CT parameters, validated by a phantom study, were established. The internal radii of imaginary inscribed spheres in the airway lumen were measured as a function of distance from the level of the carina to the fifth-order branches of the right posterior basal bronchus. The gaps of these radii from the regression line were calculated as parameters to reflect the longitudinal airway lumen shape irregularity. These new parameters were compared among the study groups as well as with the conventional parameters of airway wall thickening and luminal area.
Longitudinal airway lumen shape irregularity was significantly greater in patients with COPD than in those with BA and healthy controls. Wall thickening was significantly greater, and luminal area smaller, in patients with BA than in those with COPD and healthy controls. These results were consistent even among the BA and COPD subgroups with similar airflow limitation.
The combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal airway structure analyses using CT images may suggest differences in the characteristics of airway remodelling between COPD and asthma.
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