Marilyn C Cornelis

Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (95)1133.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Case-control studies are designed towards studying associations between risk factors and a single, primary outcome. Information about additional, secondary outcomes is also collected, but association studies targeting such secondary outcomes should account for the case-control sampling scheme, or otherwise results may be biased. Often, one uses inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators to estimate population effects in such studies. However, these estimators are inefficient relative to estimators that make additional assumptions about the data generating mechanism. We propose a class of estimators for the effect of risk factors on a secondary outcome in case-control studies, when the mean is modeled using either the identity or the log link. The proposed estimator combines IPW with a mean zero control function that depends explicitly on a model for the primary disease outcome. The efficient estimator in our class of estimators reduces to standard IPW when the model for the primary disease outcome is unrestricted, and is more efficient than standard IPW when the model is either parametric or semiparametric.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and anxiety are often linked but the direction of effects is not clear.
    Psychological medicine. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We give critical attention to the assumptions underlying Mendelian randomization analysis and their biological plausibility. Several scenarios violating the Mendelian randomization assumptions are described, including settings with inadequate phenotype definition, the setting of time-varying exposures, the presence of gene-environment interaction, the existence of measurement error, the possibility of reverse causation, and the presence of linkage disequilibrium. Data analysis examples are given, illustrating that the inappropriate use of instrumental variable techniques when the Mendelian randomization assumptions are violated can lead to biases of enormous magnitude. To help address some of the strong assumptions being made, three possible approaches are suggested. First, the original proposal of Katan (Lancet. 1986;1:00-00) for Mendelian randomization was not to use instrumental variable techniques to obtain estimates but merely to examine genotype-outcome associations to test for the presence of an effect of the exposure on the outcome. We show that this more modest goal and approach can circumvent many, though not all, the potential biases described. Second, we discuss the use of sensitivity analysis in evaluating the consequences of violations in the assumptions and in attempting to correct for those violations. Third, we suggest that a focus on negative, rather than positive, Mendelian randomization results may turn out to be more reliable.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 03/2014; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective evidence regarding associations for exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. To prospectively examine urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites with T2D risk. BPA and eight major phthalate metabolites were measured among 971 incident T2D case-control pairs from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; mean age 65.6) and NHSII (mean age 45.6). In the NHSII, BPA levels were not associated with incident T2D in multivariate-adjusted analysis until body mass index was adjusted: odds ratio (OR) comparing extreme BPA quartiles increased from 1.40 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.15) to 2.08 (95% CI: 1.17, 3.69; Ptrend = 0.02) with such an adjustment. In contrast, BPA concentrations were not associated with T2D in the NHS (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.48, 1.38; Ptrend = 0.45). Likewise, urinary concentrations of total phthalate metabolites were associated with T2D in the NHSII (OR comparing extreme quartiles 2.14; 95% CI 1.19, 3.85; Ptrend = 0.02), but not in the NHS (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.49, 1.53; Ptrend = 0.29). Summed metabolites of butyl phthalates or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates were significantly associated with T2D in the NHSII only; ORs comparing extreme quartiles were 3.16 (95% CI: 1.68, 5.95; Ptrend = 0.0002) and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.49; Ptrend = 0.20), respectively. These results suggest that BPA and phthalate exposures may be associated with the risk of T2D among middle-aged women, but not older women. The divergent findings between the two cohorts might be explained by menopausal status or simply by chance. Clearly, these results need to be interpreted with caution and should be replicated in future studies, ideally with multiple urine samples collected prospectively to improve the measurement of these exposures with short half-lives.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2014; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; 46(3):234-244. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite moderate heritability estimates for depression-related phenotypes, few robust genetic predictors have been identified. Potential explanations for this discrepancy include the use of phenotypic measures taken from a single time point, rather than integrating information over longer time periods via multiple assessments, and the possibility that genetic risk is shaped by multiple loci with small effects. Methods We developed a 14-year long-term average depression measure based on 14 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; N = 6989 women). We estimated polygenic scores (PS) with internal whole-genome scoring (NHS-GWAS-PS). We also constructed PS by applying two external PS weighting algorithms from independent samples, one previously shown to predict depression (GAIN-MDD-PS) and another from the largest genome-wide analysis currently available (PGC-MDD-PS). We assessed the association of all three PS with our long-term average depression phenotype using linear, logistic, and quantile regressions. ResultsIn this study, the three PS approaches explained at most 0.2% of variance in the long-term average phenotype. Quantile regressions indicated PS had larger impacts at higher quantiles of depressive symptoms. Quantile regression coefficients at the 75th percentile were at least 40% larger than at the 25th percentile in all three polygenic scoring algorithms. The interquartile range comparison suggested the effects of PS significantly differed at the 25th and 75th percentiles of the long-term depressive phenotype for the PGC-MDD-PS (P = 0.03), and this difference also reached borderline statistical significance for the GAIN-MDD-PS (P = 0.05). Conclusions Integrating multiple phenotype assessments spanning 14 years and applying different polygenic scoring approaches did not substantially improve genetic prediction of depression. Quantile regressions suggested the effects of PS may be largest at high quantiles of depressive symptom scores, presumably among people with additional, unobserved sources of vulnerability to depression.
    Brain and behavior. 03/2014; 4(2):298-311.
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    ABSTRACT: While research has suggested that being married may confer a health advantage, few studies to date have investigated the role of marital status in the development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether men who are not married have increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men (n = 41,378) who were free of T2D in 1986, were followed for ≤22 years with biennial reports of T2D, marital status and covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risk of incident T2D by marital status (married vs unmarried and married vs never married, divorced/separated, or widowed). There were 2,952 cases of incident T2D. Compared to married men, unmarried men had a 16% higher risk of developing T2D (95%CI:1.04,1.30), adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, lifestyle and body mass index (BMI). Relative risks (RR) for developing T2D differed for divorced/separated (1.09 [95%CI: 0.94,1.27]), widowed (1.29 [95%CI:1.06,1.57]), and never married (1.17 [95%CI:0.91,1.52]) after adjusting for age, family history of diabetes and ethnicity. Adjusting for lifestyle and BMI, the RR for T2D associated with widowhood was no longer significant (RR:1.16 [95%CI:0.95,1.41]). When allowing for a 2-year lag period between marital status and disease, RRs of T2D for widowers were augmented and borderline significant (RR:1.24 [95%CI:1.00,1.54]) after full adjustment. In conclusion, not being married, and more specifically, widowhood was more consistently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and this may be mediated, in part, through unfavorable changes in lifestyle, diet and adiposity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106720. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Marilyn C Cornelis, Frank B Hu
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    ABSTRACT: Systems epidemiology applied to the field of nutrition has potential to provide new insight into underlying mechanisms and ways to study the health effects of specific foods more comprehensively. Human intervention and population-based studies have identified i) common genetic factors associated with several nutrition-related traits and ii) dietary factors altering the expression of genes and levels of proteins and metabolites related to inflammation, lipid metabolism and/or gut microbial metabolism, results of high relevance to metabolic disease. System-level tools applied type 2 diabetes and related conditions have revealed new pathways that are potentially modified by diet and thus offer additional opportunities for nutritional investigations. Moving forward, harnessing the resources of existing large prospective studies within which biological samples have been archived and diet and lifestyle have been measured repeatedly within individual will enable systems-level data to be integrated, the outcome of which will be improved personalized optimal nutrition for prevention and treatment of disease.
    Current nutrition reports. 12/2013; 2(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Some evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms in oxytocin pathway genes influence various social behaviors, but findings thus far have been mixed. Many studies have been based in small samples and there is possibility of publication bias. Using data from 2 large U.S. prospective cohorts with over 11,000 individuals, we investigated 88 SNPs in OXTR, AVPR1A, and CD38, in relation to social integration (measured as social connectedness in both binary and continuous forms and being continuously married). After correction for multiple testing only one SNP in CD38 (rs12644506) was significantly associated with social integration and that SNP predicted when using a dichotomized indicator of social connectedness (adjusted p=0.02), but not a continuous measure of social connectedness or the continuously married outcome. A significant gender-heterogeneous effect was identified in one OXTR SNP on dichotomized social connectedness; specifically, rs4686302 T allele was nominally associated with social connectedness in men, whereas the association direction was opposite in women (adjusted gender heterogeneity p=0.02). Furthermore, the rs53576 A allele was significantly associated with social connectedness only in women, and the effect magnitude was stronger in a dominant genetic model (adjusted p=0.003). In summary, our findings suggested that common genetic variants of OXTR, CD38, and AVPR1A are not associated with social integration as measured in this study using the simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index, but these findings and other work hint that effects may be modified by gender or other social experiences. Further work considering genetic pathways in relation to social integration may be more fruitful if these additional factors can be more comprehensively evaluated.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 10/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional impairment is one of the most enduring, intractable consequences of psychiatric disorders and is both familial and heritable. Previous studies have suggested that variation in functional impairment can be independent of symptom severity. Here we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of functional impairment in the context of major mental illness. Participants of European-American descent (N = 2,246) were included from three large treatment studies of bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) (N = 765), major depressive disorder (STAR*D) (N = 1091), and schizophrenia (CATIE) (N = 390). At study entry, participants completed the SF-12, a widely used measure of health-related quality of life. We performed a GWAS and pathway analysis of the mental and physical components of health-related quality of life across diagnosis (∼1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms), adjusting for psychiatric symptom severity. Psychiatric symptom severity was a significant predictor of functional impairment, but it accounted for less than one-third of the variance across disorders. After controlling for diagnostic category and symptom severity, the strongest evidence of genetic association was between variants in ADAMTS16 and physical functioning (P = 5.87 × 10(-8) ). Pathway analysis did not indicate significant enrichment after correction for gene clustering and multiple testing. This study illustrates a phenotypic framework for examining genetic contributions to functional impairment across psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies for complex traits map to genes previously linked to rare inherited Mendelian disorders. A systematic analysis of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for Mendelian diseases with kidney phenotypes has not been performed. We thus developed a comprehensive database of genes for Mendelian kidney conditions and evaluated the association between common genetic variants within these genes and kidney function in the general population. Using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, we identified 731 unique disease entries related to specific renal search terms and confirmed a kidney phenotype in 218 of these entries, corresponding to mutations in 258 genes. We interrogated common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) within these genes for association with the estimated GFR in 74,354 European-ancestry participants from the CKDGen Consortium. However, the top four candidate SNPs (rs6433115 at LRP2, rs1050700 at TSC1, rs249942 at PALB2, and rs9827843 at ROBO2) did not achieve significance in a stage 2 meta-analysis performed in 56,246 additional independent individuals, indicating that these common SNPs are not associated with estimated GFR. The effect of less common or rare variants in these genes on kidney function in the general population and disease-specific cohorts requires further research.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods: Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results: The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2,TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating.The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint.These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions: An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results.
    Obesity 08/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
    Nature Genetics 04/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate–increasing and heart rate–decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
    Nature Genetics 04/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate–increasing and heart rate–decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
    Nature Genetics 04/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early menopause affects up to 10% of the female population, reducing reproductive lifespan considerably. Currently, it constitutes the leading cause of infertility in the western world, affecting mainly those women who postpone their first pregnancy beyond the age of 30 years. The genetic aetiology of early menopause is largely unknown in the majority of cases. We have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 3493 early menopause cases and 13598 controls from 10 independent studies. No novel genetic variants were discovered, but the 17 variants previously associated with normal age at natural menopause as a quantitative trait were also associated with early menopause and POI (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency). Thus early menopause has a genetic aetiology which overlaps variation in normal age at menopause and is at least partly explained by the additive effects of the same polygenic variants. The combined effect of the common variants captured by the SNP arrays was estimated to account for approximately 30% of the variance in EM. The association between the combined 17 variants and the risk of early menopause was greater than the best validated non-genetic risk factor, smoking.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. METHODS: In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p<1×10(-5)) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. RESULTS: The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05×10(-7)). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19×10(-3)). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78×10(-8)) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms.
    Biological psychiatry 01/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis: Genome-wide association studies have identified over 50 new genetic loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several studies conclude that higher dietary heme iron intake increases the risk of T2D. Therefore we assessed whether the relation between genetic loci and T2D is modified by dietary heme iron intake.Methods: We used Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human 6.0 array data [681,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] and dietary information collected in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 725 cases; n = 1,273 controls) and the Nurses' Health Study (n = 1,081 cases; n = 1,692 controls). We assessed whether genome-wide SNPs or iron metabolism SNPs interacted with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D, testing for associations in each cohort separately and then meta-analyzing to pool the results. Finally, we created 1,000 synthetic pathways matched to an iron metabolism pathway on number of genes, and number of SNPs in each gene. We compared the iron metabolic pathway SNPs with these synthetic SNP assemblies in their relation to T2D to assess if the pathway as a whole interacts with dietary heme iron intake.Results: Using a genomic approach, we found no significant gene-environment interactions with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D at a Bonferroni corrected genome-wide significance level of 7.33 ×10(-) (8) (top SNP in pooled analysis: intergenic rs10980508; p = 1.03 × 10(-) (6)). Furthermore, no SNP in the iron metabolic pathway significantly interacted with dietary heme iron intake at a Bonferroni corrected significance level of 2.10 × 10(-) (4) (top SNP in pooled analysis: rs1805313; p = 1.14 × 10(-) (3)). Finally, neither the main genetic effects (pooled empirical p by SNP = 0.41), nor gene - dietary heme-iron interactions (pooled empirical p-value for the interactions = 0.72) were significant for the iron metabolic pathway as a whole.Conclusions: We found no significant interactions between dietary heme iron intake and common SNPs in relation to T2D.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2013; 4:7.
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are common, with a lifetime prevalence of 20% in the U.S., and are responsible for substantial burdens of disability, missed work days and health care utilization. To date, no causal genetic variants have been identified for anxiety, anxiety disorders, or related traits. To investigate whether a phobic anxiety symptom score was associated with 3 alternative polygenic risk scores, derived from external genome-wide association studies of anxiety, an internally estimated agnostic polygenic score, or previously identified candidate genes. Longitudinal follow-up study. Using linear and logistic regression we investigated whether phobic anxiety was associated with polygenic risk scores derived from internal, leave-one out genome-wide association studies, from 31 candidate genes, and from out-of-sample genome-wide association weights previously shown to predict depression and anxiety in another cohort. Study participants (n = 11,127) were individuals from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Anxiety symptoms were assessed via the 8-item phobic anxiety scale of the Crown Crisp Index at two time points, from which a continuous phenotype score was derived. We found no genome-wide significant associations with phobic anxiety. Phobic anxiety was also not associated with a polygenic risk score derived from the genome-wide association study beta weights using liberal p-value thresholds; with a previously published genome-wide polygenic score; or with a candidate gene risk score based on 31 genes previously hypothesized to predict anxiety. There is a substantial gap between twin-study heritability estimates of anxiety disorders ranging between 20-40% and heritability explained by genome-wide association results. New approaches such as improved genome imputations, application of gene expression and biological pathways information, and incorporating social or environmental modifiers of genetic risks may be necessary to identify significant genetic predictors of anxiety.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80326. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although cross-sectional studies have linked higher body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) to shortened telomeres, whether these metabolic conditions play a causal role in telomere biology is unknown. We therefore examined whether genetic predisposition to higher BMI or T2D was associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL). We conducted an analysis of 3,968 women of European ancestry aged 43-70 years from the Nurses' Health Study, who were selected as cases or controls in genome-wide association studies and studies of telomeres and disease. Pre-diagnostic relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes, collected in 1989-1990, was measured by quantitative PCR. We combined information from multiple risk variants by calculating genetic risk scores based on 32 polymorphisms near 32 loci for BMI, and 36 polymorphisms near 35 loci for T2D. After adjustment for age and case-control status, there was no association between the BMI genetic risk score and LTL (β per standard deviation increase: -0.01; SE: 0.02; P = 0.52). Similarly, the T2D genetic score was not associated with LTL (β per standard deviation increase: -0.006; SE: 0.02; P = 0.69). In this population of middle-aged and older women of European ancestry, those genetically predisposed to higher BMI or T2D did not possess shortened telomeres. Although we cannot exclude weak or modest effects, our findings do not support a causal relation of strong magnitude between these metabolic conditions and telomere dynamics.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e52240. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,133.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Division of Nutrition
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2012
    • University of Oxford
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Merck
      Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2010
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Division of Epidemiology
      Nashville, MI, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Nutritional Sciences
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004–2006
    • Hanyang University
      • Major in Internal Medicine
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea