E Jane Costello

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (178)961.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: During the transition to adulthood, youths face challenges that may limit their likelihood of obtaining services for psychiatric problems. The goal of this analysis was to estimate changes in rates of service use and untreated psychiatric disorders during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Methods: In a prospective, population-based study, participants were assessed up to four times in adolescence (ages 13-16; 3,983 observations of 1,297 participants, 1993-2000) and three times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26; 3,215 observations of 1,273 participants, 1999-2010). Structured diagnostic interviews were used to assess service need (participants meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder) and use of behavioral services in 21 service settings in the past three months. Results: During young adulthood, 28.9% of cases of psychiatric disorders were associated with some treatment, compared with a rate of 50.9% for the same participants during adolescence. This decrease included a near-complete drop in use of educational and vocational services as well as declines in use of specialty behavioral services. Young adults most frequently accessed services in specialty behavioral or general medical settings. Males, African Americans, participants with substance dependence, and participants living independently were least likely to get treatment. For cases of psychiatric disorders among young adults, insurance and poverty status were unrelated to likelihood of service use. Conclusions: Young adults were much less likely to receive treatment for psychiatric problems than they were as adolescents. Public policy must address gaps in service use during the transition to adulthood.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 01/2015; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental and substance use disorders are common and often persistent, with many emerging in early life. Compared to adult mental and substance use disorders, the global burden attributable to these disorders in children and youth has received relatively little attention. Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 was used to investigate the burden of mental and substance disorders in children and youth aged 0-24 years. Burden was estimated in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), derived from the sum of years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs). Globally, mental and substance use disorders are the leading cause of disability in children and youth, accounting for a quarter of all YLDs (54.2 million). In terms of DALYs, they ranked 6th with 55.5 million DALYs (5.7%) and rose to 5th when mortality burden of suicide was reattributed. While mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of DALYs in high-income countries (HICs), they ranked 7th in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Mental and substance use disorders are significant contributors to disease burden in children and youth across the globe. As reproductive health and the management of infectious diseases improves in LMICs, the proportion of disease burden in children and youth attributable to mental and substance use disorders will increase, necessitating a realignment of health services in these countries.
    Psychological Medicine 12/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with somatic complaints are at increased risk for emotional disorders during childhood. Whether this elevated risk extends into young adulthood - and to which specific disorders - has rarely been tested with long-term prospective-longitudinal community samples. Here we test whether frequent and recurring stomach aches, headaches, and muscle aches during childhood predict emotional disorders in adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric and physical health status and psychosocial adversity. The Great Smoky Mountains Study is a community representative sample with 1420 participants. Children/adolescents were assessed 4-7 times between ages 9-16 years. They were assessed again up to three times between ages 19-26 years. Childhood somatic complaints were coded when subjects or their parents reported frequent and recurrent headaches, stomach aches, or muscular/joint aches at some point when children were aged 9-16 years. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment. Frequent and recurrent somatic complaints in childhood predicted adulthood emotional disorders. After controlling for potential confounders, predictions from childhood somatic complaints were specific to later depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Long-term predictions did not differ by sex. Somatic complaints that persisted across developmental periods were associated with the highest risk for young adult emotional distress disorders. Children from the community with frequent and recurrent physical distress are at substantially increased risk for emotional distress disorders during young adulthood. Preventions and interventions for somatic complaints could help alleviate this risk.
    Psychological Medicine 12/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • E. Jane Costello, Barbara Maughan
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    ABSTRACT: Background‘Optimal outcomes’ of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders may mean the best possible outcome, or the best considering a child's history. Most research into the outcomes of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder concentrates on the likelihood of adult illness and disability given an earlier history of psychopathology.Methods In this article, we review the research literature (based on a literature search using PubMed, RePORT and Google Advanced Scholar databases) on including optimal outcomes for young people with a history of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or substance use disorders in childhood or adolescence. We consider three types of risks that these children may run later in development: future episodes of the same disorder, future episodes of a different disorder, and functional impairment. The impact of treatment or preventative interventions on early adult functioning is briefly reviewed.ResultsWe found that very few studies enabled us to answer our questions with certainty, but that in general about half of adults with a psychiatric history were disorder-free and functioning quite well in their 20s or 30s. However, their chance of functioning well was less than that of adults without a psychiatric history, even in the absence of a current disorder.Conclusions Among adults who had a psychiatric disorder as a child or adolescent, about half can be expected to be disorder-free as young adults, and of these about half will be free of significant difficulties in the areas of work, health, relationships, and crime. Optimal outcomes are predicted by a mixture of personal characteristics and environmental supports.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 12/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concurrently, food allergies were associated with some psychopathology symptoms.•Over time, food allergies predicted increases in generalized anxiety/depressive symptoms.•Food allergies were not linked with psychiatric diagnoses.•Select increases in psychopathology symptoms are likely adaptive in the context of food allergies.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Minje Sung, Al Erkanli, E. Jane Costello
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The effect of conduct disorder (CD) as a major risk factor of substance use disorder (SUD), controlling for other psychiatric problems, has been well established in the literature. However, other psychiatric problems are associated as confounders with an increased risk of SUD. When confounding exists, the use of the standard survival analysis approach would lead to a biased estimate of the effect of a time-varying exposure on the time to event. Methods: The authors used a G-estimation approach to estimate the causal effect of CD while controlling for time-varying confounders. Results: The present study (N = 1420) found a substantial difference in the estimated hazard ratio of CD (4.49 vs. 1.93) when the results from G-estimation and Cox regression were compared. Conclusions: G-estimation fixed the problem of underestimating the hazard ratio of conduct disorder (CD) while controlling for all measured covariates.
    Substance Abuse 05/2014; 35(2). · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested whether sleep problems co-occur with, precede, and/or follow common psychiatric disorders during childhood and adolescence. We also clarified the role of comorbidity and tested for specificity of associations among sleep problems and psychiatric disorders. Data came from the Great Smoky Mountains Study, a representative population sample of 1,420 children, assessed 4 to 7 times per person between ages 9 and 16 years for major Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders and sleep problems. Sleep-related symptoms were removed from diagnostic criteria when applicable. Sleep problems during childhood and adolescence were common, with restless sleep and difficulty falling asleep being the most common symptoms. Cross-sectional analyses showed that sleep problems co-occurred with many psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal analyses revealed that sleep problems predicted increases in the prevalence of later generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and high GAD/depression symptoms, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). In turn, GAD and/or depression and ODD predicted increases in sleep problems over time. Sleep problems both predict and are predicted by a diagnostic cluster that includes ODD, GAD, and depression. Screening children for sleep problems could offer promising opportunities for reducing the burden of mental illness during the early life course.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2014; 53(5):550-8. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a new disorder for DSM-5 that is uncommon and frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Here, the authors test whether meeting diagnostic criteria for this disorder in childhood predicts adult diagnostic and functional outcomes. METHOD In a prospective, population-based study, individuals were assessed with structured interviews up to six times in childhood and adolescence (ages 10 to 16 years; 5,336 observations of 1,420 youths) for symptoms of DMDD and three times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26 years; 3,215 observations of 1,273 young adults) for psychiatric and functional outcomes (health, risky/illegal behavior, financial/educational functioning, and social functioning). RESULTS Young adults with a history of childhood DMDD had elevated rates of anxiety and depression and were more likely to meet criteria for more than one adult disorder relative to comparison subjects with no history of childhood psychiatric disorders (noncases) or individuals meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders other than DMDD in childhood or adolescence (psychiatric comparison subjects). Participants with a history of DMDD were more likely to have adverse health outcomes, be impoverished, have reported police contact, and have low educational attainment as adults compared with either psychiatric or noncase comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS The long-term prognosis of children with DMDD is one of pervasive impaired functioning that in many cases is worse than that of other childhood psychiatric disorders.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 04/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were 2-fold: to provide a brief introduction to the prospective longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study and review recent findings; and to use this sample to conduct an epidemiologic analysis of common childhood anxiety disorders. The population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study assessed 1,420 participants from 11 counties in the southeastern United States up to 11 times between ages 9 and 26 years with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and its upward extension, the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment. The U-shaped age prevalence curve for any anxiety disorder was the product of high levels of childhood separation anxiety and adult panic, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety. More than 1 in 5 subjects met criteria for an anxiety disorder by early adulthood. In terms of cumulative comorbidity, there was evidence of overlap between anxiety disorders, but the level of overlap was generally consistent with what is seen among other common childhood disorders. All childhood anxiety disorders were associated with adverse functioning in at least 1 young adult functional domain, with the poorest outcomes for childhood generalized anxiety and DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. Clinically significant anxiety is a common mental health problem to have had by adulthood. There was little evidence to support the consolidation of anxiety disorders, and some evidence to justify reintroduction of DSM-III-R overanxious disorder. The transition to young adulthood appears to be a key period for understanding the development of common adult anxiety disorders such as panic and agoraphobia.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 01/2014; 53(1):21-33. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to establish prevalence rates and detail patterns of comorbidity for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia in preschool-aged children. The Duke Preschool Anxiety Study, a screen-stratified, cross-sectional study, drew from pediatric primary care and oversampled for children at risk for anxiety. A total of 917 parents of preschool children (aged 2-5 years) completed the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social phobia are common in preschool-aged children attending pediatric primary care. Three-fourths of preschoolers with an anxiety disorder only had a single anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest degree of comorbidity: with separation anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.0-8.5), social phobia (OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 3.1-13.4), disruptive behavior disorders (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6-15.8), and depression (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.1-12.4). The weakness of association between generalized anxiety disorder and depression stands in contrast to substantial associations between these 2 disorders reported in older individuals. Attenuated associations in preschool-aged children could translate into clinical opportunities for targeted early interventions, aimed at modifying the developmental trajectory of anxiety disorders.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2013; 52(12):1294-1303.e1. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study examined 12-month rates of service use for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among adolescents. METHODS Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a survey of DSM-IV mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and service use. RESULTS In the past 12 months, 45.0% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders received some form of service. The most likely were those with ADHD (73.8%), conduct disorder (73.4%), or oppositional defiant disorder (71.0%). Least likely were those with specific phobias (40.7%) and any anxiety disorder (41.4%). Among those with any disorder, services were more likely to be received in a school setting (23.6%) or in a specialty mental health setting (22.8%) than in a general medical setting (10.1%). Youths with any disorder also received services in juvenile justice settings (4.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (5.3%), and human services settings (7.9%). Although general medical providers treated a larger proportion of youths with mood disorders than with behavior disorders, they were more likely to treat youths with behavior disorders because of the larger number of the latter (11.5% of 1,465 versus 13.9% of 820). Black youths were significantly less likely than white youths to receive specialty mental health or general medical services for mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this analysis of NCS-A data confirm those of earlier, smaller studies, that only a minority of youths with psychiatric disorders receive treatment of any sort. Much of this treatment was provided in service settings in which few providers were likely to have specialist mental health training.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 11/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulated immune function and elevated inflammation markers are seen in adults with chronic diseases, including some psychiatric disorders, but evidence on inflammation in the case of drug abuse is conflicting. To test the concurrent and predictive relations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and use and abuse of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis in a longitudinal, population sample of adolescents and young adults, at the period of highest increase in drug use. Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N=1420) were used, covering children in the community assessed at ages 9-16, 19, and 21. Structured interviews were used to assess substance abuse symptoms and DSM-IV substance use disorders. Bloodspots were collected at each assessment and assayed for CRP. CRP levels were higher in the presence of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and nicotine dependence. In prospective analyses, higher CRP levels predicted cannabis use and nicotine dependence, and nicotine use predicted higher CRP levels, once covariates were included in the models. Significant covariates were age, race (American Indian), and obesity. The inter-relationship of CRP and substance abuse has implications for the later health risks associated with early drug and alcohol use and abuse.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people's lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs.
    Psychological Science 08/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test whether children and adolescents with co-occurring asthma and depression are at risk for elevated inflammation-concurrently and at the next assessment. Up to 6 yearly assessments per person from the prospective, population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1420) were used, covering children in the community aged 10-16 years old. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was assayed from annual bloodspot collections and provided indicators of elevated inflammation at CRP > 1, CRP > 2, and CRP > 3 mg/L. Depression was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Asthma was assessed using a form adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health Interview Survey. Controlling common covariates of CRP, the co-occurrence of asthma and depression predicted heightened CRP-concurrently and at the next assessment. In turn, elevated CRP was relatively stable from one assessment to the next. The co-occurrence of asthma and depression in childhood poses a risk for substantially elevated inflammation concurrently and over time, which could contribute to pathophysiological processes involved in the development of additional chronic diseases and also to asthma-related morbidity and mortality.
    The Journal of pediatrics 08/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DSM-IV grants episodic irritability an equal status to low mood as a cardinal criterion for the diagnosis of depression in youth, yet not in adults; however, evidence for irritability as a major criterion of depression in youth is lacking. This article examines the prevalence, developmental characteristics, associations with psychopathology, and longitudinal stability of irritable mood in childhood and adolescent depression. Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used. We divided observations on 9- to 16-year-olds who met criteria for a diagnosis of depression into 3 groups: those with depressed mood and no irritability, those with irritability and no depressed mood, and those with both depressed and irritable mood. We compared these groups using robust regression models on adolescent characteristics and early adult (ages 19-21 years) depression outcomes. Depressed mood was the most common cardinal mood in youth meeting criteria for depression (58.7%), followed by the co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood (35.6%); irritable mood alone was rare (5.7%). Youth with depressed and irritable mood were similar in age and developmental stage to those with depression, but had significantly higher rates of disruptive disorders. The co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood was associated with higher risk for comorbid conduct disorder in girls (gender-by-group interaction, F1,132 = 4.66, p = .03). Our study findings do not support the use of irritability as a cardinal mood criterion for depression. However, the occurrence of irritability in youth depression is associated with increased risk of disruptive behaviors, especially in girls.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2013; 52(8):831-40. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sex differences in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are well established in adulthood, but little is known about when and why they emerge. Here, we tested longitudinal models of CRP levels from ages 9 to 21, when marked physical and behavioral changes could contribute to growing sex disparities in CRP. METHODS: Data from the community-based prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study (N=1420) were used. Participants were 9-13 years old at intake and were followed through age 21. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was assayed from up to nine bloodspot collections per person. BMI, physical/sexual maturation, substance use, and control variables were assessed during yearly interviews to age 16, and at ages 19 and 21. RESULTS: Multilevel models revealed that the development of CRP in females was best described by a quadratic trend: after slow increases in CRP until age 15, the rate of increase accelerated thereafter. Changes in CRP in males were best described by a smaller, linear increase. After sex-differentiated associations with BMI, physical/sexual maturation, and substance use variables had been accounted for, increases in CRP after age 15 no longer differed by sex. CONCLUSION: Physical/sexual maturation and behavioral changes during adolescence could initiate life-long sex disparities in CRP.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 05/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This article examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources and policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Nearly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students to mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and may influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2013; 52(5):501-10. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ≤ 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2013; 8(5). · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household's initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Several alternative mechanisms are examined. Initial SES holds up as the most likely channel behind the heterogeneous effects of extra income on young adult BMI. (JEL D14, H23, H75, I12, J13, J15).
    American Economic Journal Applied Economics 04/2013; 5(2):1-28. · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
961.15 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Psychology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1988–2014
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2013
    • King's College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Boston University
      • School of Education
      Boston, MA, United States
    • The University of Warwick
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 1989–2013
    • Duke University
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Health Care Policy
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • University of North Carolina at Greensboro
      • Department of Psychology
      Greensboro, NC, United States
  • 2010
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Department of Psychology (Faculty of Science)
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Northwestern University
      • School of Education and Social Policy
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Human and Molecular Genetics
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 2000
    • The Kings College
      Manchester, New Hampshire, United States
  • 1999
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1998
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1994
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1986–1989
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States