Glen J Weiss

Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Schaumburg, Illinois, United States

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Publications (69)316.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The five-year survival rate in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains below ten percent. The invasive and metastatic nature of NSCLC tumor cells contributes to the high mortality rate, and as such the mechanisms that govern NSCLC metastasis is an active area of investigation. Two surface receptors that influence NSCLC invasion and metastasis are the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/MET) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (FN14). MET protein is over-expressed in NSCLC tumors and associated with poor clinical outcome and metastasis. FN14 protein is also elevated in NSCLC tumors and positively correlates with tumor cell migration and invasion. In this report, we show that MET and FN14 protein expressions are significantly correlated in human primary NSCLC tumors, and the protein levels of MET and FN14 are elevated in metastatic lesions relative to patient-matched primary tumors. In vitro, HGF/MET activation significantly enhances FN14 mRNA and protein expression. Importantly, depletion of FN14 is sufficient to inhibit MET-driven NSCLC tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. This work suggests that MET and FN14 protein expressions are associated with the invasive and metastatic potential of NSCLC. Receptor-targeted therapeutics for both MET and FN14 are in clinical development, the use of which may mitigate the metastatic potential of NSCLC.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 04/2014; · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a phase I study determining the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of EP-100, a novel anticancer drug consisting of natural luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) ligand linked to a cationic membrane-disrupting peptide. Patients with advanced, solid tumors, positive for LHRH receptor by immunohistochemistry (IHC), received EP-100 weekly or twice weekly for 3 of 4 weeks in a 28 day cycle. A modified Fibonacci 3 + 3 dose-escalation schema was used. Initial cohorts received EP-100 once weekly (cohorts 1-7, 0.6-7.8 mg/m(2), n = 21). Later cohorts received doses twice weekly (cohorts 7-11, 7.8-40 mg/m(2), n = 16). LHRH-receptor expression was confirmed by IHC in 52 of 89 consented patients; 37 patients received at least 1 dose. Cohorts receiving doses of 5.2 mg/m(2) and above achieved therapeutic levels from in vitro studies Clearance was rapid (mean half-life 7.1 ± 3.8 to 15.9 ± 3.6 min). The maximum-tolerated dose was not reached at the highest dose evaluated (40 mg/m(2) twice weekly). Grade 2 increase in alanine aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase in one patient resolved, did not recur upon re-treatment, and was not observed in other patients. The only drug-related adverse event was transient infusion-related dermatologic reactions (10 patients). No complete or partial tumor responses were observed; seven patients had stable disease of 16 weeks. EP-100 was well tolerated in patients with advanced, LHRH-receptor-expressing solid tumors. The recommended phase 2 dose is 40 mg/m(2) twice weekly for 3 of 4 weeks per cycle.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insensitivity to standard clinical interventions, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, remains a substantial hindrance towards improving the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular mechanism of therapeutic resistance remains poorly understood. The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK)-FGF-inducible 14 (Fn14) signaling axis is known to promote cancer cell survival via NF-kappaB activation and the up-regulation of pro-survival Bcl-2 family members. Here, a role was determined for TWEAK-Fn14 pro-survival signaling in NSCLC through the up-regulation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1). Mcl-1 expression significantly correlated with Fn14 expression, advanced NSCLC tumor stage, and poor patient prognosis in human primary NSCLC tumors. TWEAK stimulation of NSCLC cells induced NF-kappaB-dependent Mcl-1 protein expression and conferred Mcl-1-dependent chemo- and radio-resistance. Depletion of Mcl-1 via siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Mcl-1, using EU-5148, sensitized TWEAK-treated NSCLC cells to cisplatin- or radiation-mediated inhibition of cell survival. Moreover, EU-5148 inhibited cell survival across a panel of NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL function had minimal effect on suppressing TWEAK-induced cell survival. Collectively, these results position TWEAK-Fn14 signaling through Mcl-1 as a significant mechanism for NSCLC tumor cell survival, and open new therapeutic avenues to abrogate the high mortality rate seen in NSCLC. Implications: The TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis enhances lung cancer cell survival and therapeutic resistance through Mcl-1, positioning both TWEAK-Fn14 and Mcl-1 as therapeutic opportunities in lung cancer.
    Molecular Cancer Research 01/2014; · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DLC1 encodes a RhoA GTPase-activating protein and tumor suppressor lost in cancer by genomic deletion or epigenetic silencing and loss of DLC1 gene transcription. We unexpectedly identified non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tumor tissue that expressed DLC1 mRNA yet lacked DLC1 protein expression. We determined that DLC1 was ubiquitinated and degraded by cullin 4A-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL4A) complex interaction with DDB1 and the FBXW5 substrate receptor. siRNA-mediated suppression of cullin 4A, DDB1, or FBXW5 expression restored DLC1 protein expression in NSCLC cell lines. FBXW5 suppression-induced DLC1 reexpression was associated with a reduction in the levels of activated RhoA-GTP and in RhoA effector signaling. Finally, FBXW5 suppression caused a DLC1-dependent decrease in NSCLC anchorage-dependent and -independent proliferation. In summary, we identify a posttranslational mechanism for loss of DLC1 and a linkage between CRL4A-FBXW5-associated oncogenesis and regulation of RhoA signaling.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As next-generation sequencing continues to have an expanding presence in the clinic, the identification of the most cost-effective and robust strategy for identifying copy number changes and translocations in tumor genomes is needed. We hypothesized that performing shallow whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 900-1000-bp inserts (long insert WGS, LI-WGS) improves our ability to detect these events, compared with shallow WGS of 300-400-bp inserts. A priori analyses show that LI-WGS requires less sequencing compared with short insert WGS to achieve a target physical coverage, and that LI-WGS requires less sequence coverage to detect a heterozygous event with a power of 0.99. We thus developed an LI-WGS library preparation protocol based off of Illumina's WGS library preparation protocol and illustrate the feasibility of performing LI-WGS. We additionally applied LI-WGS to three separate tumor/normal DNA pairs collected from patients diagnosed with different cancers to demonstrate our application of LI-WGS on actual patient samples for identification of somatic copy number alterations and translocations. With the evolution of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analyses, we show that modifications to current approaches may improve our ability to interrogate cancer genomes.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The field of cancer genomics has rapidly adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to study and characterize malignant tumors with unprecedented resolution. In particular for cancer, one is often trying to identify somatic mutations -- changes specific to a tumor and not within an individual's germline. However, false positive and false negative detections often result from lack of sufficient variant evidence, contamination of the biopsy by stromal tissue, sequencing errors, and the erroneous classification of germline variation as tumor-specific. RESULTS: We have developed a generalized Bayesian analysis framework for matched tumor/normal samples with the purpose of identifying tumor-specific alterations such as single nucleotide mutations, small insertions/deletions, and structural variation. We describe our methodology, and discuss its application to other types of paired-tissue analysis such as the detection of loss of heterozygosity as well as allelic imbalance. We also demonstrate the high level of sensitivity and specificity in discovering simulated somatic mutations, for various combinations of a) genomic coverage and b) emulated heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: We present a Java-based implementation of our methods named Seurat, which is made available for free academic use. We have demonstrated and reported on the discovery of different types of somatic change by applying Seurat to an experimentally-derived cancer dataset using our methods; and have discussed considerations and practices regarding the accurate detection of somatic events in cancer genomes. Seurat is available at https://sites.google.com/site/seuratsomatic.
    BMC Genomics 05/2013; 14(1):302. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To conduct a first-in-human Phase 1 study to determine the dose limiting toxicities (DLTs), characterize the pharmacokinetic profile, and document the antitumor activity of IPI-926, a new chemical entity that inhibits the Hedgehog pathway (HhP). Methods: Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy were given IPI-926 once daily (QD) by mouth in 28-day cycles. The starting dose was 20 mg and an accelerated titration schedule was used until standard 3+3 dose escalation cohorts were implemented. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated on Day -7 and Day 22 of Cycle 1. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (32F, 62M; ages 39-87) received doses ranging from 20 mg to 210 mg QD. Dose levels up to and including 160 mg administered QD were well tolerated. Toxicities consisted of reversible elevations in AST, ALT and bilirubin, fatigue, nausea, alopecia, and muscle spasms. IPI-926 was not associated with hematologic toxicity. IPI-926 pharmacokinetics was characterized by a slow absorption (Tmax 2 to 8 hours) and a terminal half-life (t1/2) between 20 and 40 hours, supporting QD dosing. Of those HhP inhibitor-naïve patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) who received more than 1 dose of IPI-926 and had a follow-up clinical or RECIST assessment, nearly a third (8 of 28 patients) demonstrated a response to IPI-926 at doses ≥130 mg. CONCLUSIONS: IPI-926 was well tolerated up to 160 mg QD within 28-day cycles, which was established as the recommended Phase 2 dose and schedule for this agent. Single-agent activity of IPI-926 was observed in HhP inhibitor-naïve patients with BCC.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of BAY 86-9766, a selective, potent, orally available, small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 in patients with advanced solid tumors. BAY 86-9766 was administered orally daily in 28-day courses, with doses escalated to establish the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). An expanded cohort was evaluated at the MTD. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed, with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation evaluated in paired biopsies from a subset of the expanded MTD cohort. Tumor specimens were evaluated for mutations in select genes. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, including 20 patients at the MTD. The MTD was 100 mg given once-daily or in two divided doses. BAY 86-9766 was well-tolerated. The most common treatment-related toxicities were acneiform rash and gastrointestinal toxicity. BAY 86-9766 was well-absorbed after oral administration (plasma half-life ∼12 hours), and displayed dose proportional pharmacokinetics throughout the tested dose range. Continuous daily dosing resulted in moderate accumulation at most dose levels. BAY 86-9766 suppressed ERK phosphorylation in biopsied tissue and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes. Of 53 evaluable patients, one patient with colorectal cancer achieved a partial response and 11 patients had stable disease for 4 or more courses. An ocular melanoma specimen harbored a GNAQ-activating mutation and exhibited reduced ERK phosphorylation in response to therapy. This phase I study showed that BAY 86-9766 was well-tolerated, with good oral absorption, dose proportional pharmacokinetics, target inhibition at the MTD, and some evidence of clinical benefit across a range of tumor types. Clin Cancer Res; 19(5); 1232-43. ©2012 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; 19(5):1232-43. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcomas are cancers that arise in soft tissues or bone and make up a small percentage of malignancies. In an effort to identify potential genetic targets for therapy, this study explores the genomic landscape of a metastatic undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) with spindle cell morphology. Thick sections (50 µm) of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from a primary, recurrent, and metastatic tumor were collected and processed from a single patient for DNA content-based flow-sorting and analyses. Nuclei of diploid and aneuploid populations were sorted from the malignant tissues and their genomes interrogated with array comparative genomic hybridization. The third sample was highly degraded and did not contain any intact ploidy peaks in our flow assays. A 2.5N aneuploid population was identified in the primary and recurrent sample. We detected a series of shared and unique genomic aberrations in the sorted aneuploid populations. The patterns of aberrations suggest that two similar but independent clonal populations arose during the clinical history of this rare tumor. None of these aberrations were detected in the matching sorted diploid samples. The targeted regions of interest might play a role in UPS and may lead to clinical significance with further investigation.
    Rare tumors 02/2013; 5(1):e14.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were enrolled to an open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation study, in which CRLX101 was administered intravenously over 60 min among two dosing schedules, initially weekly at 6, 12, and 18 mg/m(2) and later bi-weekly at 12, 15, and 18 mg/m(2). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 15 mg/m(2) bi-weekly, and an expansion phase 2a study was completed. Patient samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) assessments. Response was evaluated per RECIST criteria v1.0 every 8 weeks. Sixty-two patients (31 male; median age 63 years, range 39-79) received treatment. Bi-weekly dosing was generally well tolerated with myelosuppression being the dose-limiting toxicity. Among all phase 1/2a patients receiving the MTD (n = 44), most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia and fatigue. Evidence of systemic plasma exposure to both the polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT was observed in all treated patients. Mean elimination unconjugated CPT T(max) values ranged from 17.7 to 24.5 h, and maximum plasma concentrations and areas under the curve were generally proportional to dose for both polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT. Best overall response was stable disease in 28 patients (64 %) treated at the MTD and 16 (73 %) of a subset of NSCLC patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients treated at the MTD was 3.7 months and for the subset of NSCLC patients was 4.4 months. These combined phase 1/2a data demonstrate encouraging safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy results. Multinational phase 2 clinical development of CRLX101 across multiple tumor types is ongoing.
    Investigational New Drugs 02/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNAi is a potent and specific mechanism for regulating gene expression. Harnessing RNAi to silence genes involved in disease holds promise for the development of a new class of therapeutics. Delivery is key to realizing the potential of RNAi, and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have proven effective in delivery of siRNAs to liver and tumors in animals. To examine the activity and safety of LNP-formulated siRNAs in man, we initiated a trial of ALN-VSP, an LNP formulation of siRNAs targeting VEGF and KSP, in cancer patients. Here we demonstrate detection of drug in tumor biopsies, siRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in liver, pharmacodynamics suggestive of target downregulation, and antitumor activity including complete regression of liver metastases in endometrial cancer. In addition, we show that bi-weekly intravenous administration of ALN-VSP was safe and well-tolerated. These data provide proof of concept for RNAi therapeutics in man and form the basis for further development in cancer.
    Cancer Discovery 01/2013; · 10.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe three confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung with metastasis to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with two having epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions in all available specimens. One of these patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase directed therapy for a brief period with some symptom relief. Consideration of EGFR exon 19 mutation testing in SCC of the lung, particularly for those with GI tract metastasis, may identify this potentially drug-targetable entity.
    Case Reports in Medicine 01/2013; 2013:874836.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Phase 1 clinical trials are the first stage of clinical development of an investigational agent. Because the trials often take place at several geographically dispersed sites, safety teleconferences are held to update investigators and the drug sponsor on safety information and other pertinent business related to the trial conduct. Here we examine associations between the frequency of teleconferences and other clinical trial factors on trial conduct efficiency. Methods: We examined Phase 1 clinical trials for patients with solid tumors opened for enrollment at a single, non-profit cancer center in Arizona (Center) that had completed at least three dose levels. The following information was included: safety teleconference frequency, whether or not the sponsor or contract research organization sent follow-up requests for updates on patient accrual, and safety outside of scheduled safety teleconferences. The dose escalation scheme, route of study drug administration and formulation type (e.g. oral targeted therapy or monoclonal antibody) was also included. Results: Forty-nine Phase 1 studies were examined for inclusion. The majority of safety teleconferences were regularly scheduled (81.6%) with most taking place bi-weekly (46.9%). Additional solicitation for updates outside of scheduled safety teleconferences were requested during the conduct of 31 (63.3%) studies. None of the factors analyzed were significantly associated with accrual, subject dosing, and dose escalation. Conclusion: We found that the frequency of teleconferences does not appear to expedite phase 1 study accrual, subject dosing, or dose escalation in the first 3 cohorts of a phase 1 clinical trial.
    Journal of Cancer. 01/2013; 4(6):464-7.
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    ABSTRACT: New anticancer agents that target a single cell surface receptor, up-regulated or amplified gene product, or mutated gene, have met with some success in treating advanced cancers. However, patients' tumors still eventually progress on these therapies. If it were possible to identify a larger number of targetable vulnerabilities in an individual's tumor, multiple targets could be exploited with the use of specific therapeutic agents, thus possibly giving the patient viable therapeutic alternatives. In this exploratory study, we used next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) including whole genome sequencing (WGS), and where feasible, whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) to identify genomic events and associated expression changes in advanced cancer patients. WGS on paired tumor and normal samples from nine advanced cancer patients and WTS on six of these patients' tumors was completed. One patient's treatment was based on targets and pathways identified by NGS and the patient had a short-lived PET/CT response with a significant reduction in his tumor-related pain. To design treatment plans based on information garnered from NGS, several challenges were encountered: NGS reporting delays, communication of results to out-of-state participants and their treating oncologists, and chain of custody handling for fresh biopsy samples for Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) target validation. While the initial effort was a slower process than anticipated due to a variety of issues, we demonstrate the feasibility of using NGS in advanced cancer patients so that treatments for patients with progressing tumors may be improved.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76438. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is a taxane anticancer drug used in a wide variety of solid tumors. Liposomes are versatile drug carriers that may increase drug solubility, serve as sustained release systems, provide protection from drug degradation and toxicities, and help overcome multidrug resistance. This phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK), and clinical response of liposomal-encapsulated docetaxel (LE-DT) in patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies. METHODS: LE-DT was administered using a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation schema with dose levels of 50, 65, 85, 110, and 132 mg/m(2) IV on a 3-week cycle. Toxicities were assessed using the NCI-CTCAE version 3.0, and response was assessed using RECIST criteria (version 1.0). PK samples were drawn during cycle 1 and analyzed using a non-compartmental analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were treated for 1-30 cycles (median = 4). No DLTs were experienced through dose levels of 50, 65, 85, and 110 mg/m(2). Two out of two patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia at the 132 mg/m(2) dose level. When an additional three patients were treated at the expanded 110 mg/m(2) dose level, two experienced grade 4 neutropenia. The 85 mg/m(2) dose level was reassessed with an expanded group of three additional patients, and only one of three patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. The protocol was amended to allow G-CSF during cycle 1, and an additional three patients were treated at 110 mg/m(2) with no DLTs experienced. No patient experienced significant neuropathy, even patients treated for 19, 20, and 30 cycles. PK followed a two-compartment elimination pattern; there was no correlation between PK and toxicity. Two patients with thyroid and neuroendocrine cancer had partial responses (PR, 8 %), and one patient with non-small-cell lung cancer had an unconfirmed PR. Eight patients (33 %) had stable disease lasting more than 3 months, for a clinical benefit rate of 41 %. CONCLUSION: LE-DT was well tolerated with expected toxicities of neutropenia, anemia, and fatigue, but without neuropathy or edema. Clinical benefit (SD + PR) was observed in 41 % of the patients. The recommended phase II dose of LE-DT is 85 mg/m(2) without G-CSF or 110 mg/m(2) with G-CSF.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2012; · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Glen J Weiss, Ronald L Korn
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2012; 7(12):1744-6. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Certain eligibility criteria for Phase 1 cancer clinical trials may impede successful patient enrollment onto a study. We evaluated patient-specific or study-specific reasons for screen failures on Phase 1 oncology clinical trials and discuss factors which may inhibit subject enrollment. Methods Thirty-eight Phase 1 clinical trials for solid tumors meeting eligibility criteria and opened for enrollment between February 2006 and February 2011 at one oncology Phase 1 program were examined. Categorical reasons for screen failures and patients' demographics were examined and compared to characteristics of patients that successfully enrolled on a Phase 1 trial. Results There were a total of 583 successful Phase 1 enrollment and dose administration events out of 773 Phase 1 consent events (75.4 % dose success rate). The three most common reasons for screen failure were: out of protocol-specified range for chemistry, development of an interval medical issue that precluded proceeding with study participation, and subject declining participation after signing consent. Living further away from the Phase 1 program and receipt of fewer prior lines of systemic chemotherapy were significantly associated with increased screen failures. Conclusion Screen failures for Phase 1 studies are not uncommon (24.6 %). When a protocol required tumor or host analyte is not required, most screen failures are due to out of protocol-specified range for chemistry or the development of an interval medical issue. Screen failure rates were increased when patients had longer travel distances and fewer prior lines of systemic chemotherapy.
    Investigational New Drugs 11/2012; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was designed to establish the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of etirinotecan pegol. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with refractory solid malignancies were enrolled and assigned to escalating-dose cohorts. Patients received one infusion of etirinotecan pegol weekly × 3 every 4 weeks (w×3q4w), or every 14 days (q14d), or every 21 days (q21d), with MTD as the primary end point using a standard 3+3 design. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were entered onto three dosing schedules (58-245 mg/m2). The MTD was 115 mg/m2 for the w×3q4w schedule and 145 mg/m2 for both the q14d and q21d schedules. Most adverse events related to study drug were gastrointestinal disorders and were more frequent at higher doses of etirinotecan pegol. Late onset diarrhea was observed in some patients, the frequency of which generally correlated with dose density. Cholinergic diarrhea commonly seen with irinotecan treatment didn't occur in patients treated with etirinotecan pegol. Etirinotecan pegol administration resulted in sustained and controlled systemic exposure to SN-38, which had a mean half-life of approximately 50 days. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of etirinotecan pegol are predictable and do not require complex dosing adjustments. Confirmed partial responses were observed in eight patients with breast, colon, lung (small and squamous cell), bladder, cervical, and neuroendocrine cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Etirinotecan pegol demonstrated substantial antitumor activity in patients with various solid tumors and a somewhat different safety profile compared with the irinotecan historical profile. The MTD recommended for phase II clinical trials is 145 mg/m2 q14d or q21d.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) in subjects with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has not been fully explored due to the rarity of disease presentation. This study evaluated PET/CTs from subjects with advanced BCC participating in a phase I dose-escalation clinical trial of vismodegib. Fourteen subjects with BCC were imaged with 18-FDG PET/CT for lesion identification and response categorizing (European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer [EORTC] and PET response criteria in solid tumors [PERCIST] 1.0). Several parameters including metabolic activity of target lesions, site of disease presentation and spread, treatment response, and prognostic significance of metabolic activity following therapy were evaluated. All subjects exhibited at least one hypermetabolic lesion. Most subjects had only four organ systems involved at study enrollment: skin-muscle (93%), lung (57%), lymph nodes (29%), and bone (21%). SUVmax measured across all lesions decreased (median 33%, SD ± 45%) following therapy with metabolic activity normalizing or disappearing in 42% of lesions. No significant difference was observed between EORTC and PERCIST 1.0. Subjects that demonstrated at least a 33% reduction in SUVmax from baseline had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (median 17 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] ±4 months vs. 9 months, 95% CI ±5 months, P = 0.038) and overall survival (OS) (median 24 months, 95% CI ±4 months vs. 17 months, 95% CI ±13 months, P = 0.019). BCC lesions are hypermetabolic on 18-FDG PET/CT. A decrease in SUVmax was associated with improved PFS and OS. These results further support the incorporation of 18-FDG PET/CT scans in advanced BCC management.
    Cancer medicine. 10/2012; 1(2):230-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction TRC102 potentiates the activity of cancer therapies that induce base excision repair (BER) including antimetabolite and alkylating agents. TRC102 rapidly and covalently binds to apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites generated during BER, and TRC102-bound DNA causes topoisomerase II-dependent irreversible strand breaks and apoptosis. This study assessed the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TRC102 alone and in combination with pemetrexed. Purpose Patients with advanced solid tumors received oral TRC102 daily for 4 days. Two weeks later, patients began standard-dose pemetrexed on day 1 in combination with oral TRC102 on days 1 to 4. The pemetrexed-TRC102 combination was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Methods Twenty-eight patients were treated with TRC102 at 15, 30, 60 or 100 mg/m(2)/d. The MTD was exceeded at 100 mg/m(2)/d due to grade 3 anemia in 50 % of patients. TRC102 exposure increased in proportion to dose with a mean t(1/2) of 28 h. A pharmacodynamic assay confirmed that TRC102 binds to pemetrexed-induced AP sites at all doses studied. Stable disease or better was achieved in 15 of 25 patients evaluable for response (60 %), including one patient with recurrent metastatic oropharyngeal carcinoma that expressed high levels of thymidylate synthase, who achieved a partial response and was progression free for 14 months. Conclusions When administered with pemetrexed, the maximum tolerated dose of oral TRC102 is 60 mg/m(2)/d for 4 days. Randomized controlled studies are planned to evaluate the clinical benefit of adding TRC102 to pemetrexed and other agents that induce BER.
    Investigational New Drugs 09/2012; · 3.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

891 Citations
316.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Cancer Treatment Centers of America
      Schaumburg, Illinois, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      • • Division of Computational Biology
      • • Division of Neurogenomics
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2012
    • Midwestern University
      Glendale, Arizona, United States
  • 2011
    • Van Andel Research Institute
      Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Scottsdale Healthcare Research Institute
      Arizona City, Arizona, United States