[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ContextThe role of planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) and calcium-dependent (Wnt/Ca) noncanonical Wnt pathways in adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) is unknown.Objectives
To investigate gene expression of Wnt/PCP and Wnt/Ca pathways and its association with TP53 p.R337H and CTNNB1 mutations in paediatric and adult ACTs and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome.PatientsExpression of noncanonical Wnt-related genes was evaluated in 91 ACTs (66 children, 25 adults) by qPCR and beta-catenin, P53, and protein effectors of Wnt/Ca (NFAT) and Wnt/PCP (JNK) by immunohistochemistry. TP53 and CTNNB1 genes were sequenced.ResultsTP53 p.R337H mutation frequency was higher in children (86% vs 28%) while CTNNB1 mutation was higher in adults (32% vs 6%). Mortality was higher in adults harbouring TP53 p.R337H and in children with CTNNB1 mutations. Overexpression of WNT5A, Wnt/Ca ligand, was observed in children and adults. Overexpression of MAPK8 and underexpression of PRICKLE, Wnt/PCP mediators, were observed in paediatric, but not in adult cases. Cytoplasmic/nuclear beta-catenin and P53 accumulation were observed in the majority of pediatric and adult ACTs as well as NFAT and JNK. Overexpression of MAPK8 and underexpression of PRICKLE were associated with mortality in children while overexpression of WNT5A and underexpression of PRICKLE were associated with mortality in adults.Conclusions
In our study, TP53 p.R337H and CTNNB1 mutations correlated with poor prognosis in adults and children, respectively. We demonstrate, for the first time, the activation of Wnt/PCP and Wnt/Ca noncanonical pathway genes, and their association with poor outcome in children and adults, suggesting their putative involvement in ACTs aggressiveness.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired apoptosis has been implicated in the development of childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT), although the expression of apoptosis-related gene expression in such tumors has not been reported.
The mRNA expression levels of the genes CASP3, CASP8, CASP9, FAS, TNF, NFKB, and BCL2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in consecutive tumor samples obtained at diagnosis from 60 children with a diagnosis of ACT and in 11 non-neoplastic adrenal samples. BCL2 and TNF protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
A significant association was observed between tumor size ≥100 g and lower expression levels of the BCL2 (P=0.03) and TNF (P=0.05) genes; between stage IV and lower expression levels of CASP3 (P=0.008), CASP9 (P=0.02), BCL2 (P=0.002), TNF (P=0.05), and NFKB (P=0.03); Weiss score ≥3 and lower expression of TNF (P=0.01); unfavorable event and higher expression values of CASP9 (P=0.01) and lower values of TNF (P=0.02); and death and lower expression of BCL2 (P=0.04). Underexpression of TNF was associated with lower event-free survival in uni- and multivariate analyses (P<0.01). Similar results were observed when patients with Weiss score <3 were excluded.
This study supports the participation of apoptosis-related genes in the biology and prognosis of childhood ACT and suggests the complex role of these genes in the pathogenesis of this tumor.
European Journal of Endocrinology 05/2012; 167(2):199-208. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTNNB1/β-catenin mutations and activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway are frequent in adult adrenocortical tumors (ACT), but data on childhood ACT are lacking.
The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Wnt/β-catenin pathway abnormalities in childhood ACT.
Clinicopathological findings and outcome of 62 childhood ACT patients were analyzed regarding CTNNB1 mutations and the expression of Wnt-related genes (CTNNB1; WNT4, a Wnt ligand; SFRP1, DKK3, and AXIN1, Wnt inhibitors; TCF7, a transcription factor; and MYC and WISP2, target genes) by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry.
CTNNB1-activating mutations were found in only four of 62 ACT (6%), all of them harboring TP53 mutation. There was association between the presence of CTNNB1 mutations and death (P = 0.02). Diffuse β-catenin accumulation was found in 71% of ACT, even in ACT without CTNNB1 mutations. Compared to normal adrenals, ACT presented increased expression of CTNNB1 (P = 0.008) and underexpression of Wnt inhibitor genes: DKK3 (P < 0.0001), SFRP1 (P = 0.05), and AXIN1 (P = 0.04). With regard to Wnt/β-catenin target genes, ACT presented increased expression of WISP2 but lower expression of MYC. Higher overall survival was associated with underexpression of SFRP1 (P = 0.01), WNT4 (P = 0.004), and TCF7 (P < 0.01).
CTNNB1 mutations are not common in childhood ACT but appear to associate with poor prognosis. Nevertheless, most ACT exhibit increased expression of β-catenin and WISP2 and reduced expression of Wnt inhibitor genes (DKK3, SFRP1, and AXIN1). Thus, in addition to CTNNB1 mutations, other genetic events affecting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be involved in childhood adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2011; 96(10):3106-14. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inherited, low-penetrance arginine-to-histidine substitution at codon 337 (R337H) of the tumor protein 53 gene (TP53) is clustered in southeast Brazil (estimated frequency, 0.3%). Although its tumorigenic effect initially appeared to be tissue-specific, recent evidence suggests its association with a broader range of tumors. Therefore, the authors of this report investigated the spectrum of pediatric malignancies associated with the TP53 R337H mutation at a single referral institution in southeast Brazil.
Genomic DNA samples from 493 children with malignancies were screened for the R337H mutation. Available tumor samples from carriers were investigated for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nuclear p53 accumulation. Clinical data were obtained from medical records.
Sixty-five of 70 patients (93%) with adrenocortical tumors (ACTs), 9 of 13 patients (69%) with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), and 3 of 41 patients (7.3%) with osteosarcoma carried the mutation. The proportion of CPC to choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) was much higher than that reported elsewhere. Osteosarcoma in carriers had a significantly poorer outcome (P = .02). The mutation was not identified in patients who had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 187), recurrent ALL (n = 49), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 44), lymphoma (n = 30), non-CPC central nervous system tumors (n = 26), Ewing sarcoma (n = 25), or rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 8). Among the tumors that were available for analysis, LOH with retention of the mutant allele was confirmed in 21 of 21 ACTs, in 2 of 2 CPCs, and in 2 of 3 osteosarcomas that were positive for R337H. CPCs and osteosarcomas that were positive for R337H had marked nuclear accumulation of p53.
The current findings demonstrated compellingly that the TP53 R337H mutation is associated not only with ACT but also with CPC and, to a lesser extent, with osteosarcoma, both of which are core-component tumors of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
Cancer 12/2010; 117(10):2228-35. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context.
We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H.
The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442). Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16) and MDM2 (SNP309) genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity.
These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility.