[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery 05/2013; 24(3):1007-1010. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e318275ecfc · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS: The aims of the present study were to determine the exact level of separation of the upper lateral cartilage from the septal cartilage, and to classify the patterns of connection between the upper lateral cartilage and the lower lateral cartilage. METHODS: We dissected and photographed 60 sides of noses; 18 specimens were sectioned and stained with Masson's trichrome. RESULTS: The mean length of the connection between the upper lateral cartilage and septal cartilage was 16.1 mm. The mean level for separation of the upper lateral cartilage was 7.5 mm from the nasal bone. The pattern of connection between the upper lateral cartilage and lower lateral cartilage could be classified into five types: disconnection, end-to-end, overlap, scroll, and reverse scroll. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study will be helpful for surgical procedures such as nasal hump reduction and nasal cartilage work and also provide information for the anthropometric study of the nose.
Annals of plastic surgery 03/2013; 73(1). DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31826cb00e · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated a sesquiterpene lactone from the methanol extract of the roots of Cosmos bipinnatus, namely, MDI (a mixture of dihydrocallitrisin and isohelenin). The anti-inflammatory activity of MDI was evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. MDI significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these results, the production of NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was suggested to be suppressed by MDI in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) value was 0.94 and 2.88 µg mL(-1) for NO and PGE(2), respectively). In addition, MDI significantly inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, MDI attenuated DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB. These results indicate that MDI isolated from the roots of C. bipinnatus shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by modulating the NF-κB pathway.
Natural product research 05/2012; 27(11). DOI:10.1080/14786419.2012.686906 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze both differentially expressed genes and the Bcl-xL protein expression after acute and chronic treatment with fluoxetine in rat C6 glioma cells.
C6 glioma cells were cultured for 24 h or 72 h after treatment with 10 µM fluoxetine, and gene expression patterns were observed using microarray and qRT-PCR. Then, cells were cultured for 6 h, 24 h, 72 h or 96 h after treatment with 10 µM fluoxetine, and the expression of Bcl-xL protein was measured using western blot.
As determined by microarray, treatment with fluoxetine for 24 h up-regulated 33 genes (including Bcl-xL and NCAM140) and down-regulated 7 genes (including cyclin G-associated kinase). Treatment with fluoxetine for 72 h up-regulated 53 genes (including Gsα and Bcl-xL) and down-regulated 77 genes (including Gαi2 and annexin V). Based on the qRT-PCR results, there was an increase in Gsα mRNA and a decrease in Gαi2 mRNA at 72 h in fluoxetine-treated cells as compared to control, a result that was consistent with microarray. We also observed an increase in Bcl-xL mRNA (both at 24 h and at 72 h) in fluoxetine-treated cells as compared to control, demonstrating a tendency to increase gradually. Bcl-xL protein expression increased as the duration of fluoxetine treatment increased.
These results suggest that chronic treatment with fluoxetine not only initiates the cAMP pathway through inducing Gsα expression but also induces Bcl-xL expression, thus inhibiting apoptosis.