Feng Qiu

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (108)217.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Eight eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes – phaeusmanes A–H (1–8) – isolated for the first time in this work, and four others (9–12) isolated for the first time from plants in this work, together with fourteen known eudesmane derivatives, were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectroscopy and HRMS. Compound 8 is the first example of a nitrogen-containing eudesmane-type sesquiterpene isolated from the genus Curcuma. Furthermore, inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were evaluated. Compounds 1, 6, 10, 19, 22, and 24 showed strong inhibitory activities on NO production with IC50 values of 3.2, 4.8, 1.2, 0.8, 3.8, and 0.8 μM, respectively. Preliminary structure–activity relationships for these compounds are proposed. A possible biogenetic pathway for nitrogen-containing eudesmane-type sesquiterpene 8 is postulated.
    Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 07/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reinvestigation of the n-BuOH extract of the roots of Clematis argentilucida led to the isolation of four new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, 1-4, four known saponins, 5-8, first isolated from the species, together with ten saponins, 9-18, reported in the preceding papers. The structures of saponins 1-8 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins were evaluated against human tumor HL-60, HepG-2, and SGC-7901 cell lines. The monodesmosidic saponins 4, 7, 8, and 14-18 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the three cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 0.87-19.48 µM.
    Planta Medica 07/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physalin A is an active withanolide isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine named Jindenglong, which has been used for the treatment of sore throat, hepatitis, eczema and tumors in China. Our previous study demonstrated that physalin A induced apoptosis and cyto-protective autophagy in A375-S2 human melanoma cells. Induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with physalin A triggered apoptosis. In this study, NO generated by physalin A induced apoptosis and autophagy in A375-S2 cells, since physalin A induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cells. Generation of NO partially promoted both apoptosis and autophagy in A375-S2 cells. NO suppressed mTOR expression, which led to autophagy induction. An autophagic inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA) promoted NO production, while acceleration of autophagy with an autophagic agonist rapamycin repressed NO production, suggesting that autophagy and NO production form a negative feedback loop that eventually protects the cells from apoptosis. The results together with the previous study indicate apoptosis and autophagy induced by physalin A in A375-S2 cells; the autophagy, repressing production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and ROS, protects the cells from apoptosis.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology. 06/2014; 71.
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin (CUR) is a major naturally-occurring polyphenol of Curcuma species, which is commonly used as a yellow coloring and flavoring agent in foods. In recent years, it has been reported that CUR exhibits significant anti-tumor activity in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic features of CUR have indicated poor oral bioavailability, which may be related to its extensive metabolism. The CUR metabolites might be responsible for the antitumor pharmacological effects in vivo. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is one of the major metabolites of CUR. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and associated mechanism of action of THC in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells for the first time. Here, THC exhibited significant cell growth inhibition by inducing MCF-7 cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Moreover, co-treatment of MCF-7 cells with THC and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, effectively reversed the dissipation in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and blocked THC-mediated Bax up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, caspase-3 activation as well as p21 up-regulation, suggesting p38 MAPK might mediate THC-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Taken together, these results indicate THC might be an active antitumor form of CUR in vivo, and it might be selected as a potentially effective agent for treatment of human breast cancer.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Figure optionsView in workspace Highlights ► Five saponins were first reported from Clematis argentilucida. ► One of them is a new compound with 12-oleanene-3,28-diol as aglycone. ► This type of aglycone is first reported in genus Clematis. ► May be there are differences in the biosynthetic pathways of this species. ► Saponins with hydroxymethyl at C-17 could be a chemotaxonomic marker of the plant.
    Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 01/2014; 40:49–52. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three rare indole-2-S-glycosides, indole-3-acetonitrile-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), indole-3-acetonitrile-4-methoxy-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and N-methoxy-indole-3-acetonitrile-2-S-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), together with 11 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the roots of Isatis indigotica Fort. (Cruciferae). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. A plausible biosynthesis pathway of 1-3 is also proposed.
    Fitoterapia 01/2014; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A selective and sensitive LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three glucuronide conjugates of scutellarein in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analytes (scutellarin, scutellarein-6,7-di-O-β-D-glucuronide and scutellarein-6-O-β-D- glucuronide), together with internal standard (IS, baicalin) were separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol–water − formic acid (55:45:0.2, v/v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was performed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via electrospray ionization source operating in negative ionization mode. The method was linear for all the analytes over the investigated concentration ranges with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9954. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 9.1% and the accuracy was between–1.7% and 4.2%. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were over 63.7%. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of breviscapine in rats after intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic results would be helpful to better understand the pharmacological action mechanism of breviscapine
    Journal of Chromatography B. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: One new monoterpenoid glycoside (1), together with seven known compounds, including two alkaloids (2–3), three phenylpropanoids (4–6), and two nucleosides (7–8) were isolated from the calyces of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods, and comparison with reported data. These eight compounds were isolated for the first time from the genus Physalis. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was summarized.
    Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 01/2014; 54:31–35. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, such as Coptis chinensis, Berberis aristata, and Coptis japonica. It exhibits a lipid-lowering effect by up-regulating hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression. However, the plasma concentration of BBR is very low after oral administration for the reason that BBR is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized. Therefore, it is hard to explain the pharmacological effects of BBR in vivo. Here, RT-PCR, Western blotting and Oil Red O staining were used to investigate the effects of four BBR metabolites on LDLR expression and lipid accumulation in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells. Our results suggested that BBR increased LDLR mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Four metabolites of BBR, Jatrorrhizin, Columbamine, Berberubine and Demethyleneberberine, were found to be able to up-regulate LDLR mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, almost all the metabolites had potent effects on inhibiting cellular lipid accumulation. These results suggest that both BBR and its metabolites exhibit lipid-lowering effects by up-regulating LDLR expression, and BBR and its metabolites might be the in vivo active forms of BBR produced after oral administration. This study provides information to help us understand the mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic effects of BBR in vivo.
    Fitoterapia 12/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new flavonoid, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavone (1), along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16), was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Most of them have uncommon O-substitution patterns involving 5-, 7-, 8-, 2'-, 3'-, 4'- and 5'-O-substituents. The antiproliferative effects of these flavonoids against human leukaemia HL-60 cells were investigated. Among them, 13 was the most active, displaying potent antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 3.50 μM. The structure-activity relationships of these isolated compounds were discussed.
    Natural product research 11/2013; · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and the relationship between apoE and disease activity of SLE, and the possible effects of glucocorticoid on apoE and other cytokines activities in SLE patients METHODS: Forty treatment-naive SLE patients and forty matched healthy controls were studied. All the SLE patients received prednisone 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The sera levels of apoE and related cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. The expression of apoE mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by real-time PCR. Compared with healthy controls, the relative expression levels of ApoE proteins and sera levels were significantly up-regulated in active SLE patients. ApoE sera concentrations positively correlated with SLEDAI, anti-dsDNA antibody and the related cytokines including IL-6, IFN-gamma and IL-10, and uncorrelated with the concentration of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in SLE patients. After 4 weeks prednisone treatment, the relative mRNA expression of apoE and the serum levels of apoE and related cytokines decreased. ApoE correlated with disease activity and related cytokines in SLE patients. Glucocorticoid can down-regulate the expressions of apoE and related cytokines.Virtual slide: virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1646714011077325.
    Diagnostic Pathology 10/2013; 8(1):175. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Kun Wang, Feng Qiu
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    ABSTRACT: Curcuminoids are safe natural yellow pigments used as food coloring agents and traditional drugs with a variety of biological functions such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Poor oral bioavailability and the low plasma concentration of curcuminoids limited their clinical use, and one of the major reasons is their rapid metabolism in vivo. The predominant metabolic pathways are reduction and conjugation, and some drug metabolizing enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase, UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) or sulfotransferases (SULTs) involved in the metabolic reactions. Besides the major metabolic pathways, dehydroxylation, cyclization and methylation can also occur in vivo. In addition, more than thirty metabolites of curcuminoids have been identified in biological matrices including the plasma, urine and bile from rats or humans by LC-MS/MS analysis and other methods. Some metabolites such as tetrahydro-curcuminoids have been reported to be active, which may explain how and why curcuminoids with poor oral bioavailability display their effectiveness in vivo. The present review mainly summarizes curcuminoid metabolism and its contribution to the pharmacological effects.
    Current Drug Metabolism 08/2013; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian in Chinese) is commonly used in Chinese folk medicine to treat diarrhea, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and tumours. This herb has increasingly gained attention because of its use as a hypolipidemic herb. Berberine (BBR) is the most important constituent of Rhizoma Coptidis that contribute to the pharmacological efficacy of the herb. Pharmacokinetic studies have indicated that BBR has poor oral bioavailability. Interestingly, several reports show that absorbed BBR is extensively metabolized in rats and humans. We speculate that the BBR metabolites might be responsible for the pharmacological effects. The aim of this study is to examine BBR metabolites for their triglyceride (TG)-lowering activities and the molecular mechanism to clarify BBR genuine effective forms in vivo. Four BBR metabolites were examined their TG-lowering effects with a commercial triglyceride assay kit. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm genes and proteins of interest, respectively. Among those BBR metabolites, M2 exhibited the more potential effects on TG-lowering and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in Hep G2 cells as compared with BBR. Moreover, BBR and M2 inhibited gene expressions of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), but motivated gene expression of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (mCAD) significantly. The results suggested that the TG-lowering effects of BBR and M2 might be partially mediated by the up-regulation of lipolysis gene expressions and down-regulation of lipogenesis gene expressions through activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. BBR and its metabolites might be in vivo active forms of oral doses of BBR, and M2 might be a promising drug candidate against hyperlipidemia.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • F Qiu, L Song, N Yang, X Li
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aims to investigate expression of interleukin 12 (IL-12) family cytokines IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on their expression.Methods Plasma concentration of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-35, IL-6 and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies in 30 newly diagnosed severe SLE patients and 30 matched healthy subjects was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between the levels of IL-12 family cytokines and the levels of IL-6 or anti-dsDNA antibodies was analyzed by Spearman rank correlation.ResultsSignificantly higher levels of plasma IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-35, IL-6 and anti-dsDNA antibodies were observed in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (p<0.05), and after prednisone treatment, the serum levels of IL-12 family cytokines decreased significantly. Moreover, serum levels of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27 and IL-35 were correlated with serum levels of IL-6 and anti-dsDNA antibodies in pre-treatment as well as post-treatment SLE patients.ConclusionsSLE patients have increased plasma levels of IL-12 family cytokines and GCs can downregulate the expression of them in SLE patients. Therefore, members of the IL-12 family may be involved in the pathophysiological process of SLE.
    Lupus 07/2013; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the synovial membrane of affected joints. It has been shown that several kinds of cytokine were increased in synovial fluid, while the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Objectives: NF-κB activator 1 (Act1) is a recently identified protein binding to the IκB kinase complex. Our study aimed to investigate the expression of Act1 induced by cytokine IL-17 stimulation in SW982 cells. Materials and methods: The human synovial sarcoma cell line SW982 and primary cultured RA fibroblast-like synovial cells were used. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were selected to investigate the genetic and protein expression of Act1. Additionally, four independent Act1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides were designed and obtained according to the GenBank cDNA, the sequence of Act1 (Traf3ip2). Finally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) double antibody sandwich was used to assay supernatant IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. Results: The Act1 mRNA expression level increased significantly after stimulation with IL-17 (5-100 ng/ml) in SW982 cells. Additionally, the level of Act1 mRNA expression correlated positively with the concentration of IL-17 (p < 0.01). IL-17 induced IL-6 and IL-8 in SW982 cells was in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, ELISA assay revealed that IL-17 (20 ng/ml) significantly increased IL-6 (1927.4 ± 288.77 versus 786.5 ± 172.42 ng/ml, p < 0.01) and IL-8 levels (984.8 ± 95.09 ng/ml versus 307.1 ± 90.83 ng/ml, p < 0.01) compared with control group after stimulation for 24 h. However, transfection of Traf3ip2 siRNA markedly decreased IL-6 (995.9 ± 115.30 ng/ml versus 1816.1 ± 273.27 ng/ml, p < 0.01) and IL-8 levels (575.6 ± 65.96 ng/ml versus 929.4 ± 124.39 ng/ml, p < 0.01) compared to transfection negative control. These findings suggested that IL-6 and IL-8 level induced by IL-17 in SW982 cells could be reversed by down-regulation of Act1 expression level with Traf3ip2 siRNA. Conclusion: Our results suggested that Act1 might play a key role in the pathophysiology and the treatment of RA.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (1-10), phaeocaulisins A-J, and 18 known guaiane derivatives were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and comparison with literature data. Compound 10 is the first example of a norsesquiterpene with this unusual skeleton isolated from the genus Curcuma. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1, 2, 20, and 22-24 inhibited nitric oxide production with IC50 values less than 2 μM. Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed.
    Journal of Natural Products 06/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new glycosides, 2-methyl-L-erythritol -4-O-(6-O-trans-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2-methyl-L-erythritol -1-O-(6-O-trans-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known triterpenoids (3-4), four quinic acid derivatives (5-8) and one flavonoid (9) were isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides. Their structures were elucidated through MS and 2D NMR experiments (HMQC and HMBC). Inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccaride-activated macrophages were evaluated. Though 2-methyl-D-erythritol and its glycosides have been reported in a few references, this is the first report about 2-methyl-L-erythritol glycosides. Based on this finding, we propose that 2-methyl-L-erythritol might be a new intermediate in the non-mevalonate biosynthesis of terpenoids.
    Fitoterapia 05/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study is to investigate the expression of progranulin (PGRN) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on its expression. METHODS: Thirty newly diagnosed severe SLE patients and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of PGRN and the inflammatory factors of SLE were detected by ELISA and the mRNA expression of these proteins were detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The serum levels of PGRN, IL-6, PR3, TNFR, TNF-alpha and anti-dsDNA antibody in SLE patients were increased significantly compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). The relative expression of PGRN mRNA was increased by 4.88-fold in pre-treatment SLE patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). After prednisone treatment, the serum levels of PGRN decreased significantly, and the relative expression of PGRN mRNA was decreased by 1.34-fold compared with the untreated controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, Serum concentration of PGRN was correlated with serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, TNFR and anti-dsDNA antibody in both pre-treatment and post-treatment SLE patients. CONCLUSIONS: PGRN is up-regulated in the SLE patients and is correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-dsDNA antibody. Glucocorticoids can down-regulate the expression of PGRN in SLE patients. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1562484036905973.
    Diagnostic Pathology 05/2013; 8(1):88. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Physalin A is a bioactive withanolide isolated from natural plant Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine named Jindenglong which has long been used for the treatment of cough, sore throat, hepatitis, eczema, dysuria and tumors in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the previous study that physalin A induced cytotoxic effect in human melanoma A375-S2 cells, this study was designed to futher illustrate the molecular mechanisms underlying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was evaluated in A375-S2 cells by MTT assay, and the mechanisms involved in physalin A-induced A375-S2 cell death were investigated by phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, siRNA transfection, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that physalin A decreased the proportion of viable A375-S2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and exposure of A375-S2 cells to physalin A led to both apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, physalin A-induced apoptosis was triggered by activation of p53-Noxa pathway and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The administration of ROS scavengers NAC and GSH resulted in the complete inhibition of physalin A-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Application of p53 inhibitor PFT-α or transfection with Noxa-siRNA could also lead to the same results. Autophagy, demonstrated by the punctuate distribution of monodansylcadaverine staining, as well as the change of LC3-II/LC3-I proportion and Beclin 1 activation, played a protective role against apoptosis via up-regulation of the p38-NF-κB survival pathway in A375-S2 cells. Additionally, inhibition of autophagy by the specific autophagic inhibitor 3MA or blocking the p38-NF-κB pathway with p38 inhibitor SB203580 or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC obviously promoted physalin A-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Physalin A induced apoptotic cell death via p53-Noxa-mediated ROS generation, and autophagy played a protective role against apoptosis through up-regualting the p38-NF-κB survival pathway in A375-S2 cells. These results stated the possibility that physalin A would be a potential agent for the treatment of melanoma in the future.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physalin A (1) is a withanolide isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. In this study, the selective growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells induced by 1 were screened, and the mechanism was investigated on 1-induced growth inhibition, including apoptosis and autophagy, in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Apoptosis induced by 1 in HT1080 cells was associated with up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression. However, there were no significant changes in caspase-9, Bid, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression, indicating that 1-induced apoptosis in HT1080 cells occurs mainly through activation of the death receptor-associated extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Autophagy induced by 1 was found to antagonize apoptosis in HT1080 cells. This effect was enhanced by rapamycin and suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA). Loss of beclin 1 (as an autophagic regulator) function led to similar results to 3MA. However, 1 did not show inhibitory effects on normal human cells (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells). Taken together, these results suggest that 1 may be a promising agent for the treatment of cancer.
    Journal of Natural Products 05/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

567 Citations
217.57 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 1998–2014
    • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
      • • School of Traditional Chinese Medicines
      • • School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica
      • • Department of Natural Products Chemistry
      • • China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2013
    • Shandong University
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Xuzhou Medical College
      Suchow, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • Renji Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Radiation Oncology
      Bethesda, MD, United States