[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are resistant to current therapy protocols and identification of molecules that target these tumors is crucial. Interaction of secreted heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-Hsp90-organizing protein (HOP) with cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) triggers a large number of trophic effects in the nervous system. We found that both PrP(C) and HOP are highly expressed in human GBM samples relative to non-tumoral tissue or astrocytoma grades I-III. High levels of PrP(C) and HOP were associated with greater GBM proliferation and lower patient survival. HOP-PrP(C) binding increased GBM proliferation in vitro via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathways, and a HOP peptide mimicking the PrP(C) binding site (HOP230-245) abrogates this effect. PrP(C) knockdown impaired tumor growth and increased survival of mice with tumors. In mice, intratumor delivery of HOP230-245 peptide impaired proliferation and promoted apoptosis of GBM cells. In addition, treatment with HOP230-245 peptide inhibited tumor growth, maintained cognitive performance and improved survival. Thus, together, the present results indicate that interfering with PrP(C)-HOP engagement is a promising approach for GBM therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 25 August 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.261.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rnd proteins comprise a branch of the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins, which have been implicated in rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule dynamics. Particularly in the nervous system, Rnd family proteins regulate neurite formation, dendrite development and axonal branching. A secreted form of the co-chaperone stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1) has been described as a prion protein partner that is involved in several processes of the nervous system, such as neurite outgrowth, neuroprotection, astrocyte development, and the self-renewal of neural progenitor cells. We show that cytoplasmic STI1 directly interacts with the GTPase Rnd1. This interaction is specific for the Rnd1 member of the Rnd family. In the COS collapse assay, overexpression of STI1 prevents Rnd1-plexin-A1-mediated cytoskeleton retraction. In PC-12 cells, overexpression of STI1 enhances neurite outgrowth in cellular processes initially established by Rnd1. Therefore, we propose that STI1 participates in Rnd1-induced signal transduction pathways that are involved in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.
Experimental Cell Research 01/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) trigger neurotoxic signaling, at least partially, via the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). However, it is unknown whether other ligands of PrP(C) can regulate this potentially toxic interaction. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1), an Hsp90 cochaperone secreted by astrocytes, binds to PrP(C) in the vicinity of the AβO binding site to protect neurons against toxic stimuli. Here, we investigated a potential role of STI1 in AβO toxicity. We confirmed the specific binding of AβOs and STI1 to the PrP and showed that STI1 efficiently inhibited AβO binding to PrP in vitro (IC50 of ∼70 nm) and also decreased AβO binding to cultured mouse primary hippocampal neurons. Treatment with STI1 prevented AβO-induced synaptic loss and neuronal death in mouse cultured neurons and long-term potentiation inhibition in mouse hippocampal slices. Interestingly, STI1-haploinsufficient neurons were more sensitive to AβO-induced cell death and could be rescued by treatment with recombinant STI1. Noteworthy, both AβO binding to PrP(C) and PrP(C)-dependent AβO toxicity were inhibited by TPR2A, the PrP(C)-interacting domain of STI1. Additionally, PrP(C)-STI1 engagement activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which participated in neuroprotection against AβO-induced toxicity. We found an age-dependent upregulation of cortical STI1 in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD and in the brains of AD-affected individuals, suggesting a compensatory response. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of the PrP(C) ligand STI1 in protecting neurons in AD and suggest a novel pathway that may help to offset AβO-induced toxicity.
Journal of Neuroscience 10/2013; 33(42):16552-64. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular prion protein, encoded by Prnp gene, is involved in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity and neurodevelopment. The variant allele Valine at codon 129 of the Prnp was associated with decreased brain volume in healthy volunteers and schizophrenic patients. We investigate the association between the cerebellum volume and the presence of variant allele Valine at codon 129 of the Prnp gene in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). The Prnp coding sequence was determined in 41 refractory MTLE-HS patients. The cerebellum volume corrected by the intracranial volume of patients with the normal Prnp genotypes was compared with that of patients presenting the variant alleles at codon 129. Twenty patients showed the Met129Met genotype, 16 showed Met129Val, and 5 had Val129Val. There were no association among clinical, demographic, electrophysiological, antiepileptic drugs used, and the presence of the Prnp variant alleles. The presence of Prnp variant allele at codon 129 was not associated with the analyzed cerebellum volume. Prnp variant alleles at codon 129 are not associated with cerebellum volume in patients with refractory MTLE-HS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive dysfunction is found in patients with brain tumors and there is a need to determine whether it can be replicated in an experimental model. In the present study, the object recognition (OR) paradigm was used to investigate cognitive performance in nude mice, which represent one of the most important animal models available to study human tumors in vivo. Mice with orthotopic xenografts of the human U87MG glioblastoma cell line were trained at 9, 14, and 18days (D9, D14, and D18, respectively) after implantation of 5 x 10(5) cells. At D9, the mice showed normal behavior when tested 90min or 24h after training and compared to control nude mice. Animals at D14 were still able to discriminate between familiar and novel objects, but exhibited a lower performance than animals at D9. Total impairment in the OR memory was observed when animals were evaluated on D18. These alterations were detected earlier than any other clinical symptoms, which were observed only 22-24days after tumor implantation. There was a significant correlation between the discrimination index (d2) and time after tumor implantation as well as between d2 and tumor volume. These data indicate that the OR task is a robust test to identify early behavior alterations caused by glioblastoma in nude mice. In addition, these results suggest that OR task can be a reliable tool to test the efficacy of new therapies against these tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represents a rare neurodegenerative autosomal dominant prion disease, usually affecting patients between the fifth and sixth decades, evolving rapidly to death.(1,2) FFI results from a missense mutation at codon 178 (D178N) of the PRNP gene (located on chromosome 20p13) linked with methionine at codon 129 of the mutated allele. Its major neuropathologic features include severe neuronal loss with astrogliosis of mediodorsal and ventral anterior thalamic nuclei and inferior olivary nuclei, with variable degrees of spongiosis, especially in subiculum entorhinal cortex.(3.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1), a co-chaperone for Hsp90, has been shown to regulate multiple pathways in astrocytes, but its contributions to cellular stress responses are not fully understood. We show that in response to irradiation-mediated DNA damage stress STI1 accumulates in the nucleus of astrocytes. Also, STI1 haploinsufficiency decreases astrocyte survival after irradiation. Using yeast two-hybrid screenings we identified several nuclear proteins as STI1 interactors. Overexpression of one of these interactors, PIAS1, seems to be specifically involved in STI1 nuclear retention and in directing STI1 and Hsp90 to specific sub-nuclear regions. PIAS1 and STI1 co-immunoprecipitate and PIAS1 can function as an E3 SUMO ligase for STI. Using mass spectrometry we identified 5 SUMOylation sites in STI1. A STI1 mutant lacking these 5 sites is not SUMOylated, but still accumulates in the nucleus in response to increased expression of PIAS1, suggesting the possibility that a direct interaction with PIAS1 could be responsible for STI1 nuclear retention. To test this possibility, we mapped the interaction sites between PIAS1 and STI1 using yeast-two hybrid assays and surface plasmon resonance and found that a large domain in the N-terminal region of STI1 interacts with high affinity with amino acids 450-480 of PIAS1. Knockdown of PIAS1 in astrocytes impairs the accumulation of nuclear STI1 in response to irradiation. Moreover, a PIAS1 mutant lacking the STI1 binding site is unable to increase STI1 nuclear retention. Interestingly, in human glioblastoma multiforme PIAS1 expression is increased and we found a significant correlation between increased PIAS1 expression and STI1 nuclear localization. These experiments provide evidence that direct interaction between STI1 and PIAS1 is involved in the accumulation of nuclear STI1. This retention mechanism could facilitate nuclear chaperone activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction of prion protein and amyloid-b oligomers has been demonstrated recently. Homozygosity at prion protein gene (PRNP) codon 129 is associated with higher risk for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This polymorphism has been addressed as a possible risk factor in Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective To describe the association between codon 129 polymorphisms and AD. Methods We investigated the association of codon 129 polymorphism of PRNP in 99 AD patients and 111 controls, and the association between this polymorphism and cognitive performance. Other polymorphisms of PRNP and additive effect of apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) were evaluated. Results Codon 129 genotype distribution in AD 45.5% methionine (MM), 42.2% methionine valine (MV), 12.1% valine (VV); and 39.6% MM, 50.5% MV, 9.9% VV among controls (p>0.05). There were no differences of cognitive performance concerning codon 129. Stratification according to ApoE genotype did not reveal difference between groups. Conclusion Codon 129 polymorphism is not a risk factor for AD in Brazilian patients.
Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 07/2013; 71(7). · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1) is part of the chaperone machinery, but it also functions as an extracellular ligand for the prion protein. However, the physiological relevance of these STI1 activities in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that in the absence of embryonic STI1, several Hsp90 client proteins are decreased by 50%, although Hsp90 levels are unaffected. Mutant STI1 mice showed increased caspase-3 activation and 50% impairment in cellular proliferation. Moreover, placental disruption and lack of cellular viability were linked to embryonic death by E10.5 in STI1-mutant mice. Rescue of embryonic lethality in these mutants, by transgenic expression of the STI1 gene, supported a unique role for STI1 during embryonic development. The response of STI1 haploinsufficient mice to cellular stress seemed compromised, and mutant mice showed increased vulnerability to ischemic insult. At the cellular level, ischemia increased the secretion of STI1 from wild-type astrocytes by 3-fold, whereas STI1 haploinsufficient mice secreted half as much STI1. Interesting, extracellular STI1 prevented ischemia-mediated neuronal death in a prion protein-dependent way. Our study reveals essential roles for intracellular and extracellular STI1 in cellular resilience.-Beraldo, F. H., Soares, I. N., Goncalves, D. F., Fan, J., Thomas, A. A., Santos, T. G., Mohammad, A. H., Roffe, M., Calder, M. D., Nikolova, S., Hajj, G. N., Guimaraes, A. N., Massensini, A. R., Welch, I., Betts, D. H., Gros, R., Drangova, M., Watson, A. J., Bartha, R., Prado, V. F., Martins, V. R., and Prado, M. A. M. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 has unique cochaperone activity during development and regulates cellular response to ischemia via the prion protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion protein (PrP(C) ), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein corrupted in prion diseases, has been shown recently to interact with group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Moreover, both PrP(C) and mGluRs were proposed to function as putative receptors for β-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. PrP(C) can be processed in neurons via α or β-cleavage that has been proposed to produce PrP(C) fragments that are neuroprotective or toxic, respectively. We found PrP(C) α-cleavage to be 2-3 times higher in the cortex of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. A similar age-dependent increase was observed for PrP(C) β-cleavage. Moreover, we observed considerable age-dependent increase in cortical expression of mGluR1, but not mGluR5. Exposure of cortical neuronal cultures to β-amyloid oligomers upregulated mGluR1 and PrP(C) α-cleavage, while activation of group I mGluRs increased PrP(C) shedding from the membrane, likely due to increased levels of ADAM10, a key disintegrin for PrP(C) shedding. Interestingly, a similar increase in ADAM10 was detected in the cortex of 9-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 animals. Our experiments reveal novel and complex processing of PrP(C) in connection with mGluR overexpression that seems to be triggered by β-amyloid peptides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The co-chaperone stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1) is released by astrocytes, and has important neurotrophic properties upon binding to prion protein (PrP(C)). However, STI1 lacks a signal peptide and pharmacological approaches pointed that it does not follow a classical secretion mechanism. Ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, electron microscopy, vesicle labeling, and particle tracking analysis were used to identify three major types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from astrocytes with sizes ranging from 20-50, 100-200, and 300-400 nm. These EVs carry STI1 and present many exosomal markers, even though only a subpopulation had the typical exosomal morphology. The only protein, from those evaluated here, present exclusively in vesicles that have exosomal morphology was PrP(C). STI1 partially co-localized with Rab5 and Rab7 in endosomal compartments, and a dominant-negative for vacuolar protein sorting 4A (VPS4A), required for formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), impaired EV and STI1 release. Flow cytometry and PK digestion demonstrated that STI1 localized to the outer leaflet of EVs, and its association with EVs greatly increased STI1 activity upon PrP(C)-dependent neuronal signaling. These results indicate that astrocytes secrete a diverse population of EVs derived from MVBs that contain STI1 and suggest that the interaction between EVs and neuronal surface components enhances STI1-PrP(C) signaling.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue microarray technology enables us to evaluate the pattern of protein expression in large numbers of samples. However, manual data acquisition and analysis still represent a challenge because they are subjective and time-consuming. Automated analysis may thus increase the speed and reproducibility of evaluation. However, the reliability of automated analysis systems should be independently evaluated. Herein, the expression of phosphorylated AKT and mTOR was determined by ScanScope XT (Aperio; Vista, CA) and ACIS III (Dako; Glostrup, Denmark) and compared with the manual analysis by two observers. The percentage of labeled pixels or nuclei analysis had a good correlation between human observers and automated systems (κ = 0.855 and 0.879 for ScanScope vs. observers and κ = 0.765 and 0.793 for ACIS III vs. observers). The intensity of labeling determined by ScanScope was also correlated with that found by the human observers (correlation index of 0.946 and 0.851 for pAKT and 0.851 and 0.875 for pmTOR). However, the correlation between ACIS III and human observation varied for labeling intensity and was considered poor in some cases (correlation index of 0.718 and 0.680 for pAKT and 0.223 and 0.225 for pmTOR). Thus, the percentage of positive pixels or nuclei determination was satisfactorily performed by both systems; however, labeling intensity was better identified by ScanScope XT.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion protein (PrP(C)) has neuroprotective functions and herein we demonstrate that astrocytes from PrP(C)-over-expressing mice are more resistant to induced cell death than wild-type astrocytes. The stress-inducible-protein 1 (STI1), a PrP(C) ligand, prevents cell death in both wild-type and PrP(C)-over-expressing astrocytes through the activation of protein-kinase-A. Cultured embryonic astrocytes and brain extracts from PrP(C)-over-expressing mice show higher glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and reduced vimentin and nestin levels when compared to wild-type astrocytes, suggesting faster astrocyte maturation in the former mice. Our data indicate that PrP(C) levels modulate astrocyte development, and that PrP(C)-STI1 interaction contributes to protect against astrocyte death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exosomes and microvesicles are secreted particles of 30-200 nm in diameter, delimited by a lipid bilayer and containing a wide range of membrane-bound or free proteins and nucleic acids (in particular mRNA and miRNA). Here, we review the properties of tumor-cell-derived microvesicles as carriers of molecular information in relation to cancer progression and promotion of metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Microvesicles from tumor cells operate as signaling platforms that diffuse in the extracellular space to target cells in the microenvironment, modulating the interactions of tumor cells with stromal, inflammatory, dendritic, immune or vascular cells and priming the formation of the metastatic niche. SUMMARY: Because of their stability, exosomes and microvesicles can be retrieved in bodily fluids as biomarkers for cancer detection and monitoring. They offer a range of molecular targets for controlling cell-cell interactions during invasion and metastasis.
Current opinion in oncology 11/2012; · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prions, the agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, require the expression of prion protein (PrP(C)) to propagate disease. PrP(C) is converted into an abnormal insoluble form, PrP(Sc), which gains neurotoxic activity. Conversely, clinical manifestations of prion disease may occur either before, or in the absence of PrP(Sc) deposits but the loss of normal PrP(C) functions contribution for the etiology of these diseases is still debatable. Prion disease-associated mutations in PrP(C) represent one of the best models to understand the impact of PrP(C) loss-of-function. PrP(C) associates with various molecules, and in particular, the interaction of PrP(C) with laminin modulates neuronal plasticity and memory formation. To assess the functional alterations associated with PrP(C) mutations, wild-type and mutated PrP(C) proteins were expressed in a neural cell line derived from a PrP(C)-null mouse. Treatment with the laminin γ1 chain peptide (Ln γ1), which mimics the laminin binding site for PrP(C), increased intracellular calcium in cells expressing wild-type PrP(C), while a significantly lower response was observed in cells expressing mutated PrP(C) molecules. The Ln γ1 did not promote process outgrowth or protected against staurosporine induced cell death in cells expressing mutated PrP(C) molecules in contrast to cells expressing wild-type PrP(C). The co-expression of wild-type PrP(C) with mutated PrP(C) molecules was able to rescue the Ln protective effects indicating the lack of negative dominance of PrP(C) mutated molecules. These results indicate that PrP(C) mutations impair process outgrowth and survival mediated by Ln γ1 peptide in neural cells, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of genetic prion diseases.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis. We explored the function of melanoma-derived exosomes in the formation of primary tumors and metastases in mice and human subjects. Exosomes from highly metastatic melanomas increased the metastatic behavior of primary tumors by permanently 'educating' bone marrow progenitors through the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Melanoma-derived exosomes also induced vascular leakiness at pre-metastatic sites and reprogrammed bone marrow progenitors toward a pro-vasculogenic phenotype that was positive for c-Kit, the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 and Met. Reducing Met expression in exosomes diminished the pro-metastatic behavior of bone marrow cells. Notably, MET expression was elevated in circulating CD45(-)C-KIT(low/+)TIE2(+) bone marrow progenitors from individuals with metastatic melanoma. RAB1A, RAB5B, RAB7 and RAB27A, regulators of membrane trafficking and exosome formation, were highly expressed in melanoma cells. Rab27A RNA interference decreased exosome production, preventing bone marrow education and reducing, tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, we identified an exosome-specific melanoma signature with prognostic and therapeutic potential comprised of TYRP2, VLA-4, HSP70, an HSP90 isoform and the MET oncoprotein. Our data show that exosome production, transfer and education of bone marrow cells supports tumor growth and metastasis, has prognostic value and offers promise for new therapeutic directions in the metastatic process.
Nature medicine 05/2012; 18(6):883-91. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PrP(C) protein, which is especially present in the cellular membrane of nervous system cells, has been extensively studied for its controversial antioxidant activity. In this study, we elucidated the free radical scavenger activity of purified murine PrP(C) in solution and its participation as a cell protector in astrocytes that were subjected to treatment with an oxidant. In vitro and using an EPR spin-trapping technique, we observed that PrP(C) decreased the oxidation of the DMPO trap in a Fenton reaction system (Cu(2+)/ascorbate/H(2)O(2)), which was demonstrated by approximately 70% less DMPO/OH(). In cultured PrP(C)-knockout astrocytes from mice, the absence of PrP(C) caused an increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation during the first 3h of H(2)O(2) treatment. This rapid increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrP(C)-knockout astrocytes, which increased the population of cells in the sub-G1 phase when compared with cultured wild-type astrocytes. We conclude that PrP(C) in solution acts as a radical scavenger, and in astrocytes, it is essential for protection from oxidative stress caused by an external chemical agent, which is a likely condition in human neurodegenerative CNS disorders and pathological conditions such as ischemia.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 418(1):27-32. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion protein (PrP(C) ), when associated with the secreted form of the stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), plays an important role in neural survival, neuritogenesis, and memory formation. However, the role of the PrP(C) -STI1 complex in the physiology of neural progenitor/stem cells is unknown. In this article, we observed that neurospheres cultured from fetal forebrain of wild-type (Prnp(+/+) ) and PrP(C) -null (Prnp(0/0) ) mice were maintained for several passages without the loss of self-renewal or multipotentiality, as assessed by their continued capacity to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The homogeneous expression and colocalization of STI1 and PrP(C) suggest that they may associate and function as a complex in neurosphere-derived stem cells. The formation of neurospheres from Prnp(0/0) mice was reduced significantly when compared with their wild-type counterparts. In addition, blockade of secreted STI1, and its cell surface ligand, PrP(C) , with specific antibodies, impaired Prnp(+/+) neurosphere formation without further impairing the formation of Prnp(0/0) neurospheres. Alternatively, neurosphere formation was enhanced by recombinant STI1 application in cells expressing PrP(C) but not in cells from Prnp(0/0) mice. The STI1-PrP(C) interaction was able to stimulate cell proliferation in the neurosphere-forming assay, while no effect on cell survival or the expression of neural markers was observed. These data suggest that the STI1-PrP(C) complex may play a critical role in neural progenitor/stem cells self-renewal via the modulation of cell proliferation, leading to the control of the stemness capacity of these cells during nervous system development.