[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthan gum (XG) is a polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The aim of the present study was to modify the xanthan by hydrolysis and grafting with acrylamide through microwave irradiation for different time intervals. Pure xanthan was partially hydrolyzed via enzymatic and chemical treatments followed by optional grafting. Proximate composition analysis, moisture content, and carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and fiber contents were determined. The morphological characteristics, structural composition, functional groups, and heat resistance of the crude, hydrolyzed, and grafted gum were evaluated using SEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and TGA. Morphological studies revealed that xanthan was broken down into smaller fragments as a result of hydrolysis and became somewhat smoother. Thermal analysis studies indicated a larger heat tolerance in the grafted xanthan relative to that of the native and hydrolyzed gums. Xanthan bound to a triamcinolone drug was evaluated in the context of controlled drug release. Controlled drug release correlated well with the exposure time to microwaves used to graft the gum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shape is a crucial physical property of agricultural products and hence is an important parameter for assessing the quality standard. In the present study, shape variations among 17 hazelnut cultivars grown in Turkey were revealed from their digital images using shape descriptors obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA), which is a shape-based methodology. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the variations among the hazelnut cultivars. This was followed by linear discriminant analysis using the first four principal components, representing 93.9 % of the total variance, obtained from the PCA to discriminate the 17 hazelnut cultivars. Estimates of Hotelling's pairwise comparisons from the multivariate analysis based on the shape variables obtained from the EFA revealed ideal shape differences between the hazelnut cultivars. Hierarchical cluster analysis divided the cultivars into six clusters according to their shape characteristics. In addition, size (projected area, length, width, thickness, surface area, geometric mean diameter), shape (shape index, sphericity, roundness, and elongation), and gravimetric (mass and volume) features of the 17 common hazelnut cultivars were also determined via an image processing technique.An analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among these variables in a descriptive method. We found that EFA provided excellent discrimination between the hazelnut cultivars with respect to their shape features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sea buckthorn, one of the most important wild edible fruits widely grown in Northeastern part of Turkey, is characterized by resistance to hard environmental conditions and looks spectacular, especially in autumn and winter when it is decorated with orange berries. Climatic conditions in Northern Anatolia are suitable for the growing of the Sea buckthorn, which can be encountered in various dry areas as well as by riversides. Local people traditionally processed or preserved sea buckthorn fruits (berries). The decorative sea buckthorn shrubs/trees and berries are an important element of natural landscape in Northeastern Anatolia. The aim of the study was to define the biodiversity among trees/shrubs, berries and leaves of the Sea buckthorn accessions based on morphological and biochemical data. Results showed a high diversity among accessions in terms of plant, leaf and berry characteristics. Berry diameter, length and 100 berry weight ranged from 5.48 to 7.18 mm; 6.64 to 9.14 mm and 15 to 26 g, respectively. A wide variability of berry skin colour was observed to be yellow, light yellow, dark yellow, yellow orange, orange and dark orange. The anthocyanin content varied from 7 to 38 mg/l berry juice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pomegranate is one of the most important ancient fruit in Turkey where planting
of pomegranate has increased rapidly in recent years. This study described desirable
pomological and chemical traits of seventeen pomegranate genotypes selected from Narlidere
district (Bitlis) in between 2010–2011 years. We found considerable variation on
fruit weight, aril weight, fruit length and fruit width that important for pomegranate breeding
ranged from 99.77 (N-15) to 515.97 g (N-05), 14.16 (N-01) to 41.92 g (N-10), 51.03
(N-15) to 90.99 mm (N-05) and 58.99 (N-03) to 103.11 mm (N-05) among genotypes, respectively.
Chemical parameters are also considerable varied among genotypes and Soluble
solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), pH and juice yield of genotypes varied between
5.96 (N-02) to 9.13% (N-03), 0.12 (N-12) to 0.91% (N-14), 2.51 (N-14) to 4.52
(N-10) and 48.58 (N-06) to72.07% (N-01), respectively. Many genotypes were found to
be promising both fresh consumption and processing. Promising genotypes indicate it’s
importance as genetic resources and they have potential for future use in pomegranate
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract:
Cadmium (Cd) is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX) contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Cadmium; Chlorophyll; Heavy metal stress; Strawberry
Biological research 02/2015; DOI:10.1186/s40659-015-0001-3 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruit size has special importance for small-fruited early maturing cherry cultivars. In this study the effects of pre-harvest benzyladenine (BA) and BA plus gibberellin (GA) applications on fruit size and quality of ‘Noir de Guben’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium) were evaluated. ‘Noir de Guben’ trees were sprayed to run off with BA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (12.5, 25, and 50 ppm) at straw-yellow color stage of the fruit. Fruit treated with BA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (25 and 50 ppm) were significantly heavier and larger than the control. BA and BA + GA4+7 applications did not affect fruit firmness and fruit pH. 50 ppm BA-treated fruit had higher SSC (Soluble Solid Content) than control fruit. Excluding 25 ppm BA treatments, all treated fruit had higher acidity than the control fruit. BA and BA + GA4+7 applications delayed skin color development of the treated fruit. ‘Noir de Guben’ trees treated with the optimum concentrations of BA (150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (50 ppm) yielded fruit with 16.84 and 10.6 % greater weight, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. ‘Beyaz Kismis’ (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), ‘Askeri’, ‘El Hakki’, ‘Kirmizi Kismis’, ‘Inek Emcegi’, ‘Hacabas’, ‘Kerim Gandi’, ‘Yazen Dayi’, and ‘Miskali’ spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey.
Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, ‘Miskali’ showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while ‘Kirmizi Kismis’ produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with ‘Beyaz Kismis’. ‘Kirmizi Kismis’ cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with ‘Beyaz Kismis’ cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from ‘Inek Emcegi’ in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. ‘Hacabas’ cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g.
Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.
Biological research 01/2015; 48(2):1-8. DOI:10.1186/0717-6287-48-2 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of white and black coloured peel taproots of two radish types belonging to Raphanus sativus L. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against 100 laboratory strains belonging to 52 bacteria species by using disc diffusion assay. The results showed that methanol extract in taproots of both black and white radishes had antibacterial activity against Arthrobacter atrocyaneus, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Enterobacter hormaechei, Kocuria rosea, Neisseria subava, Pantoea agglomerans, Proteus vulgaris, Psychrobacter immobilis and Shigella dysenteriae. White radish type showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus sphaericus and Corynebacterium avescens as well: Based on results, it is possible to conclude that white radish has a stronger and broader spectrum of antibacterial activity as compared to black radish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hawthorn (Crataegus spp. L.) is a native fruit of great economic importance in
Turkey and has been widely using in folk medicine particularly for the treatment of mild
heart diseases for a long time. In the study, 18 previously selected hawthorn genotypes belong
to several Crataegus species grown in the hawthorn repository collection in Malatya
province in Turkey were evaluated. Fruit mass and soluble solid content of selected genotypes
ranged from 0.76 to 4.27 g and 6.71 to 15.83%, respectively. The genotype
44MA12 belongs to C. monogyna subsp. azarella had distinct and the highest anthocyanin
(516 mg per 100 g fresh fruit) content and the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
radical scavenging capacity (2.91 μg·g-1). The genotype 44MA11 belongs to C. meyeri
had the highest phenolic content (3460 mg per 100 g gallic acid equivalent in fresh fruits).
All hawthorn genotypes displayed high antioxidant activity. The results suggest that hawthorn
fruits including significant human health benefit substances and may be used for
developing functional foods because of its high phenolic, anthocyanin content and antioxidant
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communis and Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC) and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated.
Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree-1), largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha-1) in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season.
The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mineral element concentrations on the pear seedling and BA 29 rootstocks. According to the results, we recommend the seedling rootstock for normal density plantings (400 trees ha-1) and BA 29 rootstock for high-density plantings (800 trees ha-1) for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar in semi-arid conditions.
Biological research 12/2014; 47(1):71. DOI:10.1186/0717-6287-47-71 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing consumer demands for indigenous,
non-sprayed with pesticides and less-known or “forgotten”
fruits necessitate knowledge on their breeding, cultivation,
biochemical content, harvesting and marketing. Anatolia is
rich for wild edible fruit species and barberry is abundant
throughout Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine some important physicochemical characteristics, bioactive
content and antioxidant capacity of fruits from nineteen
promising barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) genotypes
grown in the Coruh valley, Northeastern Anatolia. The
results indicated genotype-specific differences for most of
the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity
and the content of some bioactive compounds. Fruit mass
ranged from 0.073 (‘Coruh-7’) to 0.267 g (‘Coruh-11’).
Total phenolic content ranged from 2532 (‘Coruh-’) to
3719 mg GAE per liter fruit juice (‘Coruh-11’). The genotype
‘Coruh-12’ had the highest total monomeric anthocyanin
content (1004 mg per liter fruit juice) as cyanidin-
3-glucoside. The highest total antioxidant capacity was
observed in fruits of ‘Coruh-8’ and ‘Coruh-9’ genotypes
with all three antioxidant-determining methods. We conclude
that the barberry fruits represent a good source of
bioactive phytochemicals because of their high phenolic
and anthocyanin contents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An attempt was made to induce rooting from cuttings of Ficus benjamina L. by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments under controlled conditions. Semi-hardwood cuttings of Ficus benjamina were used. Agrobacterium rubi (A1 and A18), Pseudomonas putida (BA-8), and Bacillus subtilus (BA-142) were used as rooting agents. The rooting percentage was 100% in all bacteria strain treatments while the lowest were observed in control (86.7%). Root length was greater when cuttings were treated with BA-142 and A-18 compared the other treatments. The lowest root length was obtained in the control. The fresh root weight varied from 0.60 g (A-1) to 2.29 g (BA-142) in experiment I (December 2013) and experiment II (July 2014), respectively. The highest new leaf number (1.44) was observed on cuttings treated with BA-142 followed by 1.26 in treatment BA-8. The results of this study suggest that Bacillus subtilus (BA-142) may possess great potential for promoting adventitious root formation in Ficus benjamina.
PROPAGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 12/2014; 14(4):152-157. · 0.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temperature (high and low) is one of the most limiting environmental factors for growth and production of fruits in different parts of the world. For temperate-zone fruit species, a certain total heat requirements are needed in order to obtain ripe fruits. The aim of this study was to determine heat requirements of three commercial pomegranate cultivars (‘Suruc’, ‘Katirbasi’ and ‘Hicaznar’) grown in Southern Anatolia region. The cultivars showed a narrower range of heat requirements for flowering (growing degree hours, GDH), i.e. ‘Suruc’ (25,000), ‘Katirbasi’ (25,270), ‘Hicaznar’ (28,000) and a wide range of heat requirements for fruit ripening, i.e. ‘Suruc’ (73,670), ‘Katirbasi’ (74,105) and ‘Hicaznar’ (88,052) GDH. Under the Sanliurfa province conditions, two years average of effective heat summation requirement from bud swelling to 50 % flowering stage for ‘Suruc’, ‘Katirbasi’ and ‘Hicaznar’ cultivars are calculated as 643, 655 and 718 growing degree days (GDD) and from bud swelling to harvest are 2734, 2802 and 3289 GDD. It can be concluded that the effective heat summation of Sanliurfa province is enough for commercial growing for all pomegranate cultivars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali) and three main apricot cultivars (‘Cataloglu’, ‘Hacihaliloglu’ and ‘Kabaasi’) grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated.
The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, ‘Cataloglu’ had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 μg in irrigated and 6952 μg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of ‘Hacıhaliloglu’ cultivar as 7542 μg and 15251 μg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions.
The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.
Biological research 09/2014; 47(1):46. DOI:10.1186/0717-6287-47-46 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid increase in human populations and consequent increase in agricultural activities and infrastructures to feed such huge populations have brought several naturally-grown wild fruit species face to face with extinction. Wild pears (Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pall.—oleaster-leafed pear) are naturally grown in Kayseri and surrounding nature of Anatolia and traditionally consumed as fruit. These wild fruits are also under the threat of extinction. They are locally called as “Ahlat”. Since, there aren’t any, the present study deals with the morphological and pomological characteristics of these wild fruits. Initial observations yielded that wild pears of Kayseri Province were mostly populated over the valleys in Talas, Talas-Koscagiz, Sariz, Sariz-Tufanbeyli (Adana Province) border and they widespread over these valleys. Pomological analyses yielded the fruit weights as between 27.09 (38-AK-003) and 4.71 g (38-TA-002); fruit lengths as between 36.14 mm (38-AK-003) and 17.26 mm (38-TA-002); fruit widths as between 36.55 mm (38-TO-004) and 20.82 mm (38-SA-013); fruit pedicle lengths as between 24.23 mm (38-SA-012) and 6.89 mm (38-TA-014); water soluble dry matter contents as between 20.00 % (38-TA-016) and 10.00 % (38-TA-001). Significant variations were observed in morphological characteristics of oleaster-leafed pear genotypes through pomological analyses and field observations. Our results may provide useful information for management of wild pear genetic resources.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turkey has very rich quince genetic resources, and the country currently dominates world quince production. In particular, the northeastern part of the country has notable Cydonia oblonga Mill. germplasm. Authenticating the identity of germplasm resources of C. oblonga Mill. would be of great value for breeding practices. In the present study, genetic variations of 14 C. oblonga Mill. genotypes sampled from the Coruh valley of Turkey were investigated. Ten random primers generated 53 DNA markers. The highest polymorphism ratio was observed in the OPA07 primer (86%), while the lowest was observed in OPA03 (29%). The percentage of polymorphic bands was 51%, which demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used. The similarity matrix revealed that the similarity among genotypes ranged between 0.42 and 0.96. The identified random amplified polymorphic DNA markers enabled clear discrimination among all genotypes considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pomegranate is one of the oldest fruits that are traditionally consumed by the local inhabitants of the Coruh Valley, Turkey. In this study, the molecular and morphological characteristics of 19 promising pomegranate genotypes selected from the Coruh Valley were evaluated. For the morphological evaluation, 22 quantitative fruit characteristics were used. For the molecular evaluation, 47 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The principle component analysis of 22 quantitative fruit characteristics revealed that fruit weight and skin color are dominant traits for genotype discrimination. The unweighted average distance cluster of fruit characteristics revealed 3 distinct groups. Among the 47 RAPD primers, 9 exhibited reliable polymorphic patterns, and generated a total of 63 RAPD bands, of which 49.2% were polymorphic. The similarity matrix showed that the highest (0.920) and lowest (0.556) genetic similarities occurred between the APS13 and APS28 genotypes and the APS12 and APS42 genotypes, respectively. We determined clear discrepancies between the morphological and molecular data; consequently, the differences obtained among genotypes for fruit characteristics did not support genetic relationships among genotypes. In conclusion, molecular data provided the most reliable results at the DNA level.