Annapoorna S Kini

Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (119)524.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The presence of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) is associated with high risk of acute coronary syndrome, hence their early detection may identify high-risk patients. In the present study we investigated the ability of a combined imaging catheter with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) plus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to detect TCFA in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods and results: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and combined NIRS-IVUS assessment were performed on identical coronary segments. IVUS analysis provided per-segment minimal cross-sectional area (CSA), plaque length (PL), plaque burden (PB), plaque volume (PV), and remodelling index (RI). OCT was used as the gold-standard reference to define TCFA (fibrous cap thickness <65 μm). Plaque lipid content was estimated by NIRS (lipid core burden index [LCBI]). OCT-defined TCFA was present in 18 of 76 segments. IVUS revealed that OCT-defined TCFA were positively remodelled lesions with greater PB and PV, smaller CSA, and longer PL, while NIRS revealed greater LCBI per 2 mm segment (LCBI2mm) (all p<0.001). Greatest accuracy for OCT-defined TCFA detection was achieved using LCBI2mm >315 with RI >1.046 as a combined criterion value. Conclusions: OCT-defined TCFA are characterised by positive vessel remodelling, high plaque burden and greater lipid core burden as assessed by dual NIRS-IVUS imaging.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 04/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the outcomes of initial one-stent (1S) versus dedicated two-stent (2S) strategies in complex bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using everolimus-eluting stents (EES). PCI of true bifurcation lesions is technically challenging and historically associated with reduced procedural success and increased restenosis. Prior studies comparing initial one-stent (1S) versus dedicated two-stent (2S) strategies using first-generation drug-eluting stents have shown no reduction in ischemic events and more complications with a 2S strategy. We performed a retrospective study of 319 consecutive patients undergoing PCI at a single referral center with EES for true bifurcation lesions, defined by involvement of both the main vessel (MV) and side branch (SB). Baseline, procedural characteristics, quantitative coronary angiography and clinical outcomes in-hospital and at one year were compared for patients undergoing 1S (n=175) and 2S (n=144) strategies. Baseline characteristics were well-matched. 2S strategy was associated with greater SB acute gain (0.65±0.41mm vs. 1.11±0.47mm, p<0.0001). In-hospital serious adverse events were similar (9% with 2S vs. 8% with 1S, p=0.58). At one year, patients treated by 2S strategy had non-significantly lower rates of target vessel revascularization (5.8% vs. 7.4%, p=0.31), myocardial infarction (7.8% vs. 12.2%, p=0.31) and major adverse cardiovascular events (16.6% vs. 21.8%, p=0.21). In this study of patients undergoing PCI for true coronary bifurcation lesions using EES, 2S strategy was associated with superior SB angiographic outcomes without excess complications or ischemic events at one year.
    International journal of cardiology 03/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes of elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in same-day discharge and overnight hospital stays. Advances in PCI techniques and equipment have allowed same-day discharge after elective PCI. In this study, we investigated the safety of same-day discharge ambulatory PCI in patients according to age, creatinine, and ejection fraction (ACEF) scores. The ambulatory PCI group consisted of all PCIs with same-day discharge, while the overnight-stay group consisted of all elective PCIs with in-hospital observation and discharge the following day. Patients were stratified into tertiles based on ACEF score: low (<1.08), mid (≥1.08 and <1.31), and high (≥1.31). The primary endpoint was 30-day major adverse cardiac events, defined as readmission, all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. Propensity score matching was done to evaluate outcomes based on similar baseline characteristics. There were 16,407 elective PCIs, of which 21.2% were in the ambulatory group. Patients who stayed overnight had similar 30-day composite outcomes as their same-day discharge counterparts in the high ACEF score (odds ratio [OR], 1.213; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.625-2.355; P=.57) and mid ACEF score (OR, 0.636; 95% CI, 0.356-1.134; P=.13) comparisons, but had worse outcomes in the low ACEF score comparison (OR, 1.867; 95% CI, 1.134-3.074; P=.01). In this single-center registry, patients who underwent same-day discharge ambulatory PCI had no worse outcomes, and in some cases better outcomes, than overnight-stay patients; this result was found in the group as a whole, as well as in all ACEF score subcategories.
    The Journal of invasive cardiology 03/2014; 26(3):106-113. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been associated with higher short and long-term mortality. Bivalirudin has been shown to reduce bleeding complications in patients who underwent PCI; however, the impact of anemia on bleeding complications and long-term mortality has not been studied. A total of 11,991 patients who underwent PCI over a period of 8 years with bivalirudin as the primary antithrombotic agent were included. Anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization definition. Bleeding complications were prospectively collected. Survival analysis was performed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 11,991 patients, 4,815 patients (40%) had baseline anemia. Major bleeding occurred in 3.3% of patients with anemia compared with 0.7% of patients without anemia (p <0.001) driven largely by transfusion events. In the overall study population, major bleeding was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.8, p = 0.027) at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years (interquartile range 1.4 to 3.5). In patients with anemia, major bleeding remained an independent predictor of mortality (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0, p = 0.008); however, in patients without anemia, it did not (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.52 to 3.03, p = 0.62). In patients who underwent PCI with bivalirudin therapy, major bleeding is associated with early and long-term mortality, which is more pronounced in patients with baseline anemia.
    The American journal of cardiology 02/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A periprocedural myocardial infarction, defined as the advent of new Q-waves or a creatine kinase-MB elevation >83 normal has been previously validated as predictive of subsequent mortality. We examined the effects of using this clinically relevant definition of periprocedural myocardial infarction instead of the original protocol definition on outcomes in the recent PROTECT II [A Prospective, Multi-center, Randomized Controlled Trial of the IMPELLA RECOVER LP 2.5 System Versus Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) in Patients Undergoing Non Emergent High Risk PCI] trial. In this trial, patients who were undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized to either an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP, n[211) or a left ventricular assist device (Impella, n[216). All eligible patients per study protocol were included in the analysis. Patient outcomes were compared up to 90 days, the longest available follow-up, on the composite end points of major adverse events (MAE) and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE [ death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization). At 90 days, the rates of both composite end points were lower in the Impella group compared with the IABP group (MAE, 37% vs 49%, p [ 0.014 respectively; MACCE, 22% vs 31%, p [ 0.034 respectively). There were no differences in death or large myocardial infarction between the 2 arms. By multivariable analysis, treatment with Impella as opposed to IABP was an independent predictor for freedom from MAE (odds ratio[0.75 [95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.92], p[0.007) andMACCE (odds ratio[0.76 [95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.96], p[0.020) at 90 days postprocedure. In conclusion, hemodynamic support with Impella compared with IABP during high-risk PCI in the PROTECT-II trial resulted in improved event-free survival at 3-month follow-up; this finding was further supported by multivariate analyses.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2014; 113(2):222-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We sought to assess if bivalirudin use during balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) would affect clinical outcomes compared with heparin. Methods and results: We compared the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent elective or urgent BAV with intraprocedural use of bivalirudin or heparin at two high-volume centres. All in-hospital events post BAV were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee. Of 427 patients, 223 patients (52.2%) received bivalirudin and 204 (47.8%) received heparin. Compared with patients who received heparin, patients who received bivalirudin had significantly less major bleeding (4.9% vs. 13.2%, p=0.003). Net adverse clinical events (NACE, major bleeding or major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]) were also reduced (11.2% vs. 20.1%, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the rates of MACE (mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, 6.7% vs. 11.3%, p=0.1), or vascular complications (major, 2.7% vs. 2.0%; minor, 4.5% vs. 4.9%; p=0.83). After multivariate analysis controlling for vascular preclosure, the use of bivalirudin remained independently associated with reduced major bleeding (OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.84; p=0.02) while the association was attenuated in propensity-adjusted analysis (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.18 to 1.07, p=0.08). Conclusions: In this registry of patients with severe aortic stenosis, bivalirudin as compared to heparin resulted in improved in-hospital outcomes post BAV in terms of reduced major bleeding, similar MACE and reduced NACE. If verified in a randomised study and extended to the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) population, these results might indicate a potential benefit for patients undergoing such procedures.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 11/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:Generic clopidogrel recently became available in the United States and was rapidly adopted as a cost-effective alternative to the brand name formulation. However, unlike other medications, subtle differences in clopidogrel bioavailability may lead to acute consequences including stent thrombosis (ST).Materials and METHODS: We studied the incidence of acute and subacute ST during the initial period of generic clopidogrel use (June 18, 2012-September 6, 2012 [80 days]) at a single percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) center. There were 4 definite ST cases within 30 days of successful PCI in patients receiving generic clopidogrel, which were compared to historic control ST cases from 80 days prior to generic clopidogrel use and for 3 years from June 18, 2009 to June 17, 2012. During generic clopidogrel administration, 1054 PCIs were performed, giving a definite 30-day ST incidence of 0.38% (4 of 1054) among these patients. By comparison, there were 2 episodes of definite 30-day ST during the 80 days immediately preceding generic clopidogrel use (2 of 1114), while 3-year historic data indicated a definite 30-day ST incidence of 0.14% (20 of 14 432), representing a 2.7-fold increase in definite 30-day ST with generic clopidogrel use (P = .076). Exclusion of 3 historic controls with a defined reason for ST (noncompliance, marked thrombocytosis) gave a 3.2-fold increase in 30-day ST with generic clopidogrel (P = .050). An ST-predictive algorithm revealed no difference in the likelihood of ST between patients receiving generic clopidogrel and historic controls. We observed an unexpected >2-fold increase in ST coincident with generic clopidogrel use. Although we cannot ascribe causality, this observation warrants increased vigilance and close monitoring of patients receiving generic clopidogrel.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Umesh K Gidwani, Annapoorna S Kini
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents an overview of the evolution of cardiac critical care in the past half century. It tracks the rapid advances in the management of cardiovascular disease and how the intensive care area has kept pace, improving outcomes and incorporating successive innovations. The current multidisciplinary, evidence based unit is vastly different from the early days and is expected to evolve further in keeping with the concept of 'hybrid' care areas where care is delivered by the 'heart team'.
    Cardiology clinics 11/2013; 31(4):485-92. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Umesh K Gidwani, Samin K Sharma, Annapoorna S Kini
    Cardiology clinics 11/2013; 31(4):xiii-xiv. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: RE-ENDOTHELIALIZATION IS DELAYED AFTER DRUG-ELUTING STENT (DES) IMPLANTATION. IN THIS SETTING, NEOINTIMA IS MORE PRONE TO BECOME LIPID LADEN AND DEVELOP NEOATHEROSCLEROSIS (NA), POTENTIALLY INCREASING PLAQUE VULNERABILITY.METHODS AND RESULTS: OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY WITH INTRAVASCULAR ULTRASOUND WERE USED TO CHARACTERIZE NA IN 65 (51 DES AND 14 BARE-METAL STENTS) CONSECUTIVE SYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS WITH IN-STENT RESTENOSIS. MEDIAN DURATION POSTSTENT IMPLANTATION WAS 33 MONTHS. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHYVERIFIED NA WAS OBSERVED IN 40 STENTS WITH IN-STENT RESTENOSIS (62%), WAS MORE PREVALENT IN DES THAN BARE-METAL STENTS (68% VERSUS 36%; P=0.02), AND DEMONSTRATED SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER PREVALENCE OF THIN-CAP NEOATHEROMA (47% VERSUS 7%; P=0.01) IN DES. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATED THAT THE TOTAL LIPID CORE BURDEN INDEX (34 [INTERQUARTILE RANGE, 1292] VERSUS 9 [INTERQUARTILE RANGE, 032]; P0.001) AND THE DENSITY OF LIPID CORE BURDEN INDEX (LIPID CORE BURDEN INDEX/4 MM, 144 [INTERQUARTILE RANGE, 60285] VERSUS 26 [INTERQUARTILE RANGE, 086]; P0.001) WERE HIGHER IN DES COMPARED WITH BARE-METAL STENTS. TOPOGRAPHICALLY, NA WAS CLASSIFIED AS I (THIN-CAP NA), II (THICK-CAP NA), AND III (PERI-STRUT NA). TYPE I THIN-CAP NEOATHEROMA WAS MORE COMMON IN DES (20% VERSUS 3%; P=0.01) AND IN AREAS OF THE STENTED SEGMENT WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT IN-STENT RESTENOSIS (71%). PERIPROCEDURAL MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION OCCURRED ONLY IN DES (11 VERSUS 0; P =0.05), OF WHICH 6 (55%) COULD BE ATTRIBUTED TO SEGMENTS WITH 70% IN-STENT RESTENOSIS. BY LOGISTIC REGRESSION, PRIOR DES WAS THE ONLY INDEPENDENT PREDICTOR OF BOTH NA (ODDS RATIO, 7.0; 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, 1.727; P=0.006) AND PERIPROCEDURAL MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (ODDS RATIO, 1.8; 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, 1.12.4; P=0.05).CONCLUSIONS: In-stent thin-cap neoatheroma is more prevalent, is distributed more diffusely across the stented segment, and is associated with increased periprocedural myocardial infarction in DES compared with bare-metal stents. These findings support NA as a mechanism for late DES failure.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 09/2013; · 6.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) cessation increases the risk of adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether risk changes over time, depends on the underlying reason for DAPT cessation, or both is unknown. We assessed associations between different modes of DAPT cessation and cardiovascular risk after PCI. The PARIS (patterns of non-adherence to anti-platelet regimens in stented patients) registry is a prospective observational study of patients undergoing PCI with stent implantation in 15 clinical sites in the USA and Europe between July 1, 2009, and Dec 2, 2010. Adult patients (aged 18 years or older) undergoing successful stent implantation in one or more native coronary artery and discharged on DAPT were eligible for enrolment. Patients were followed up at months 1, 6, 12, and 24 after implantation. Prespecified categories for DAPT cessation included physician-recommended discontinuation, brief interruption (for surgery), or disruption (non-compliance or because of bleeding). All adverse events and episodes of DAPT cessation were independently adjudicated. Using Cox models with time-varying covariates, we examined the effect of DAPT cessation on major adverse events (MACE [composite of cardiac death, definite or probable stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, or target-lesion revascularisation]). Incidence rates for DAPT cessation and adverse events were calculated as Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to the first event. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00998127. We enrolled 5031 patients undergoing PCI, including 5018 in the final study population. Over 2 years, the overall incidence of any DAPT cessation was 57·3%. Rate of any discontinuation was 40·8%, of interruption was 10·5%, and of disruption was 14·4%. The corresponding overall 2 year MACE rate was 11·5%, most of which (74%) occurred while patients were taking DAPT. Compared with those on DAPT, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for MACE due to interruption was 1·41 (95% CI 0·94-2·12; p=0·10) and to disruption was 1·50 (1·14-1.97; p=0·004). Within 7 days, 8-30 days, and more than 30 days after disruption, adjusted HRs were 7·04 (3·31-14·95), 2·17 (0·97-4·88), and 1·3 (0·97-1·76), respectively. By contrast with patients who remained on DAPT, those who discontinued had lower MACE risk (0·63 [0·46-0·86]). Results were similar after excluding patients receiving bare metal stents and using an alternative MACE definition that did not include target lesion revascularisation. In a real-world setting, for patients undergoing PCI and discharged on DAPT, cardiac events after DAPT cessation depend on the clinical circumstance and reason for cessation and attenuates over time. While most events after PCI occur in patients on DAPT, early risk for events due to disruption is substantial irrespective of stent type. Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi-Aventis.
    The Lancet 08/2013; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the use of the GuideLiner "mother-and-child" guide catheter extension system as a simple solution to facilitate initial device delivery in balloon uncrossable chronic total occlusions (CTOs) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). During PCIs for CTO lesions, an important reason for procedural failure is the inability to deliver a balloon or microcatheter across the lesion. We retrospectively accessed our interventional registry for 07/01/2010 to 03/21/2012 and extracted data on all CTO lesions involving GuideLiner catheter use. Cine review was performed to identify cases where a guidewire had crossed the CTO and the use of a GuideLiner catheter facilitated initial device delivery. We identified 28 patients that underwent PCI for CTO with a GuideLiner catheter used to assist initial balloon or microcatheter advancement across the culprit lesion. Mean overall CTO length was 26.3 ± 18.1 mm. The GuideLiner catheter was successful in delivering a small balloon to the CTO lesion in 85.7% of cases (24/28). A single CTO PCI resulted in a distal guidewire perforation, but there was no hemodynamic compromise or pericardial effusion and the patient was discharged the next day. Overall procedural success in these selected cases (where a guidewire had already crossed the CTO) was 89.3% (25/28). The GuideLiner mother-and-child catheter is a simple, safe and efficacious adjunctive device for difficult CTO PCIs where despite standard measures it is not possible to deliver an initial balloon or microcatheter across the occluded segment.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 08/2013; 26(4):343-50. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent expression of aortic valve disease in the Western world, with an increasing prevalence as the population ages. Almost 4% of all adults 75 years of age or older have moderate or severe AS. Many patients do not undergo surgery because of prohibitive comorbidities or other high-risk features. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) remains an option for temporary palliation and symptomatic relief in such patients. In addition, BAV continues to serve an important role as a bridge to either surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement in certain patients with AS requiring temporary hemodynamic stabilization.
    Cardiology clinics 08/2013; 31(3):327-36. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to describe near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) findings of culprit lesions in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although autopsy studies demonstrate that most STEMI are caused by rupture of pre-existing lipid core plaque (LCP), it has not been possible to identify LCP in vivo. A novel intracoronary NIRS catheter has made it possible to detect LCP in patients. We performed NIRS within the culprit vessels of 20 patients with acute STEMI and compared the STEMI culprit findings to findings in nonculprit segments of the artery and to findings in autopsy control segments. Culprit and control segments were analyzed for the maximum lipid core burden index in a 4-mm length of artery (maxLCBI4mm). MaxLCBI4mm was 5.8-fold higher in STEMI culprit segments than in 87 nonculprit segments of the STEMI culprit vessel (median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 523 [445, 821] vs. 90 [6, 265]; p < 0.001) and 87-fold higher than in 279 coronary autopsy segments free of large LCP by histology (median [IQR]: 523 [445, 821] vs. 6 [0, 88]; p < 0.001).Within the STEMI culprit artery, NIRS accurately distinguished culprit from nonculprit segments (receiver-operating characteristic analysis area under the curve = 0.90). A threshold of maxLCBI4mm >400 distinguished STEMI culprit segments from specimens free of large LCP by histology (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 98%). The present study has demonstrated in vivo that a maxLCBI4mm >400, as detected by NIRS, is a signature of plaques causing STEMI.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2013; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the exponential growth in medical knowledge, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute to more than one-third of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A range of therapies already exist for established CVDs, although there is significant interest in further understanding their pathogenesis. The urocortins (Ucns) are peptide members of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family, a group of evolutionary conserved peptides with homologues in fish, amphibians and mammals and considered to play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis and local tissue repair. A number of preclinical studies in vitro, in-vivo and ex-vivo have defined a multifaceted effect of Ucns on the cardiovascular system. Different G-protein coupled signaling and protein-kinase pathways have been shown to be activated by Ucns, together with different transcriptional and translational effects, all of which preferentially converge on the mitochondria, where the modulation of apoptosis is considered their principal action. It has been demonstrated in experimental models, and consequentially suggested in human diseases, that Ucn-mediated inhibition of apoptosis can be exploited for the improvement of both therapeutic and preventative strategies against CVDs. Specifically, some unavoidable iatrogenic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries, e.g. during cardiac surgery or percutaneous coronary angioplasty, may greatly benefit from the anti-apoptotic effect of Ucns. However, few studies on the topic have been employed in humans to date. Therefore, this review will focus on the different intra-cellular mechanisms of action of Urocortins, and detail the different Ucn-mediated pathways identified so far. It will also highlight the limited evidence already existing in human clinical and surgical settings, as well as emphasize the potential uses of Ucns in human cardiac pathology.
    Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 07/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to determine the impact of short-term intensive statin therapy on intracoronary plaque lipid content.Background Statin therapy significantly reduces the risk for thrombotic events. Whether or not these benefits are attributable to reduction in plaque lipid content remains to be properly documented in human obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods We randomized 87 patients with multivessel CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and at least 1 other severely obstructive (fractional flow reserve [FFR] ≤0.8) nontarget lesion (NTL) to intensive (rosuvastatin 40 mg daily) or standard-of-care lipid-lowering therapy. NTLs were evaluated at baseline and after 7 weeks of therapy with FFR, near-infrared spectroscopy, and intravascular ultrasound. The primary endpoint was the change in lipid-core burden index at the 4-mm maximal segment (LCBI4mm max), wherever this occurred within the lesion.Results Upon follow-up, median reduction (95% confidence interval) in LCBI4mm max was significantly greater in the intensive versus standard group (−149.1 [−210.9 to −42.9] vs. 2.4 [−36.1 to 44.7]; p = 0.01). Results remained consistent after adjustment for baseline differences in LCBI between groups and use of change in LCBI across the entire lesion as the dependent outcome.Conclusions Short-term intensive statin therapy may reduce lipid content in obstructive lesions. These hypothesis-generating findings warrant confirmation in larger studies with longer follow-up. (Reduction in YEllow Plaque by Aggressive Lipid LOWering Therapy [YELLOW]); NCT01567826)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2013; 62(1):21-29. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare the discriminatory value of differing risk scores for predicting clinical outcomes following PCI in routine practice. Background: Various risk scores predict outcomes after PCI. However, these scores consider markedly different factors, from purely anatomical (SYNTAX risk score [SRS]) to purely clinical (ACEF, modified ACEF [ACEFmod], NCDR), while other scores combine both elements (Clinical SYNTAX score [CSS], NY State Risk Score [NYSRS]). Methods: Patients with triple vessel and/or LM disease with 12 month follow-up were studied from a single center PCI registry. Exclusion criteria included STEMI presentation, prior revascularization and shock. Clinical events at 12 months were compared to baseline risk scores, according to score tertiles and area under receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUC). Results: We identified 584 eligible patients (69.8±12.3yrs, 405 males). All scores were predictive of mortality, with the SRS being least predictive (AUC=0.66). The most accurate scores for mortality were the CSS and ACEF (AUC=0.76 for both: p=0.019 and 0.08 vs. SRS, respectively). For TLR, while the SRS trended toward being positively predictive (p=0.075), several scores trended towards a negative association, which reached significance for the NCDR (p=0.045). The SRS and CSS were the only scores predictive of MI (both p<0.05). No score was particularly accurate for predicting MACE (death+MI+TLR), with AUCs ranging from 0.53 (NCDR) to 0.63 (SRS). Conclusions: Competing factors influence mortality, MI and TLR after PCI. An increasing burden of comorbidities is associated with mortality, whereas anatomical complexity predicts MI. By combining these outcomes to predict MACE, all scores show reduced utility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 05/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk for thrombotic events compared to those with one abnormality alone. Whether this can be attributed to changes in platelet reactivity among those with both CKD and DM is unknown. We prospectively studied 438 clopidogrel-naïve patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet function tests were performed 4-6 hours after loading with 600 mg of clopidogrel. Platelet reactivity was assessed using the VerifyNow system and expressed as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined as PRU > 230. Patients were categorised into four groups by the presence or absence of CKD and DM. Among those without CKD or DM (n=166), DM alone (n=150), CKD alone (n=60) and both CKD and DM (n=62) the mean PRU levels were 201.6 ± 96.3, 220.5 ± 101.1, 254.9 ± 106.7 and 275.0 ± 94.5, respectively (p<0.001). Analogously, the prevalence of HRPR was 42.3%, 50.7%, 63.3% and 75.8%, respectively (p< 0.001). Associations between either CKD or DM alone and HRPR were attenuated after multivariable adjustment while the odds for HRPR associated with both CKD and DM remained significant (OR [95% CI]: 2.61 [1.16 - 5.86]). In conclusion, the presence of both CKD and DM confers a synergistic impact on residual platelet reactivity when compared to either condition alone. Whether more potent platelet inhibitors may improve outcomes among patients with both abnormalities warrants investigation.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2013; 110(1). · 6.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the impact of suture-mediated vascular closure devices on net adverse clinical events (NACE) after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Background: Ischemic and bleeding complications are common following transfemoral BAV however; previous studies have been single center and limited by varying definitions of major bleeding. Methods: The Effect of Bivalirudin on Aortic Valve Intervention Outcomes (BRAVO) study was a retrospective observational study conducted at two high-volume academic centers over a 6-year period designed to compare the effect of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin. This is a sub-analysis of 428 consecutive patients who underwent BAV (with 10-13 French sheaths) to compare the effect of hemostasis with vascular closure devices versus manual compression utilizing standardized definitions. NACE was defined as the composite of major bleeding and major adverse clinical events (MACE). All events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee who were blinded to antithrombin use. Results: Pre-closure was performed in 269 (62.8%) of patients. While bivalirudin was used more frequently in those with pre-closure (60.6% vs. 37.7%, p<0.001), a history of prior BAV (11.1% vs. 3.6%, p=0.04) and peripheral vascular disease (30.7% vs. 19.7%, p=0.01) was more common in those not undergoing pre-closure (n=159, 37%). Other clinical and demographic features were well balanced between groups. Vascular closure was associated with a significant reduction in NACE (24.5% vs 10.0% p<0.001). Results remained significant after adjusting for baseline differences and bivalirudin use (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; p=0.001). Conclusions: Our study suggests that suture-mediated vascular closure is associated with a substantial reduction in NACE after transfemoral BAV. Large randomized clinical trials should be conducted to confirm our results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Heart (British Cardiac Society) 01/2013; · 5.01 Impact Factor