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Publications (2)3.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a rare abnormality of the neuroendocrine system that affects 2% of children. It is a frequently missed diagnosis in the emergency department and may require a number of emergency department visits before the diagnosis is made. The objectives of this review are to identify the clinical features that suggest a diagnosis of CVS and to review the literature on its management. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched from January 1948 to October 2011 using the keywords 'Cyclic' or 'Vomiting'. Papers were excluded if they did not follow the consensus guidelines or if they were case reports. This review analysed 1093 cases of cyclic vomiting in 25 papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All except one paper were retrospective studies. The size of these cohort studies ranged from three to 181 patients, with a mean patient size of 29. This review found that over 40% of patients have headaches/migraines, with associated anxiety and depression in ≈ 30% of cases. There is a family history of headaches/migraines in 38.9%, and this association was much stronger in the adult CVS cohort compared with the paediatric cohort. Compared with paediatric CVS, adults have a longer duration of attacks and they occur more frequently (5.9 vs. 3.4 days, 14.4 vs. 9.6 episodes/year). Limited data are available on the treatment of the acute phase of CVS, but in adults, sumatriptan has been shown to be effective. For prophylactic treatment, tricyclics are effective in both adult and paediatric CVS, with a clinical response in 75.5 and 67.6% of patients, respectively, in nonplacebo-controlled cohort studies. Furthermore, propranolol has been shown to be useful in children. CVS is an intractable illness with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. There is a long duration between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis of the condition. There is a high association with headaches/migraines and anxiety/depression. The symptoms are more severe in adult-onset CVS. Tricyclic antidepressants have good efficacy in reducing the frequency/duration or the intensity of attacks. There is limited evidence on the acute management of CVS.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 05/2012; 24(9):1001-6. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a condition characterized by recurrent, stereotyped, attacks of intense nausea and intractable vomiting with no identifiable cause. The diagnosis is made according to the Rome III criteria; however, the condition remains a heterogenous group of symptoms and few studies have analysed patient-reported features in detail. Tricyclic antidepressants may benefit some patients, but there are no data on the long-term outcomes of this condition. This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients treated at two London teaching hospitals between 1994 and 2011. Information was obtained by means of inpatient case notes, clinic letters and telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-eight patients were identified, 17 with adult-onset CVS and 11 with childhood-onset CVS. In the adult-onset CVS cohort, the average age of onset was 30 years; the prevalence of headache was 57.1% and anxiety/depression 21.7%. Vomiting attacks occurred on average 10 times a year with a mean duration of 55.3 h. In the childhood-onset CVS cohort, the average age of onset was 5 years and the prevalence of headaches was 44.4%. Vomiting attacks occurred on average 25.5 times a year with a mean duration of 54.5 h. During acute attacks, patients rated morphine-based medications as the most efficacious. Overall, 65.4% of our patients were not treated with long-term prophylactic medications and, of these, 42.1% felt that their symptoms had improved and 26.3% reported complete resolution. CVS is a debilitating illness with frequent attacks of prolonged duration. There is a high association with anxiety/depression as well as headaches. Antimigraine medication, β-blockers and antiepileptic treatment may be successful at attenuating attacks; however, in this long-term study, the prognosis of patients not treated with these medications was also good. Overall, 61.9% of patients showed a gradual improvement in symptoms and 23.8% had complete resolution after a mean of 7 years.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 05/2012; 24(8):939-43. · 1.66 Impact Factor