Rajendra Prasad

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Chandīgarh, India

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Publications (345)594.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High incidence of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is associated with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and is considered as the genital form of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CFTR gene may also be involved in the etiology of male infertility in cases other than CBAVD. The present study was conducted to identify spectrum and frequency of CFTR gene mutations in infertile Indian males with non CBAVD obstructive azoospermia (n=60) and spermatogenic failure (n=150). Conspicuously higher frequency of heterozygote F508del mutation was detected in infertile males with non CBAVD obstructive azoospermia (11.6%) and spermatogenic failure (7.3%). Homozygous IVS(8)-5T allele frequency was also significantly higher in both the groups in comparison to normal healthy individuals. Two mutations in exon 25 viz., R1358I and K1351R were identified as novel mutations in patients with non CBAVD obstructive azoospermia. Mutation R1358I was predicted as probable damaging CFTR mutation. This is the first report from the Indian population, emphasizing increased frequency of CFTR gene mutations in male infertility other than CBAVD. Thus, it is suggested that screening of CFTR gene mutations may be required in infertile Indian males with other forms of infertility apart from CBAVD and willing for assisted reproduction technology.
    Gene 07/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1) the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2) apoptosis and (3) the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using b-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01) in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05), while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV) in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis.
    Indian Journal of Urology 07/2014; 30(3):241-244.
  • Ujjawal Sharma, Deeksha Pal, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.
    Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB. 07/2014; 29(3):269-78.
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is usually considered a rare disease in the Indian population. Two studies have reported on the frequency of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in Indian males with congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD), however data on the spectrum of CFTR gene mutations are still lacking. Therefore the present study was designed to identify the spectrum of CFTR gene mutations as well as to investigate an association of CF genetic modifiers in the penetrance of CAVD in infertile Indian men. A total of 60 consecutive infertile males with a diagnosis of CAVD were subjected to CFTR gene analysis which revealed 13 different CFTR gene mutations and 1 intronic variant that led to aberrant splicing. p.Phe508del (n=16) and p.Arg117His (n=4) were among the most common severe form of CFTR mutations identified. The IVS8-T5 allele, which is considered as a mild form of CFTR mutation, was found with an allelic frequency of 28.3%. Eight novel mutations were also identified in the CFTR gene from our patient cohort. It is noteworthy that the spectrum of CFTR gene mutation is heterogeneous, with exon 4 and exon 11 as hot spot regions. Moreover, we also found an association of the CF genetic modifiers Viz., transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and endothelial receptor type-A (EDNRA) genes with the CAVD phenotype. The findings are of considerable clinical significance because men suffering from infertility due to CAVD can decide to use artificial reproduction technology. The children of men with CAVD are at risk of carrying CFTR mutations therefore genetic counseling is a crucial step for such patients. With special reference to developing countries, such as India, where whole gene sequencing is not feasible, the outcome of our study will make the screening procedure for CFTR gene simpler and more cost effective as we have identified hot spot regions of the CFTR gene which are more prone to mutation in Indian males with CAVD. Moreover, this is the first study from the Indian population to investigate the association of CF genetic modifiers with penetrance of the CAVD phenotype. The observed association of the genetic modifiers TGF-β1 and EDNRA in the penetrance of CAVD further supports their involvement in genesis of the vas deferens.
    Molecular Human Reproduction 06/2014; · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Although several genes have been found to be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, more great efforts are needed to identify new genes which are responsible for the process. Clear cell RCC, originated from proximal tubule cells, is the most common pathological type of RCC. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker enzyme of brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Our previous studies showed a significant decreased activity of liver/Bone/Kidney (L/B/K) alkaline phosphatase in RCC. In the present study, we explored the molecular basis of the decreased activity of ALP in RCC. Immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence and flow cytometry analysis showed decreased ALP protein in RCC. Additionally, real time PCR documented significantly reduced ALP gene expression (P=0.009). Moreover, RCC cell lines (ACHN and A498) transfected with full length L/B/K cDNA showed decreased migratory property as well as viability of these cells as compared with controls (P=0.000). Further, L/B/K ALP cDNA transfected cells (ACHN and A498) showed significant increased apoptosis as compared to control (P=0.000). These findings suggest the new role of ALP in cell viability and apoptosis and involvement in RCC tumorigenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore the exact molecular mechanism.
    Biochimie 06/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Amit Pal, Jayagandan Jayamani, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: Recent seminal studies have established neurodegeneration, cognitive waning and/or β-amyloid deposition due to chronic copper intoxication via drinking water in healthy animals; henceforth, fuelling the debate all again over the safe levels of copper in the drinking water. This review encompasses the contemporary imperative animal studies in which the effect of chronic copper toxicity (especially via drinking water) was evaluated on the central nervous system and memory of uncompromised animals along with discussing the future perspectives.
    NeuroToxicology 05/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Infections caused by opportunistic human fungal pathogens are very common and have shown steady increase in recent years. The typical hosts, which are prone to fungal infections, are those who possess suppressed immune systems due to conditions such as HIV and transplantation surgery. Due to prolonged chemotherapy, fungal cells also develop tolerance to the most commonly used azole antifungals by employing several strategies. Interestingly, biofilms which are routinely formed by fungal cells on medically implanted devices employ different strategies to become highly resistant to antifungals. Apart from the known tactics, newer approaches have revealed novel mechanisms and regulatory circuits that are responsible for the development of multidrug resistance. Overcoming the major clinical hurdle of fungal resistance demands a great deal of knowledge about the function of fungal machinery that is used under drug stress.
    04/2014: pages 44-65; , ISBN: 978-3-642-53832-2
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    ABSTRACT: The Quinidine Drug Resistance (QDR) family of genes encodes transporters belonging to the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) of proteins. We show that, QDR transporters, which are localized to the plasma membrane, do not play a role in drug transport. Hence, null mutants of QDR1, QDR2 and QDR3 display no alterations in susceptibility to azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, polyamines or quinolines, or to cell wall inhibitors and many other stresses. However, the deletion of QDR genes, individually or collectively, led to defects in biofilm architecture and thickness. Interestingly, QDR-lacking strains also displayed attenuated virulence, but the strongest effect was observed with qdr2∆, qdr3∆ and in qdr1/2/3∆ strains. Notably, the attenuated virulence and biofilm defects could be reversed upon reintegration of QDR genes. Transcripts profiling confirmed differential expression of many biofilm and virulence related genes in the deletion strains as compared with wild type C. albicans cells. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis of QDR deletion mutants suggests massive remodeling of lipids, which may affect cell signaling, leading to the defect in biofilm development and attenuation of virulence. In summary, our results show that QDR paralogues encoding MFS antiporters do not display conserved functional linkage as drug transporters and perform functions that significantly impact the virulence of C. albicans.
    Biochemical Journal 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Shweta Nim, Manpreet Kaur Rawal, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: FK520, a homologue of antifungal FK506, displays fungicidal synergism with azoles in Candida albicans and inhibits drug efflux mediated by ABC multidrug transporter. This study establishes the molecular basis of interaction of FK520 with Cdr1 protein, which is one of the major ABC multidrug transporters of C. albicans. For this, we have exploited, an in-house library of Cdr1 protein consisting of 252 mutant variants where the entire primary structure of the 2 transmembrane domains comprising of 12 transmembrane helices were subjected to alanine scanning. With these mutant variants of Cdr1 protein, we could identify the critical amino acids of the transporter protein which if replaced with alanine, not only abrogated FK520 dependent competitive inhibition of drug efflux but simultaneously decreased susceptibility to azoles. Notably, the replacement of most of the residues with alanine was inconsequential, however, there were close to 13% mutant variants which showed abrogation of drug efflux and reversal of fungicidal synergy with azoles. Of note, all the intra-helical residues of Cdr1 protein, which abrogated inhibitor's ability to block the efflux and reversed fungicidal synergy, were common. Taken together, our results provide evidence of cross talk of FK520 with Cdr1 by interacting with the select intra-helical residues of the protein to chemosensitize isolates of Candida.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Yeast Research 03/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Amit Pal, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: In the last two decades, there has been widespread acknowledgment of the pivotal role played by astrocytes in diverse aspects of central nervous system functioning. Astrocytes are crucial for the homeostasis of the copper in the central nervous system as evident by its proficiency in acquisition, trafficking, and export of copper. Moreover, the imbalance in copper homeostasis and impairment in astrocyte functioning are increasingly being recognized as an important contributing factor in the development of neurodegeneration and cognitive waning. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the field of copper homeostasis in astrocytes along with briefly outlining the copper dyshomeostasis associated hepatocerebral and neurodegenerative diseases.
    Neurotoxicity Research 01/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyether-sulphone and polyamide-nylone-6 polymers were irradiated by 50 MeV Li3+ ions for modifications in structural, optical and chemical properties. The decrease in peak width and increase in peak intensity of XRD spectra indicated alignment of polymeric chains in a regular pattern and hence there was decrease in the amorphous character of the irradiated polymers. The gradual increase in the optical absorption and shift towards visible region was observed in optical absorption spectra of irradiated polymers. The increase in absorption was attributed to the generation of a conjugated system of bonds which lowered the band gap of irradiated polymers to significant values. The thermal fluctuations in the band gap energy due to temperature dependent self energies of the electrons were observed from the calculated values of the Urbach‧s energy. The FTIR spectra obtained after irradiation exhibited decrease in absorbance for various bands in case of PN-6 whereas opposite behavior was observed in case of PES polymer.
    Radiation Physics and Chemistry 01/2014; · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Amit Pal, Jayagandan Jayamani, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: Recent seminal studies have established neurodegeneration, cognitive waning and/or β-amyloid deposition due to chronic copper intoxication via drinking water in healthy animals; henceforth, fuelling the debate all again over the safe levels of copper in the drinking water. This review encompasses the contemporary imperative animal studies in which the effect of chronic copper toxicity (especially via drinking water) was evaluated on the central nervous system and memory of uncompromised animals along with discussing the future perspectives.
    NeuroToxicology 01/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Although several genes have been found to be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, more great efforts are needed to identify new genes which are responsible for the process. Clear cell RCC, originated from proximal tubule cells, is the most common pathological type of RCC. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker enzyme of brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Our previous studies showed a significant decreased activity of liver/Bone/Kidney (L/B/K) alkaline phosphatase in RCC. In the present study, we explored the molecular basis of the decreased activity of ALP in RCC. Immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence and flow cytometry analysis showed decreased ALP protein in RCC. Additionally, real time PCR documented significantly reduced ALP gene expression (P=0.009). Moreover, RCC cell lines (ACHN and A498) transfected with full length L/B/K cDNA showed decreased migratory property as well as viability of these cells as compared with controls (P=0.000). Further, L/B/K ALP cDNA transfected cells (ACHN and A498) showed significant increased apoptosis as compared to control (P=0.000). These findings suggest the new role of ALP in cell viability and apoptosis and involvement in RCC tumorigenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore the exact molecular mechanism.
    Biochimie 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rare in India. Most CF mutations identified are not yet functionally characterized. Hence, genetic counseling and adoption of therapeutic approach are particularly difficult. Our aim was to study the function and maturation of a spectrum of eleven Indian CFTR mutations from classical CF and infertile male patients with CBAVD. Methods We used Western blot, pharmacology and iodide efflux to study CFTR maturation and chloride transport in BHK cells expressing pEGFP-CFTR constructs for L69H, F87I, S118P, G126S, H139Q, F157C, F494L, E543A, S549N, Y852F and D1270E. Results Among these CFTR mutants, only L69H is not processed as a c-band and not functional at 37 °C. However, the functions of L69H and S549N and the maturation of L69H are corrected at 27 °C and by the investigational drug VX809. Conclusion These data should help in developing counseling and therapeutic approaches in India. We identified L69H as a novel class II CF mutation.
    Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 01/2014;
  • Amit Pal, Ashok Kumar, Rajendra Prasad
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), constitute a major worldwide health problem. Several hypothesis have been put forth to elucidate the basis of onset and pathogenesis of AD and PD; however, till date, none of these seems to clearly elucidate the complex pathoetiology of these disorders. Notably, copper dyshomeostasis has been shown to underlie the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including AD and PD. Numerous studies have concluded beyond doubt that imbalance in copper homeostatic mechanisms in conjunction with aging causes an acceleration in the copper toxicity elicited oxidative stress, which is detrimental to the central nervous system. Amyloid precursor protein and α-synuclein protein involved in AD and PD are copper binding proteins, respectively. In this review, we have discussed the possible association of copper metabolism proteins with AD and PD along with briefly outlining the expanding proportion of “copper interactome” in human biology. Using network biology, we found that copper metabolism proteins, superoxide dismutase 1 and ceruloplasmin may represent direct and indirect link with AD and PD, respectively.
    BioMetals 01/2014; 27(1). · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic study on the dependence of the free volume at nanoscale in carbon ions irradiated polymethylmethacrylate polymer samples was carried out by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). An investigation about the evolution of cross-linking in the polymeric chains after ion irradiation was carried out from the calculated values of hole radius, free volume and fractional free volume using Tao-Eldrup Model. The role of rise in temperature on the growth of free volume was observed at higher fluences. The results were supported by variations in the S parameter of DBS study. The structural analyses were carried out using XRD to investigate for the modification in the structural nature, degree of crystallinity and average crystallite size of the polymer after ion irradiation. Additional information on the modifications of optical and chemical properties was extracted by means of UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopy respectively.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2014; 320:64–69. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin (CUR) shows antifungal activity against a range of pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans. The reported mechanisms of action of CUR include ROS generation, defects in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, decrease in hyphae development and modulation of multidrug efflux pumps. Reportedly, each of these pathways is independently linked with the cell wall machinery in C. albicans but surprisingly, CUR is not previously implied in connection with cell wall damage. In the present study, we have performed a transcriptional profiling to identify the yet unidentified targets of CUR in C. albicans. We found that, among 348 CUR affected genes, 51 genes were up regulated and 297 genes were down regulated. Interestingly, most of the cell wall integrity pathway genes were down regulated. The possibility of cell wall playing a critical role in the mechanism of CUR required further validation; therefore we performed specific experiments to establish any link between the two. The fractional inhibitory concentration index values of 0.24 - 0.37 show that CUR interacts synergistically with cell wall perturbing (CWP) agents (Caspofungin, Calcofluor White, Congo Red and SDS). Furthermore, we could observe cell wall damage and membrane permeabilization by CUR alone as well as synergistically with CWP agents. We also found hypersusceptibility in calcineurin and MAP kinase pathway mutants against CUR, which confirmed that CUR also targets cell wall biosynthesis in C. albicans. Together, these data provide strong evidences which show that CUR disrupts cell wall integrity in C. albicans. This new information of mechanistic action of CUR could be employed in improving treatment strategies and in combinatorial drug therapy.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ICU Infections PostersSESSION TYPE: Original Investigation PosterPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 30, 2013 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis is considered to be a worldwide problem with notoriously difficult and challenging treatment. Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) associated with second- line drugs can have severe impact on adherence to treatment. The study has been framed to know the frequency of adverse effects in patients of MDR-TB treated under modified DOTS-PLUS strategy.METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzing 98 consecutive patients with MDR-TB attending the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, KGMU, between June 2009 to Feb 2010 with follow-up till February 2012.All the patients were given medications free of cost as per DOTS PLUS Protocol of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) with relevant modifications framed by Chennai Consensus. ADR associated with treatment were recognized by laboratory data and/or clinical evidence during the course of treatment.RESULTS: Among 98 patients, 81(82.7%) patients completed the treatment while 7(7.1%) defaulted and 10(10.2%) expired at the completion of treatment. 46(43.9%) patients experienced at least one ADR. Adverse Drug Reaction observed most frequently were nausea/vomiting 24(24.5%), hearing disturbances 12(12.3%), dizziness/vertigo 10(10.2%) and arthralgia 9(9.2%). 17(17.4%) patients had major adverse effects requiring change or stoppage of drugs that included ototoxicity (6.1%), headache and psychosis (4.1%), gastrointestinal intolerance and hypothyroidism (3.1%) as well as arthralgia and hepatitis (4.1%). Agents responsible for these adverse effects were Kanamycin (ototoxicity), Cycloserine (headache/psychosis), Ethionamide (gastrointestinal tolerance/hypothyroidism) and Pyrazinamide (arthralgia/hepatitis). At the end of treatment 71(72.4%) patients were treated successfully. There was no mortality due to occurrence of ADR.CONCLUSIONS: 17(17.4%) patients had major ADR requiring change or stoppage of drugs. 71(72.4%) patients were successfully managed despite of occurrence of major ADR.CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: MDR TB can be cured successfully with appropriate combination of drugs if adverse effects associated with them can be managed aggressively and timely. Newer and less toxic drugs are urgently needed to treat MDR TB patients.DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Rahul Srivastava, Ramawadhsingh Kushwaha, Rajiv Garg, Giridhar Belur Hosmane, Amita JainNo Product/Research Disclosure Information.
    Chest 10/2013; 144(4_MeetingAbstracts):390A. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Rajendra Prasad, Ashutosh Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Over the years, lipids of non-pathogenic yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterized to some details; however, a comparable situation does not exist for the human pathogenic fungi. This review is an attempt to bring in recent advances made in lipid research by employing high throughput lipidomic methods in terms of lipid analysis of pathogenic yeasts. Several pathogenic fungi exhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) which they acquire during the course of a treatment. Among the several causal factors, lipids by far have emerged as one of the critical contributors in the MDR acquisition in human pathogenic Candida. In this article, we have particularly focused on the role of lipids involved in cross talks between different cellular circuits that impact the acquisition of MDR in Candida.
    Current Genetics 08/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
594.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Chandigarh, Chandīgarh, India
  • 1995–2013
    • Jawaharlal Nehru University
      • • School of Life Sciences
      • • Special Centre for Molecular Medicine
      New Delhi, NCT, India
  • 2012
    • U.P. Rural Institute of Medical Sciences & Research
      Etāwah, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2007–2012
    • Biomedical Informatics Centre
      Chandigarh, Chandīgarh, India
  • 2011
    • University of Lucknow
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Technical University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 1987–2011
    • Aligarh Muslim University
      • Department of Applied Physics
      Koil, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2010
    • Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 1999–2009
    • KG Hospital
      Koyambattūr, Tamil Nādu, India
  • 1990–2009
    • King George's Medical University
      • Department of Pulmonary Medicine
      Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2008
    • DAV College Chandigarh
      Chandigarh, Chandīgarh, India
    • University of Allahabad
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Allahābād, Uttar Pradesh, India
    • Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Microbiology
      Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2004
    • Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology
      Old Delhi, NCT, India
  • 2002
    • IIT Kharagpur
      • Department of Geology & Geophysics
      Kharagpur, Bengal, India
    • Government Medical College & Hospital
      • Department of Physiology
      Chandīgarh, Union Territory of Chandigarh, India
  • 2000
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Gdansk University of Technology
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry
      Gdańsk, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland