[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthan gum (XG) is a polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The aim of the present study was to modify the xanthan by hydrolysis and grafting with acrylamide through microwave irradiation for different time intervals. Pure xanthan was partially hydrolyzed via enzymatic and chemical treatments followed by optional grafting. Proximate composition analysis, moisture content, and carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and fiber contents were determined. The morphological characteristics, structural composition, functional groups, and heat resistance of the crude, hydrolyzed, and grafted gum were evaluated using SEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and TGA. Morphological studies revealed that xanthan was broken down into smaller fragments as a result of hydrolysis and became somewhat smoother. Thermal analysis studies indicated a larger heat tolerance in the grafted xanthan relative to that of the native and hydrolyzed gums. Xanthan bound to a triamcinolone drug was evaluated in the context of controlled drug release. Controlled drug release correlated well with the exposure time to microwaves used to graft the gum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively), whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus). Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basic dimensional, frictional and color properties of four quince cultivars, namely ‘Kış Ayvası’, ‘Anzav Dere’, ‘Ekmek Ayvası’ and ‘Ecem’, were determined in this study. Physical features, namely length, width, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, aspect ratio, surface area, projected area, volume, mass, static coefficient of friction on aluminum, plywood and steel surfaces, and color features such as L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma were determined and compared for the quince cultivars. The differences among the cultivars were statistically significant in terms of most properties investigated. The values of length, width, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, and fruit mass of four quince cultivars were established between 75.32–91.68 mm, 68.56–90.53 mm, 70.72–90.88 mm, 94.02–99.18 %, and 175.12–329.44 g., respectively. The highest static coefficient of friction (0.47) has observed for aluminum surface as the lowest static coefficient of friction (0.23) has observed for steel surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shape is a crucial physical property of agricultural products and hence is an important parameter for assessing the quality standard. In the present study, shape variations among 17 hazelnut cultivars grown in Turkey were revealed from their digital images using shape descriptors obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA), which is a shape-based methodology. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the variations among the hazelnut cultivars. This was followed by linear discriminant analysis using the first four principal components, representing 93.9 % of the total variance, obtained from the PCA to discriminate the 17 hazelnut cultivars. Estimates of Hotelling's pairwise comparisons from the multivariate analysis based on the shape variables obtained from the EFA revealed ideal shape differences between the hazelnut cultivars. Hierarchical cluster analysis divided the cultivars into six clusters according to their shape characteristics. In addition, size (projected area, length, width, thickness, surface area, geometric mean diameter), shape (shape index, sphericity, roundness, and elongation), and gravimetric (mass and volume) features of the 17 common hazelnut cultivars were also determined via an image processing technique.An analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among these variables in a descriptive method. We found that EFA provided excellent discrimination between the hazelnut cultivars with respect to their shape features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sea buckthorn, one of the most important wild edible fruits widely grown in Northeastern part of Turkey, is characterized by resistance to hard environmental conditions and looks spectacular, especially in autumn and winter when it is decorated with orange berries. Climatic conditions in Northern Anatolia are suitable for the growing of the Sea buckthorn, which can be encountered in various dry areas as well as by riversides. Local people traditionally processed or preserved sea buckthorn fruits (berries). The decorative sea buckthorn shrubs/trees and berries are an important element of natural landscape in Northeastern Anatolia. The aim of the study was to define the biodiversity among trees/shrubs, berries and leaves of the Sea buckthorn accessions based on morphological and biochemical data. Results showed a high diversity among accessions in terms of plant, leaf and berry characteristics. Berry diameter, length and 100 berry weight ranged from 5.48 to 7.18 mm; 6.64 to 9.14 mm and 15 to 26 g, respectively. A wide variability of berry skin colour was observed to be yellow, light yellow, dark yellow, yellow orange, orange and dark orange. The anthocyanin content varied from 7 to 38 mg/l berry juice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pomegranate is one of the most important ancient fruit in Turkey where planting
of pomegranate has increased rapidly in recent years. This study described desirable
pomological and chemical traits of seventeen pomegranate genotypes selected from Narlidere
district (Bitlis) in between 2010–2011 years. We found considerable variation on
fruit weight, aril weight, fruit length and fruit width that important for pomegranate breeding
ranged from 99.77 (N-15) to 515.97 g (N-05), 14.16 (N-01) to 41.92 g (N-10), 51.03
(N-15) to 90.99 mm (N-05) and 58.99 (N-03) to 103.11 mm (N-05) among genotypes, respectively.
Chemical parameters are also considerable varied among genotypes and Soluble
solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), pH and juice yield of genotypes varied between
5.96 (N-02) to 9.13% (N-03), 0.12 (N-12) to 0.91% (N-14), 2.51 (N-14) to 4.52
(N-10) and 48.58 (N-06) to72.07% (N-01), respectively. Many genotypes were found to
be promising both fresh consumption and processing. Promising genotypes indicate it’s
importance as genetic resources and they have potential for future use in pomegranate
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract:
Cadmium (Cd) is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX) contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Cadmium; Chlorophyll; Heavy metal stress; Strawberry
Biological research 02/2015; DOI:10.1186/s40659-015-0001-3 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruit size has special importance for small-fruited early maturing cherry cultivars. In this study the effects of pre-harvest benzyladenine (BA) and BA plus gibberellin (GA) applications on fruit size and quality of ‘Noir de Guben’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium) were evaluated. ‘Noir de Guben’ trees were sprayed to run off with BA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (12.5, 25, and 50 ppm) at straw-yellow color stage of the fruit. Fruit treated with BA (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (25 and 50 ppm) were significantly heavier and larger than the control. BA and BA + GA4+7 applications did not affect fruit firmness and fruit pH. 50 ppm BA-treated fruit had higher SSC (Soluble Solid Content) than control fruit. Excluding 25 ppm BA treatments, all treated fruit had higher acidity than the control fruit. BA and BA + GA4+7 applications delayed skin color development of the treated fruit. ‘Noir de Guben’ trees treated with the optimum concentrations of BA (150 ppm) and BA + GA4+7 (50 ppm) yielded fruit with 16.84 and 10.6 % greater weight, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of four historical grape accessions (‘Kuzu Kuyrugu’, ‘Miskali’, ‘Erkek miskali’, and ‘Kirmizi Kismisi’) grown in Igdir province located in Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey were examined. Levels of vitamin C, organic acids (citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid), sugars (fructose, glucose), phenolic acids (catechin, rutin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, and gallic acid), and antioxidant capacity (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant capacity, TEAC assay) were determined. Accession was found to be important source of variation for all the parameters identified above (P<0.01). Among the grape accessions analyzed, ‘Kuzu Kuyrugu’ had the predominant vitamin C (47.19 mg/100 g), chlorogenic acid (2.687 mg/L), ferulic acid (1.303 mg/L), o-coumaric acid (1.317 mg/L), and syringic acid content (1.687 mg/L). The highest citric acid (55.360 mg/L), fructose (10.36 g/100g), glucose (11.51 g/100g), and catechin (1.353 mg/L) were recorded in ‘Miskali’ genotype. ‘Kirmizi Kismisi’ was determined to be the accession with the highest tartaric acid (21.29 mg/L), succinic acid (0.94 mg/L), and caffeic acid (2.137 mg/L) levels. ‘Erkek Miskali’ accession produced the paramount contents for fumaric acid (0.42 mg/L), rutin (2.477 mg/L), quercetin (0.447 mg/L), and vanillic acid (0.313 mg/L). The investigated grape genotypes showed notable levels of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. These accessions could be valuable in breeding programs for improving grape quality and nutrition, as well as enhancing commercial worth and production of the grapes in Igdir province of Turkey.
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 02/2015; 88:5-9. DOI:10.5073/JABFQ.2015.088.002 · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. ‘Beyaz Kismis’ (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), ‘Askeri’, ‘El Hakki’, ‘Kirmizi Kismis’, ‘Inek Emcegi’, ‘Hacabas’, ‘Kerim Gandi’, ‘Yazen Dayi’, and ‘Miskali’ spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey.
Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, ‘Miskali’ showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while ‘Kirmizi Kismis’ produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with ‘Beyaz Kismis’. ‘Kirmizi Kismis’ cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with ‘Beyaz Kismis’ cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from ‘Inek Emcegi’ in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. ‘Hacabas’ cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g.
Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.
Biological research 01/2015; 48(2):1-8. DOI:10.1186/0717-6287-48-2 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the genetic relationships among banana clones grown in Turkey based on their nuclear DNA contents and SRAP markers. Four banana clones including 'Dwarf Cavendish', 'Grand Nain', 'Azman' and local 'Erdemli' were used as plant material. Nuclear DNA content of the banana cultivars was estimated by flow cytometer and varied between 1.766 pg ('Erdemli') and 2.028 pg ('Grand Nain'). 'Azman' contained 1.973 pg and 'Dwarf Cavendish' 1.936 pg nuclear DNA. Genetic similarities of 4 banana clones were between 0.63-0.91 based on SRAP molecular markers. The local 'Erdemli' banana clone was the most distinct from the others. In conclusion, there is a high level of genetic variation among Erdemli and other banana clones grown in Turkey and the local clone 'Erdemli' is the most distinct one. This study showed that nuclear DNA content analysis together with molecular markers could be useful to assess the relationships among banana clones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre-harvest benzyladenine (BA) and BA plus gibberellin (GA 4+7) treatments on fruit quality attributes of '0900 Ziraat' cherry at harvest and after cold storage. '0900 Ziraat' cherry trees were sprayed with BA (50, 100, and 150 mg·L-1) and BA + GA 4+7 (12.5, 25, and 50 mg·L-1) when fruit was at their straw-yellow color stage. All of the treated fruit were significantly firmer than control fruit. Fruit treated with 25 and 50 mg·L-1 BA + GA 4+7 and 50 and 150 mg·L-1 BA had significantly higher soluble solids content (SSC) than untreated fruit. Sweet cherry trees treated with the optimum concentration of BA + GA 4+7 (50 mg·L-1) yielded fruit with 15.17 % greater weight, 9.0% higher firmness and 13.6 % higher SSC. Additional samples were harvested, placed in plastic bags, and stored at 4 °C for 30 days. At the end of the cold storage period, fruit treated with 25 and 50 mg·L-1 BA + GA 4+7 and 50 and 150 mg·L-1 BA were significantly firmer than the control. 50 mg·L-1 BA + GA 4+7-treated fruit had higher SSC than untreated ones. In conclusion, fruit treated with the optimum dose of BA + GA 4+7 (50 mg·L-1) were larger and firmer than untreated fruit at harvest and this concentration had the best effects. Most of the treated fruit maintained a superior firmness and quality to control fruit during cold storage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mulberries (Morus spp.) are historically grown in particular micro-climatic regions in Eastern Anatolia, including Aras valley. In the valley, mulberries are one of the ancient crop and used for several purposes by local people. The aim of the present study was to first time evaluate organic acids, sugars, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity). and phenolic compounds of the historical black and white mulberry genotypes growing in Aras valley in Turkey. Results showed that, species and geno-types strongly influenced the chemical content and antioxidant capa-city (p<0.05). Malic acid was the main organic acid in all genotypes and ranged from 1.130 to 3.040 g/100 g. Among sugars, fructose and glucose are predominant and were between 4.057 and 7.700 g/100 g and 5.337 and 9.437 g/100 g in all mulberry genotypes, respectively. The black mulberry genotypes showed remarkably higher antioxidant capacity determined by TEAC assay (10.167 to 14.400 μmol TE/g) compared to white mulberry genotypes (6.170 to 9.273 μmol TE/g). Chlorogenic acid and rutin were the main phenolic compounds.